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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN : 0019-5189 CODEN : IJEB (A6) 41(7) 663-782 (2003)
VOLUME 41 NUMBER 7 JULY 2003

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Symposium in print on Molecular Reproductive Physiology

Local regulatory factors in regulation of ovarian function: Role of

prorenin-renin angiotensin-system

Bärbel Brunswig-Spickenheier & Amal K Mukhopadhyay

 

669

 

 

Zona pellucida glycoproteins based immunocontraceptive vaccines: Strategies for development and their applications

Satish K Gupta, Sangeeta Choudhury, Neelu Srivastava & Chitra Ravi

 

682

 

 

Endocrine characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

A Szilágyi & I Szabó

694

 

 

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Biochemical and molecular perspectives

Anurupa Maitra & Heena Shirwalkar

701

 

 

Conservation of wild animals by assisted reproduction and molecular marker technology

S Shivaji, S D Kholkute, S K Verma, Ajay Gaur, G Umapathy, Anju Singh,Sadanand Sontakke, K Shailaja, Anuradha Reddy, S Monika, V Sivaram, B Jyotsna, Satyare Bala, M Shakeel Ahmed, Aruna Bala, B V N Chandrashekar, Sandeep Gupta, Surya Prakash & Lalji Singh

710

 

 

Stem cell research: Its relevance to reproductive biology

Tarala Nandedkar & Madhura Narkar

724

 

 

Functional roles of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors

S Sreeja & RaghavaVarman Thampan

740

 

 

Expression and regulation of integrin receptors in human trophoblast cells: Role of estradiol and cytokines

Chandana Das & Sayantani Basak

 

748

 

 

Embryo-endometrial proteases during early mammalian development

P B Seshagiri, H S Lalitha, A Mishra & G V Sireesha

756

 

 

Epididymis as a target for contraception

Vrinda Khole

764

 

 

Progesterone receptors on human spermatozoa

Chirag Shah, Deepak Modi, Sushama Gadkar, Geetanjali Sachdeva & Chander Puri

773

 

 

Announcement

664

 

 

Accepted papers for forthcoming issue(s)
781
   
Author Index
 
   
Keyword Index

 

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

 

International Seminar & Workshop on Fermented Foods, Health Status and Social Well-being

13-14 November, 2003, Anand, Gujarat

 

Jointly organized by Swedish South Asian Studies Network (SASNET), Lund University, Sweden, Department of Applied Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden and SMC College of Dairy Sciences, Gujarat Agriculture University, Anand, India, the programme will cover technological, microbiological, nutritional and therapeutic aspects of various fermented foods. For further details please contact: (i) Prof. JB Prajapati, Programme Coordinator & Organizing Secretary, Department of Dairy Microbiology, SMC College of Dairy Science, Gujarat Agriculture University, Anand – 388 110, India (Phone: 091-2692-261030/261352; Fax: 091-2692-261314; E-mail: jbprajapati@gau.guj.nic.in; jbprajapati@lycos.com) or, (ii) Prof. Baboo M Nair, Department of Applied Nutrition, Lund University, Sweden (Phone: 046-46-222-9634; Fax: baboo.nair@inl.lth.se)

 

 

 

 

Preface

 

 

The present special issue of the journal aims to provide an overview of research in the field of Molecular Reproductive Biology. The advent of molecular biology has provided new dimensions to our understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in various mammalian reproductive processes and also the underlying causes of reproductive disorders in humans.

 

A special issue was therefore proposed to highlight new research findings in these areas. Recent developments in gamete biology, regulation of gonadal function and embryo-endometrial interaction have been investigated at molecular level. Application of modern molecular techniques has essentially helped in identifying genes/their products and functional role both in normal and pathological conditions resulting in newer approaches to treatment of reproductive disorders. In addition, it has helped in conservation of endangered species. Attempt has been made to include cellular and molecular changes occurring in PCO, CAH and the genetic basis of these reproductive disorders.

It has been a great pleasure to compile the manuscripts written by eminent scientists in the field both from India and abroad. I am obliged to all the contributors and sincerely appreciate their efforts in helping to make this a memorable issue. I am also grateful to Mr. A.K. Sen for giving me this opportunity to edit the special issue and am highly indebted to him and his group for full support during this tenure.

