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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  41(12)  1357-1500  (2003)

 

VOLUME 41

NUMBER 12

DECEMBER 200

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles

Water soluble vitamin e (tmg) as a radioprotector

Cherupally Krishnan K Nair, Pathirissery Uma Devi, Shimanskaya R, N Kunugita, Hironobu Murase, Yeun-Hwa Gu & Tsutomu V Kagiya

1365

 

 

Male accessory gland proteins in Drosophila: A multifacet field

K Ravi Ram & S R Ramesh

1372

 

 

Papers

 

Contribution of oxidative stress to radiosensitization by a combination of 2-DG and 6-AN in human cancer cell line

R Varshney, J S Adhikari & B S Dwarakanath

 

1384

 

 

Alterations in radiation induced cell cycle perturbations by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human tumor cell lines

J S Adhikari, B S Dwarakanath, Rohit Mathur & T Ravindranath

 

1392

 

 

D2-dopamine receptor and a2-adrenoreceptor-mediated analgesic response of quercetin

Pattipati S Naidu, Amanpreet Singh & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

1400

 

 

Antinociceptive action of FK506 in mice

Amanpreet Singh, Gaurav Kumar, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

1405

 

 

Influence of colchicine on pulmonary silicotic fibrogenesis in rats

M Waseem, A K Khanna, S Dogra & J L Kaw

1410

 

 

Inhibition of cutaneous oxidative stress and two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hemidesmus indicus (L.) in Swiss albino mice

Sarwat Sultana, Aftab Alam, Naghma Khan & Sonia Sharma

 

1416

 

 

Simultaneous induction of ectopic pelvic zone and duplication of regenerated limbs in tadpoles of Polypedates maculatus by vitamin A

A Pati, S K Dutta & P K Mahapatra

 

1424

 

 

Significance of regional difference in ion concentrations in lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Rüppell): Assessment of ionic influence on sperm motility in vitro

Umesh Rai & B K Nirmal

 

1431

 

 

Effects of repeated haemolymph withdrawals on haemocyte counts and moulting in lemon-butterfly, Papilio demoleus L.

J P Pandey, R K Tiwari & A K Chaubey

 

1436

 

 

Antagonistic effect of fluorescent pseudomonads against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut

Shweta Bhatia, Shivani Bhatia, R C Dubey & D K Maheshwari

 

1442

 

 

 

Notes

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Haridradi ghrita on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats

P M Satturwar, S V Fulzele, S B Joshi & A K Dorle

 

1447

 

 

Clenbuterol induced changes in cholesterol and triglyceride levels of gastrocnemius, pectoralis and heart of rat under work induced stress

Sushma Sharma & Asha Garg

 

1452

 

 

In vivo model for dyslipidemia with diabetes mellitus in hamster

Gitika Bhatia, Farhan Rizvi, Rashmi Saxena, Anju Puri, A K Khanna, Ramesh Chander, E M Wulff & A K Rastogi

1456

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

Pratibha Pungle, M Banavalikar, A Suthar, M Biyani, & S Mengi

1460

 

 

Toxicity assessment of wild bean seed protein - Arcelin on Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

B Malaikozhundan, P Suresh, S Seshadri & S Janarthanan

 

1463

 

 

Prevalence of Listeria in soil

H Moshtaghi, S R Garg & Usha V Mandokhot

1466

 

 

Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans

R J Vaidya, S L A Macmil, P R Vyas, L V Ghetiya, K J Thakor & H S Chhatpar

 

1469

 

 

Efficacy of Euphorbia splendens and Leonotis nepetaefolia on aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

M N Abubacker & R Ramanathan

 

1473

 

 

Optimization of wedelolactone accumulation in shoot cultures of Eclipta alba

M G Jayathirtha & S H Mishra

1476

 

 

In vitro propagation of emetic nut Randia dumetorum (Lamb.)