 

 

Dr Tarala D Nandedkar

(Guest Editor)

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 669-681

 

 

 

Local regulatory factors in regulation of ovarian function:
Role of prorenin-renin-angiotensin-system

Bärbel Brunswig-Spickenheier & Amal K Mukhopadhyay

 

During reproductive life in the female, there is a continuous flow of growth, maturation and demise of ovarian follicles, unless pregnancy occurs. Although ovarian function is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus-pituitary-axis, there is no doubt that a hormonal microenvironment specific for each individual follicle is established, that finally determines whether a follicle ovulates and becomes a corpus luteum or undergoes atresia. In this respect, autocrine and paracrine factors that act alone or modulate gonadotropins action are of paramount importance. In this article, we want to introduce the ovarian prorenin-renin-angiotensin-system (PRAS) and summarize what is actually known about its involvement in ovarian physiology and pathology.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 682-693

 

 

Zona pellucida glycoproteins based immunocontraceptive vaccines: Strategies for development and their applications

Satish K Gupta, Sangeeta Choudhury, Neelu Srivastava & Chitra Ravi

 

The mammalian oocyte is surrounded by an extra-cellular matrix, the zona pellucida (ZP), composed of three major glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3). The ZP glycoproteins, by virtue of their tissue specificity and critical role during mammalian fertilization, have emerged as potential candidate antigens for the development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine. Molecular characterization of ZP glycoproteins from several species, reveals a variable degree of homology among the deduced primary amino acid sequences, which provided an opportunity to undertake active immunization studies in heterologous animal models. Active immunization of various animal species with either native ZP glycoproteins or those obtained by recombinant DNA technology led to the inhibition of fertility. Thus ZP glycoproteins based immunocontraceptive vaccines offer an attractive proposition for controlling wild life population. To make it a practical proposition, additional research inputs are required to optimize and devise novel strategies for vaccine delivery. Observed ovarian dysfunction, often associated with immunization by ZP glycoproteins is one of the major stumbling blocks for their use in humans. Ongoing studies to delineate appropriate B cell epitopes of ZP glycoproteins that are devoid of oophoritogenic T-cell epitopes, which will inhibit fertility without concomitant oophoritis, will be critical to determine their feasibility for human use.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 694-700

 

 

Endocrine characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

A Szilágyi & I Szabó

 

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is probably the most prevalent endocrinopathy in women and the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Patients with PCOS have clinical and biochemical features consistent with the ultrasound diagnosis and they are likely to face the problems of hyperandrogenism, subfertility and recurrent miscarriage. The aim of the present review is to summarize our present knowledge on the hormonal background of this very prevalent syndrome and to give some clinical examples how the present knowledge can be applied to treat PCOS patients according to their current problem, such as menstrual cycle disorder, hirsutism, infertility or to prevent late consequences as diabetes mellitus. The etiology and pathogenesis of PCOS is still a matter of controversies, but it is apparent that inappropriate gonadotropin secretion, obesity, hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance are the major determining factors in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism an chronic anovulation. Reversal of insulin resistance in PCOS constitutes the fundamental goal in the management of hyperandrogenic anovulatory infertility and in the prevention of long-term consequences. The value of the insulin sensitizer metformin therapy awaits further evaluation and it should be integrated in the spectrum of therapeutical options that include the discussed surgical methods and GnRH analogues as well.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 701-709

 

 

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Biochemical and molecular perspectives

Anurupa Maitra & Heena Shirwalkar

 

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a disorder occurring in both sexes and is the commonest cause of ambiguous genitalia. It is a group of autosomal recessive disorders in which, on the basis of an enzyme defect the bulk of steroid hormone production by adrenal cortex shifts from corticosteroids to androgens. Autosomal recessive mutations in the CYP21, CYP17, CYP11B1 and 3bHSD genes that encode steroidogenic enzymes, in additon to mutations in the gene encoding the intracellular cholesterol transport protein steroidogenic acute regulatory protein StAR can cause CAH. Each of the defects causes different biochemical consequences and clinical features. Deficiencies in 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) and 11b-Hydroxylase (11b-OH) are the two most frequent causes of CAH. All the biochemical defects impair cortisol secretion, resulting into compensatory hypersecretion of ACTH and consequent hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. Research in recent years has clarified clinical, biochemical and genetic problems in diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. Expanding knowledge of the gene mutations associated with each of these disorders is providing valuable diagnostic tools in addition to the biochemical profile and phenotype. Genotyping is useful in selecting instances to provide genetic counseling and to clarify ambiguous cases.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 710-723

 

 

Conservation of wild animals by assisted reproduction and
molecular marker technology

S Shivaji, S D Kholkute, S K Verma, Ajay Gaur, G Umapathy, Anju Singh, Sadanand Sontakke, K Shailaja,