Ferdousi Begum, Kazi Mohammed Didarul Islam, Rathindra Nath Paul, Masfique Mehedi & Shyamole Rani

1479

 

 

Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant

D Syamala & Prathibha Devi

1482

 

 

Book Review
 

Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants

Gian Singh

1487

 

 

Accepted papers for forthcoming issue(s)

1488

 

 

Announcements

 

Second International Conference on Medical Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures

26th Meeting of Plant Tissue Culture Association of India & National Symposium on Biotechnology for a Better Future

1364

 

1364

 

 

Annual Index 2003

 

 

Keyword Index

Author Index

1489

1494

 

 

News Scan

1500

G S Randhawa & Shubha G

 

 

Review Articles

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology  

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1365-1371 

 

 

Water soluble vitamin e (tmg) as a radioprotector

Cherupally Krishnan K Nair, Pathirissery Uma Devi, Shimanskaya R, N Kunugita, Hironobu Murase, Yeun-Hwa Gu & Tsutomu V Kagiya

 

Tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG), a water soluble derivative of vitamin E offers protection against deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, both under in vivo and in vitro conditions, to biological systems. TMG was found to be a potent antioxidant and an effective free radical scavenger. It forms a phenoxyl radical similar to trolox upon reaction with various one-electron oxidants. TMG protected DNA from radiation-induced strand breaks. It also protected thymine glycol formation induced by gamma-radiation. Gamma-radiation-induced loss of viability of EL-tumor cells and peroxidation of lipids in microsomal and mitochondrial membranes were prevented by TMG. TMG was nontoxic to mice when administered orally up to 7.0 g/kg body weight. The LD50 dose of TMG for ip administration in mice was 1.15 g/kg body wt. In rats, following oral and ip administration of TMG, the absorption (distribution) half lives were 5.8 and 3.0 min respectively and elimination half lives were 6.7 and 3.1 min respectively. Embryonic mortality resulting from exposure of pregnant mice to ionizing radiation (2 Gy) was reduced by 75% by ip administration of TMG (0.6 g/kg, body wt) prior to irradiation. TMG offered protection to mice against whole body gamma-radiation-induced lethality and weight loss. The LD50(30) of mice increased from 6 to 6.72 Gy upon post irradiation administration of a single dose of TMG (0.6 g/kg, body wt) by ip.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1372-1383

 

 

Male accessory gland proteins in Drosophila:
A multifacet field

K Ravi Ram & S R Ramesh

 

Male accessory gland in Drosophila is a secretory tissue of the reproductive system. The proteins synthesized in the accessory gland are tissue specific, stage specific-seen only during the adult stage and sex specific in the sense of male limited expression. These secretions that form a component of the seminal fluid are transferred to the female at the time of copulation and play an important role in reproduction. In conjunction with sperm, these secretory proteins assure reproductive success by reducing the female’s receptivity to mating and escalating the rate of egg laying. Some of these proteins are antibacterial in nature with a likely function of protecting the female’s genital tract against microbial infection during/after mating. Most of the genes involved in the synthesis of accessory gland proteins are autosomal but a few are still X-linked. Their male specific expression is achieved at the time of sex determination. The level of expression of these genes is dose dependent and they follow Mendelian pattern of segregation. Further, majority of these proteins are rapidly evolving with high rates of non-synonymous substitutions. In this review, by considering the work carried out in different fields, we have tried to generate a comprehensive picture about the male accessory gland and the role of its proteins in the reproduction of Drosophila.

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1384-1391

 

 

Contribution of oxidative stress to radiosensitization by a combination of 2-DG and 6-AN in human cancer cell line

R Varshney, J S Adhikari & B S Dwarakanath

 

In the present studies, the role of oxidative stress in radiosensitization by a combination of 2-DG and 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN) was examined in a human glioma cell line (BMG-1: wild type p53). Presence of 2-DG or 6-AN for 4 hr after irradiation (gamma ray 2.5 Gy) significantly enhanced the radiation-induced cell death by 18% and the combination (2-DG + 6-AN) enhanced the cell death by 35%. Neither 2-DG nor 6-AN had any further significant effect on the glutathione levels in irradiated cells. However, the combination (2-DG + 6-AN) caused a significant decrease in GSH content, increase in GSSG levels, and enhanced the superoxide radical generation under these conditions. The enhanced cell death caused by the combination (2-DG + 6-AN) mainly resulted by the process of apoptosis as revealed by annexin V binding and was associated with elevated levels of Cyclin B1. However, no significant change was observed in the levels of Bcl-2. Thus, for the first time, our results have demonstrated that the radiosensitizing effects of these modifiers could also be mediated through alterations in the oxidative stress besides energy limited inhibition of repair and recovery processes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1392-1399

 

 

Alterations in radiation induced cell cycle perturbations by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human tumor cell lines

J S Adhikari, B S Dwarakanath, Rohit Mathur & T Ravindranath

 

In the present studies, effects of glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) on radiation-induced cell cycle perturbations were investigated in human tumor cell lines. In unirradiated cells, the levels of cyclin B1 in G2 phase were significantly higher in both the glioma cell lines as compared to squamous carcinoma cells. Upon irradiation with Co60 gamma-rays (2 Gy), the cyclin B1 levels were reduced in U87 cells, while no significant changes could be observed in other cell lines, which correlated well with the transient G2 delay observed under these conditions by the BrdU pulse chase measurements. 2-DG (5 mM, 2 hr) induced accumulation of cells in the G2 phase and a time-dependent increase in the levels of cyclin B1 in both the glioma cell lines, while significant changes could not be observed in any of the squamous carcinoma cell lines. 2-DG enhanced the cyclin B1 level further in all the cell lines following irradiation, albeit to different extents. Interestingly, an increase in the unscheduled expression of B1 levels in G1 phase 48 hr after irradiation was observed in all the cell lines investigated. 2-DG also increased the levels of cyclin D1 at 24 hr in BMG-1 cell line. These observations imply that 2-DG-induced alterations in the cell cycle progression are partly responsible for its radiomodifying effects.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1400-1404

 

 

D2-dopamine receptor and a2-adrenoreceptor-mediated analgesic response of quercetin

Pattipati S Naidu, Amanpreet Singh & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Quercetin, a bioflavonoid (100-300 mg/kg) produced dose dependent increase in tail-flick latency, the analgesic effect being sensitive to reversal by naloxone (1 mg/kg). Prior treatment with haloperidol (1 mg/kg), D1/D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, sulpiride (50 mg/kg), a selective D2 receptor antagonist, yohimbine (5 mg/kg), a a2-adrenoreceptor antagonist but not by SCH 23390 a, selective D1 receptor antagonist blocked this response. Apomorphine (1 mg/kg) a mixed D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist, and quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg), a selective D2 receptor agonist also produced antinociception, that was reversed by haloperidol (1 mg/kg), sulpiride (50 mg/kg), but not by yohimbine (5 mg/kg). The antinociceptive action of quercetin (200 mg/kg) was potentiated by D2 agonist quinpirole (0.2 mg/kg). Dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 (10 and 15 mg/kg) failed to alter the antinociceptive effect of quercetin (200 mg/kg). Quercetin (200 mg/kg) reversed reserpine (2 mg/kg-4 hr) induced hyperalgesia, which was reversed by sulpiride but not by yohimbine. Thus, a role of dopamine D2 and a2-adrenoreceptors is postulated in the antinociceptive action of quercetin.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1405-1409

 

 

Antinociceptive action of FK506 in mice

Amanpreet Singh, Gaurav Kumar, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Immunophilins are abundantly present in the brain as compared to the immune system. Immunophilin-binding agents like FK506 are known to inactivate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by inhibiting calcineurin and decrease the production of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is involved in the mediation of nociception at the spinal level. In the present study, the effect of FK506 on the tail flick response in mice and the possible involvement of NO-L-arginine pathway in this paradigm was evaluated. FK506 (0.5, 1 and 3 mg/kg, ip) produced a significant antinociception in the tail flick test. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME significantly and dose dependently (10-40 mg/kg, ip) potentiated the FK506 (0.5 mg/kg)-induced antinociception. On the other hand, NOS substrate L-arginine (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the FK506-induced antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitant administration of L-NAME (20 and 40 mg/kg) with L-arginine (200 mg/kg) blocked the inhibition exerted by L-arginine on the FK506-induced antinociception. Thus, it was concluded that NO- L-arginine pathway may be involved in the FK506-induced antinociception in tail flick test.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1410-1415

 

 

Influence of colchicine on pulmonary
silicotic fibrogenesis in rats*

M Waseem, A K Khanna, S Dogra & J L Kaw

 

With an aim to evaluate the antifibrotic action of colchicine in experimental model of pulmonary silicosis, the effect of colchicine on developing and developed pulmonary silicosis induced by quartz was studied in rats in vivo and on alveolar macrophages exposed to quartz particulates in vitro. A progressive increase in wet and dry weight of lungs exposed to quartz dust alone, and quartz dust and colchicine injected orally was investigated. An increase in collagen contents, with lapse in time, in animals exposed intratracheally to quartz dust, or exposed similarly to quartz dust but receiving colchicine simultaneously through oral route was observed. A blindfold evaluation of histological sections of lungs of silicotic animals with or without colchicine administration during development of lesions did not reveal any difference between two groups of silicotic rats. Administration of colchicine for 4 weeks after the lesions were developed neither inhibited nor retarded the laying down of collagen. The studies were extended to investigate the effect of colchicine on quartz-induced alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity. The presence of varying concentrations of colchicine in the culture medium did not significantly alter cytotoxic potential of quartz. The results reveal that colchicine administration during the development of and on developed silicosis does not significantly alter pathogenesis of silicotic lesions. At the cellular level colchicine does not modulate quartz-induced alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity, believed to be a significant event for the onset of pulmonary silicotic fibrogenesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1416-1423