Anuradha Reddy, S Monika, V Sivaram, B Jyotsna, Satyare Bala, M Shakeel Ahmed, Aruna Bala,

B V N Chandrashekar, Sandeep Gupta, Surya Prakash & Lalji Singh

 

Wild animals are an integral component of the ecosystem. Their decimation due to abrupt natural calamities or due to gradual human intervention would be disastrous to the ecosystem and would alter the balance in nature between various biotic components. Such an imbalance could have an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Therefore, there is an urgent need to put an end to the ever increasing list of endangered species by undertaking both in situ and ex situ conservation using tools of modern biology, to ascertain the degree of genetic variation and reproductive competence in these animals. This review highlights the development and use of molecular markers such as microsatellites, minisatellites, mitochondrial control region, cytochrome b and MHC loci to assess the genetic variation in various Indian wild animals such as the lion, tiger, leopard and deer.  The review also presents data on the semen profile of the big cats of India. Reproductive technologies such as cryopreservation of semen and artificial insemination in big cats are also highlighted.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 724-739

 

 

Stem cell research: Its relevance to reproductive biology

Tarala Nandedkar & Madhura Narkar

 

Stem cells provide an excellent model system to understand the differentiation, development and functioning of gonads, and further use of these cells in transplantation or cell-based therapies. Embryonic germ cells present as a better source of pluripotent stem cells. The germ cells are specialized cells, which differentiate into sperm or oocytes. Spermatogonial stem cells are the only stem cells in the adult mammalian body that can be recognized and studied at cellular level with respect to proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, basic process of spermatogenesis, testicular niche and molecular regulation of spermatogenesis and density regulation has been discussed. Research on oogonial stem cells has recently been encouraged due to the demand for oocytes for various research purposes. Mechanism of regulation of follicle formation, oocyte attrition and follicle development and atresia are only partially understood. Hence, the stages of development, its interaction with the neighbouring somatic cells during each developmental stage and the molecular regulation underlying it has been reviewed. These studies will result in establishment of treatment of ovarian disorders, and in identifying cure for infertility that occurs due to ovarian pathophysiology. Indian scenario in terms of stem cell research and its benefits is also discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 740-747

 

 

Functional roles of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors

S Sreeja & RaghavaVarman Thampan

 

A series of emerging data supports the existence and importance of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors in a variety of cells that are targets for the steroid hormone action. When estradiol (E2) binds to the cell surface protein, the ensuing signal transduction event triggers downstream signaling cascades that contribute to important biological functions. Aside from the classical signaling through nuclear estrogen receptors, we have provided evidence for the functional roles of an estrogen receptor localized in the plasma membrane .This review highlights some of the recent advances made in the understanding of the genomic/non-genomic actions of plasma membrane localized estrogen receptors.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 748-755

 

 

Expression and regulation of integrin receptors in human trophoblast cells: Role of estradiol and cytokines

Chandana Das & Sayantani Basak

 

Embryo implantation and placentation are dynamic cellular events that require not only synchrony between the maternal environment and the embryo, but also complex cell-cell communication amongst the implanting blastocyst and the receptive endometrium through integrins, a large family of proteins involved in the attachment, migration, invasion and control of cellular functions. Integrins display dynamic temporal and spatial patterns of expression by the trophoblast cells during early pregnancy in humans. However, the precise mechanism of embryo implantation and the modulation of the integrin receptors during blastocyst attachment and further implantation remain elusive in the humans. The present study elucidates the expression and hormonal modulation of fibronectin, vitronectin and laminin integrin receptors by estradiol and IL-1a in human trophoblast cells. Human first trimester trophoblast cells showed the induction of the classical estrogen receptor (ER)-a by its own ligand, estradiol. Treatment with either estradiol or IL-1a induced the expressions of a4, a5, a6 and av integrin receptor subunits at both the mRNA and protein levels, while expression of b1 remained unaltered. Furthermore, estradiol upregulated the expression of IL-1a, thereby suggesting the possibility that estrogen may either directly or via the proinflammatory cytokine induces the expression of the cell surface integrin receptors. The findings delineate the role of hormones and the cytokines in modulating the adhesiveness and attachment of the trophoblast cells. This may reflect the in vivo scenario where the implanting embryo is surrounded by a hormone-cytokine rich uterine microenvironment that may precisely regulate the expression of integrins and thereby facilitate implantation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 756-763

 

 

Embryo-endometrial proteases during early mammalian development

P B Seshagiri*, H S Lalitha, A Mishra & G V Sireesha

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India

 