 
Inhibition of cutaneous oxidative stress and
two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hemidesmus indicus (L.)  in Swiss albino mice

Sarwat Sultana, Aftab Alam, Naghma Khan & Sonia Sharma

 

Chemopreventive potential of H. indicus on 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetra­decanoyl 13-phorbol acetate (TPA) promoted murine skin carcinogenesis has been assessed. Topical application of H. indicus resulted in significant protection against cutaneous tumorigenesis. Topical application of plant extract prior to that of TPA resulted in significant inhibition against TPA-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and DNA synthesis. Application of H. indicus at a dose level of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg body weight in acetone prior to that of TPA treatment resulted in significant inhibition of oxidative stress. The level of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. In addition, depleted levels of glutathione and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes were restored  respectively). The results indicate that H. indicus is a potent chemopreventive agent in skin carcinogenesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1424-1430

 

 

Simultaneous induction of ectopic pelvic zone and
duplication of regenerated limbs in tadpoles of Polypedates maculatus by vitamin A

A Pati, S K Dutta & P K Mahapatra

 

With a view to determine ectopic limb developing capacity along with normal hind limb regeneration in response to vitamin A palmitate in well-differentiated hind limb stage tadpoles of P. maculatus, higher doses of vitamin A (30 IU/ml and 20 IU/ml) were administered for a longer period (120 hr) to the tadpoles following tail amputation through middle and hind limb amputation through middle of thigh. Simultaneous development of ectopic pelvic zone was observed along with hind limbs from the cut end of tail and duplication of regenerated hind limbs in the same tadpole for the first time. Besides, development of double ectopic pelvic girdle was also reported in one case. Results also indicate that induction of pelvic zone and duplication of regenerated limbs are concentration dependent.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1431-1435

 

 

Significance of regional difference in ion concentrations in lizard,Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Rüppell): Assessment of ionic influence on sperm motility in vitro

Umesh Rai & B K Nirmal

 

A gradual increase in the concentration of Ca2+ from anterior to the posterior region was observed when mono- and divalent cations were estimated in different segments of the epididymis in wall lizard. Na+ and K+ levels increased from anterior to middle segment but declined significantly in the posterior segment. However, no significant difference in the levels of Mg2+ was observed in various segments. To study the influence of mono- and divalent cations on sperm motility in vitro, the spermatozoa from posterior region of the epididymis were incubated in medium with varying concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Spermatozoa were non-motile when suspended in Na+-free medium. Addition of NaCl induced the acquisition of sperm motility in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, amiloride, a Na+-influx blocker, markedly reduced the Na+-induced forward progressive motility. Unlike Na+, the presence of K+ or Ca2+ in the incubation medium reduced the motility of spermatozoa even at very low concentrations. The inhibitory effect of Ca2+ decreased when nifedipine, a Ca2+-influx blocker, was added to the medium. Mg2+ at high concentrations only was able to reduce the forward progressive motility.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1436-1441

 

 

Effects of repeated haemolymph withdrawals on haemocyte counts and moulting in lemon-butterfly, Papilio demoleus L.

J P Pandey, R K Tiwari & A K Chaubey

 

Total and differential haemocyte counts following repeated haemolymph withdrawals were made in V instar larvae of P. demoleus. While total count showed a steady reduction reaching its lowest in prepupal stage, much variation was observed in the relative percentage of various cell types. Further, the repeated removals of haemolymph from V instar larvae and pupae affected imaginal moulting and lengths of body and wings in adult butterflies.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1442-1446

 

 

Antagonistic effect of fluorescent pseudomonads
against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes
charcoal  rot of groundnut

Shweta Bhatia, Shivani Bhatia, R C Dubey & D K Maheshwari

 

Maximum colony growth inhibition was observed due to Pseudomonas PS2 (74%) as compared to PS1 (71%) on trypticase soy agar (TSM) plates after 5 days of incubation. Light and scanning electron microscopic examination showed hyphal coiling, vacuolation, coagulation and granulation of cytoplasm resulting in lysis of hyphae of M. phaseolina by pseudomonads. Cell free culture filtrates of strains PS1 and PS2 restricted the growth of mycelium of M. phaseolina. PS1 and PS2 caused maximum colony growth inhibition by 57 and 61% respectively at 20% concentration of culture filtrate after 4 days of incubation. Volatile substances produced by PS1 and PS2 also inhibited the colony growth of M. phaseolina by 25 and 32%, respectively. Inhibitory effect of volatile substances, however, decreased with advancing in incubation period. Colony growth of M. phaseolina was significantly decreased by PS1 and PS2 as compared to control both in iron- sufficient and iron-deficient conditions. PS2 showed higher antagonistic activity than PS1, as evidenced by pronounced colony growth inhibition.

 

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1447-1451

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Haridradi ghrita on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats

P M Satturwar, S V Fulzele, S B Joshi & A K Dorle

 

Received 3 September 2002; revised 17 July 2003

Haridradi ghrita, a ghee based polyherbal formulation, (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly lowered marker enzymes (SGPT, SGOT, ALP) and bilirubin in serum and liver peroxide, superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver homogenate following CCl4 (0.7 ml/kg, ip) toxicity. The protective effect was further supported by reversal of CCl4 induced histological changes. The results demonstrate significant hepatoprotective action of H. ghrita in CCl4 damaged rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1452-1455

 

 

Clenbuterol induced changes in cholesterol and
triglyceride levels of gastrocnemius, pectoralis and
heart of rat under work induced stress

Sushma Sharma & Asha Garg

 

Work induced stress led to decreased cholesterol and fluctuating triglyceride levels in gastrocnemius and pectoralis muscles in rats. But the drug (clenbuterol, 2 mg kg-1 day-1) treatment increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both the muscles. However, heart showed decreased cholesterol and increased triglyceride level in the animals under work stress, but at the same time drug treatment led to a significant increase in levels of the two lipid fractions, inferring towards deleterious effect of the drug on heart.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1456-1459

 

 

In vivo model for dyslipidemia with diabetes mellitus
in hamster

Gitika Bhatia, Farhan Rizvi, Rashmi Saxena, Anju Puri, A K Khanna, Ramesh Chander,

E M Wulff & A K Rastogi

 

Due to similarities in lipid metabolism to those in humans, hamster is considered as a good model for the study of regulatory mechanisms of plasma lipoproteins in response to cholesterol or fatty acid-enriched diet. This model of hyperlipi­demia has been modified to produce dyslipidedmia with diabetes complexities by feeding with high fat diet added with 9% (w/w) fructose. Feeding this diet to hamster for 10 days markedly increases plasma levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, fatty acids followed by a significant increase in glycerol, b lipoproteins, high density lipoprotein, glucose and glycosylated proteins. This model is being used for research and development of lipid lowering drugs with hypoglycemic activity in collaboration with Novo Nordisk, Denmark. The modified high fat diet formulation has now been prepared (Research diet D.99122211) and supplied by Research Diets Inc, Burnswick USA.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1460-1462

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

Pratibha Pungle, M Banavalikar, A Suthar, M Biyani, & S Mengi

 

Extract of gum resin of B. serrata containing 60% acetyl 11-keto beta boswellic acid (AKBA) along with other constituents such as 11-keto b-boswellic acid (KBA), acetyl b-boswellic acid and b-boswellic acid has been evaluated for antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity using passive paw anaphylaxis and compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cell methods. The extract inhibited the passive paw anaphylaxis reaction in rats in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po). However, the standard dexamethasone (0.27 mg/kg, po) revealed maximum inhibition of edema as compared to the extract. A significant inhibition in the compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mast cells in dose-dependant manner (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, po) was observed thus showing mast cell stabilizing activity. The standard disodium cromoglycate (50 mg/kg, ip) was found to demonstrate maximum per cent protection against degranulation as compared to the extract containing 60% AKBA. The results suggest promising antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing activity of the extract.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1463-1465

 

 

Toxicity assessment of wild bean seed protein - Arcelin on Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

B Malaikozhundan, P Suresh, S Seshadri & S Janarthanan

 

Arcelin, an anti-metabolic protein was purified from the seeds of wild bean, Lablab purpureus. The feeding assay containing arcelin at 5, 10 and 15 µg concentrations revealed no antifeedant effect against fifth instar larvae of S. litura. However, the enhanced activity of α- and β-naphthyl esterases in the mid-gut samples of S. litura treated with arcelin suggests countermeasure against the toxic effect of arcelin.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1466-1468

 

 

Prevalence of Listeria in soil

H Moshtaghi, S R Garg & Usha V Mandokhot

 

One hundred thirty soil samples from agricultural fields and animal-inhabited areas were examined for the presence of Listeria. The microorganism was identified in 23 (17.7%) samples. L. monocytogenes was detected in 7 samples (5.4%), L. ivanovii in 2 (1.5%), L. innocua in 10 (7.7%) and L. welshimeri in 4 samples (3.1%). Prevalence of Listeria in soil from agricultural fields (17.5%) did not differ considerably from that in the soil and animal-inhabited area (18.0%), but L. ivanovii was isolated only from the latter source. Frequency of occurrence of different species of Listeria differed from place to place.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1469-1472

 

 

Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans

R J Vaidya, S L A Macmil, P R Vyas, L V Ghetiya, K J Thakor & H S Chhatpar

 

Alcaligenes xylosoxydans protected pigeonpea from Fusarium wilt in a pot experiment and field trials. When seeds of pigeonpea (C. cajan) were treated with A. xylosoxydans and sown in soil infested with Fusarium, the incidence of wilt was reduced by 43.5% and resulted in 58% higher grain yield. The antifungal activity of A. xylosoxydans was based on chitinase production and was comparable in efficacy to commercial antifungal agents such as benlate, monitor WP, thiram and bavistin.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1473-1475

 

 

Efficacy of Euphorbia splendens and Leonotis nepetaefolia on aflatoxin producing fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

M N Abubacker & R Ramanathan

 

Efficacy of three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15 mg/ml) of dry flower powder of E. splendens and L. nepetaefolia was tested on the growth of aflatoxin-producing toxigenic strains of fungi A. flavus (NCBT 101) and A. parasiticus (NCBT 128) in Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). Maximum (75%) inhibition of growth of A. flavus was seen at 15 mg/ml concentration of E. splendens flower dry powder, while A. parasiticus showed 50% inhibition of growth at 10 and 15 mg/ml concentrations. Total inhibition (100%) of growth of A. flavus was seen at 10 and 15 mg/ml for L. nepetaefolia and maximum (75%) inhibition of growth was seen for A. parasiticus at 15 mg/ml concentration. Bioassay with groundnut seeds soaked with different concentrations of flower extract proved that both fungi were incapable of infecting the seeds at 10 and 15mg/ml of L. nepetaefolia flower extracts.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1476-1478

 

 

Optimization of wedelolactone accumulation in shoot cultures of Eclipta alba

M G Jayathirtha & S H Mishra

 

Influence of different environmental factors on accumulation of wedelolactone, a potential anti-hepatotoxic principle of E. alba in shoot cultures was investigated. A significant increase in the content of wedelolactone due to kinetin treatment, temperature change and photoperiod alteration in shoot cultures was observed. Incorporation of phenylalanine in the medium also increased content of wedelolactone significantly in a dose-dependent manner.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1479-1481

 

 

In vitro propagation of emetic nut
Randia dumetorum (Lamb.)

Ferdousi Begum, Kazi Mohammed Didarul Islam, Rathindra Nath Paul,

Masfique Mehedi, & Shyamole Rani

 

An efficient protocol for in vitro shoot multiplication of Randia dumetorum (Emetic nut) has been developed. The seeds of R. dumetorum were germinated in vitro in MS medium in 5 weeks. Subsequent propagation using shoot tip as an explant was carried out in MS medium along with different concentrations and combinations of BAP (0.5-2.0) and NAA (0.0-2.0). Maximum shoot multiplication was obtained (12.7 shoots per shoot tip) in MS medium containing 1mg/L BAP and 1mg/L NAA. Micropropagated shoots were rooted in ½ MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA. This is the first report of in vitro plant propagation of R. dumetorum. In vitro grown plantlets showed a survival rate of 70% after 2 months of transplantation to natural environment.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1482-1486

 

 

Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant

D Syamala & Prathibha Devi

 

Novel protocols for production of multiple shoot-tip clumps and somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were developed with long-term goal of crop improvement through genetic transformation. Multiple shoot-tip clumps were developed in vitro from shoot-tip explant of one-week old seedling, cultured on MS medium containing only BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/l) or both BA (1 or 2 mg/l) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) with bi-weekly subculture. Somatic embryos were directly produced on the enlarged dome shaped growing structures that developed from the shoot-tips of one-week old seedling explants (without any callus formation) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with both 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l). However, the supplementation of MS medium with only 2, 4-D (0.5 mg/l) induced compact callus without any plantlet regeneration. Each multiple shoot-clump was capable of regenerating more than 80 shoots via an intensive differentiation of both axillary and adventitious shoot buds, the somatic embryos were capable of 90% germination, plant conversion and regeneration. The regenerated shoots could be efficiently rooted on MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 1 mg/l). The plants were successfully transplanted to glasshouse and grown to maturity with a survival rate of 98%. Morphogenetic response of the explants was found to be genotypically independent.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1487

 

 

Book Review

 

Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants

Gian Singh

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 41, December 2003, pp. 1500

 

News Scan

 

Underground strategies of an invader MicroRNAs rescued from
neglect Recent report of a novel reporter

 G S Randhawa and Shubha G

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

a2-Adrenoreceptors

1400

Fluorescent pseudomonad

1442

Oxidative stress

1384,

Aflatoxin

1473

Free radicals

1365

 Oxidative stress

 1416

Alcaligenes xylosoxydans

1469

Fungi

1473

Pain perception

1400

6-Aminonicotinamide

1384

Fusarium udum

1469

Panchgavya

1447

Antagonism

1442

 

 

Papilio demoleus

1436

Anti-anaphylactic activity

1460

G2/M Checkpoint

1392

Phenylalanine

1476

Antinociception

1405

Gene expression

1372

Phytohormones

1476

Antinociceptive action

1400

Groundnut

1442

Pigeonpea

1469

Aspergillus flavus

1473

 

 

Polypedatus maculates

1424

Aspergillus parasiticus

1473

Haemocyte count

1436

Prevalence

1466

 

 

Haemolymph

1436

 

 

Bean seed protein  Arcelin

1463

Haridradi ghrita

1447

a-Quartz

1410

Beta agonist

1452

Heart

1452

Quercetin

1400

Biocontrol

1469

Hemidactylus flaviviridis

1431

 

 

Boswellia serrata

1460

Hemidesmus indicus

1416

Radiomodification

1392

Boswellic acid

1460

Hepatoprotection

1447

Radioprotector

1365

 

 

Hyperglycemia

1456

Radiosensitization

1384

Carcinogenesis

1416

 

 

Randia dumetorum

1479

Cell cycle

1392

In vitro propagation

1479

Regenerated limbs

1424

Chemoprevention

1416

In vivo model

1456

Regeneration

1482

Chitinase

1469

Ion concentration

1431

Reproduction

1372

Clenbuterol

1452

 

 

 

 

Colchicine

1410

Kinetin

1476

Shoot tip

1479

       

Shoot tip

1482

Cyclin

1392

 

 

Silicosis

1410

 

 

Leonotis nepetaefolia

1473

Skeletal muscle

1452

D2-dopamine receptors

1400

Lipid lowering drugs

1456

Soil

1466

2-Deoxy-D-glucose

1384

Lipid peroxidation

1447

Sorghum

1482

2-Deoxy-D-glucose

1392

Lipid

1447

   

Diabetes

1456

Lipid

1452

Sperm mobility

1431

   

Lipid

1456

   

DNA damage

1365

Listeria monocytogenes

1466

Spodoptera litura

1463

Drosophila

1372

Lizard

1431

 

 

Dyslipidemia

1456

 

 

Tadpole

1424

 

 

Macrophomina phaseolina

1442

Tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG)

1365

Ectopic pelvic zone

1424

Male accessory gland

1372

Toxicity

1463

Endangered species

1479

Mass cell stabilizing activity

1460

Tribes

1479

Euphorbia splendens

1473

Mating behaviour

1372

Tumor promotion

1416

Evolution

1372

Metabolic stress

1384

 

 

 

 

Mice

1405

Vitamin A

1424

Fertility

1372

Moulting

1436

 

 

Fibrogenesis

1410

 

 

Wedelolactone

1476

FK506

1405

 

 

Work induced stress

1452

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Abubacker M N

1473

Kagiya Tsutomu V

1365

Randhawa G S

1500

Adhikari J S

1384

Kaw J L

1410

Rani Shyamole

1479

Adhikari J S 1392

Khan Naghma

1416

Rastogi A K

1456

Alam Aftab

1416

Khanna A K

1410

Ravi Ram K

1372

 

 

Khanna A K

1456

Ravindranath T

1392

Banavalikar M

1460

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

1400

Rizvi Farhan

1456

Begum Ferdousi

1479

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

1405

   

Bhatia Gitika

1456

Kumar Gaurav

1405

Satturwar P M

1447

Bhatia Shivani

1442

Kunugita N

1365

Saxena Rashmi

1456

Bhatia Shweta

1442

 

 

Seshadri S

1463

Biyani M

1460

Macmil S L A

1469

Sharma Sonia

1416

 

 

Mahapatra P K

1424

Sharma Sushma

1452

Chander Ramesh

1456

Maheshwari D K

1442

Shimanskaya R

1365

Chaubey A K

1436

Malaikozhundan B

1463

Shubha G

1500

Chhatpar H S

1469

Mandokhot Usha V

1466

Singh Amanpreet

1400

 

 

Mathur Rohit

1392

Singh Amanpreet

1405

Devi Prathibha

1482

Mehedi Masfique

1479

Singh Gian

1487

Dogra S

1410

Mengi S

1460

Sultana Sarwat

1416

Dorle A K

1447

Mishra S H

1476

Suresh P

1463

Dubey R C

1442

Moshtaghi H

1466

Suthar A

1460

Dutta S K

1424

Murase Hironobu

1365

Syamala D

1482

Dwarakanath B S

1384

 

 

 

 

Dwarakanath B S

1392

Naidu Pattipati S

1400

   

 

 

Naidu Pattipati S

1405

Thakor K J

1469

Fulzele S V

1447

Nair Cherupally Krishnan K

1365

Tiwari R K

1436

 

 

Nirmal B K

1431

 

 

Garg Asha

1452

 

 

Uma Devi P

1365

Garg S R

1466

Pandey J P

1436

 

 

Ghetiya L V

1469

Pati A

1424

Vaidya R J

1469

Gu Yeun-Hwa

1365

Paul Rathindra Nath

1479

Varshney R

1384

 

 

Pungle Pratibha

1460

Vyas P R

1469

Islam Kazi Mohammed Didarul

1479

Puri Anju

1456

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waseem M

1410

Janarthanan S

1463

Rai Umesh

1431

Wulff E M

1456

Jayathirtha M G

1476

Ramanathan R

1473

 

 

Joshi S B

1447

Ramesh S R

1372

 

 

 

 

 

 

Announcements

26th Meeting of Plant Tissue Culture Association of India
&
National Symposium on Biotechnology for a Better Future
15-17 January 2004, Mangalore, India

Organised by St Aloysius College, Mangalore, India, the symposium will focus on application of tissue culture and transgenic technology and molecular methods for a better tomorrow in the field of food and agriculture, horticulture, forestry, environment, medicine and health, energy and fuel, and biodiversity. A special session will also be devoted to Biotechnology as business. For further details please contact: Dr K Rajendra, Organising Secretary PTCA 2004, Laboratory of Applied Biology, St Aloysius College, Mangalore 575 003, India. Tel: 0824-2423217; E-mail: labens@sancharnet.in. Website: http://staloysius.ac.in/pcta04

 

 

 

 

Second International Conference on
Medical Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
April 1-3, 2004, IIT Madras, Chennai, India

The International Conference will be held at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India. The topics to be covered in the Conference will be  (i) Bioelectric Phenomenon, (ii) Medical Imaging, (iii) A N N and Expert Systems, (iv) Rural Health Care, (v) Biomedical Signal Processing, (vi) Biomedical Techniques, (vii) Optical Techniques and Modeling, (viii) Biomedical Instrumentation, (ix) Radiological Diagnostic Procedures, and (x) Microcirculatory Techniques.

For details kindly contact Professor Megha Singh, Organizing Secretary, ICMDTP, Biomedical Engineering Division, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India. Phone: +91-44-22578176; Fax: +91-44-22570509; E-mail: icmdtp@iitm.ac.in; Web page: http://apm.iitm.ac.in/icmdtp.html

 

 

 

Erratum

Inhibition of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinylchloride (PVC) blood storage bags, by C R Dhanya, A R Indu, K V Deepadevi & P A Kurup, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 814-820.

Under section Materials and Methods (page 815; para 2; line 1), DEHP at a dose of 750 mg/kg body weight may be read as DEHP at a dose of 750 mg/100 g body weight.