In mammals, extensive remodeling of uterine endometrial matrix occurs during reproductive cycle and blastocyst implantation. This is regulated by a variety of molecules such as hormones, growth factors, cytokines and proteases. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge available on various proteases and their inhibitors functionally involved in the embryo-endometrial tissues and present some data on endometrial proteases in hamsters and rats during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. We demonstrate the presence of at least four gelatinolytic activities in endometrial samples, belonging to gelatinase-A and -B categories and their dependence on calcium/zinc ions for enzyme activity and, their inter-relationships between zymogen and active forms. We believe that the embryo-endometrial proteases are essential for hatching of blastocysts and for the dynamic remodeling of endometrial tissues, occurring during the critical peri-implantation period.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 764-772

 

 

Epididymis as a target for contraception

Vrinda Khole

 

Advantage of using a vaccine based on sperm antigens is that it can be used both in males and females as individuals who have antisperm antibodies are usually infertile but otherwise healthy. Several sperm specific antigens identified as prospective candidates for immunocontraception are of testicular origin. For the purpose of immunocontraception it may be desirable not to disrupt spermatogenesis and testicular function. Concept of post testicular maturation of spermatozoa has been very well established. During post testicular voyage spermatozoa undergo a series of complex and sequential events which transforms the immature immotile spermatozoa into mature sperm. Acquisition of functional maturity is necessary for progressive motility, zona pellucida recognition culminating in sperm egg binding. Importance of epididymal maturation is highlighted by the fact that high percentage of male infertility in human originates from the malfunction of the epididymis. The epididymis has also shown to be involved in sperm storage and provides an adequate environment for final maturation of the sperm. It provides a conducive microenvironment by virtue of which the spermatozoa are protected during the storage. In view of this it is imperative that more attention needs to be focused on epididymal antigens. The information obtained will enable us to identify epididymal antigens relevant to fertility and also help in infertility diagnosis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 773-780

 

 

Progesterone receptors on human spermatozoa

Chirag Shah, Deepak Modi, Sushama Gadkar, Geetanjali Sachdeva & Chander Puri

 

Progesterone, primarily recognized as a female steroid hormone, is reported to affect several sperm functions especially capacitation, motility and acrosome reaction.  These effects of progesterone on the spermatozoa are mediated via the progesterone binding sites/progesterone receptor (PR) on the acrosomal membrane. These receptors in response to progesterone increase the intercellular Ca2+ levels and stimulate Ca2+ influx in the mature human spermatozoa via non-genomic mode of actions.  Characterization of this receptor reveals that the sperm PR is masked protein and is exposed to the surface by some non-ionic detergents.   Localized on to the acrosome region of the spermatozoa, these receptors are recognized by most antibodies directed towards the C-terminal region of the conventional PR.   The estimated molecular weight of PR on spermatozoa varies from 27 kDa to 85 kDa.  At the molecular level, sequences encoding for the entire DNA and hormone binding domains of the conventional PR are detected in the mRNA derived from spermatozoa.  No insertions, deletions or mutations are detected in this region.  These results are suggestive of the fact that atleast the C terminal region of the conventional PR is conserved in the sperm.  It is hypothesized that post-translational modifications or peptide splicing of the conventional PR in spermatozoa may possibly lead to the variant of the steroid hormone receptor.  Detailed characterization of the sperm PR will be important in understanding the alternate non-genomic mode of action of steroid hormone receptors.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 41, July 2003, pp. 781-782

 

Accepted papers for forthcoming issue(s)

Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis: Risk factors, prevention and managements

Z Hussain, P Kar, SA Husain

 

Sucicidal oxidative stress induced by certain antioxdants

Ligy Koshy, BS Dwarakanath, HG Raj, R Chandra & T Lazar Mathew

 

Evaluation of cognitive function of fluoxetine, sertraline and tianeptine in isolaion and chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive Wister rats.

M Ramanathan, SN Ashok Kumar & B Suresh

 

Chemical nature, ligand denticity and quantification of fungal siderophores

Arefa Baakza, BP Dave & HC Dube

 

Culture filtrate of Lasiodiploida theobromae restricts the development of natural resistance in Brassica nigra plants

Vasudev R Thakkar, RB Subramanian & I L Kothari

 

Oxygen uptake and filtration rate as animal health biomarker in Lamellidens marginalis (Lea)/Linn/Lamark?

Shamik Das & BB Jana

 

In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa Linn on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: An insect of public health concern

Bishnupada Roy & BK Dutta

 

Occurrence and cross infectivity of granulovirus of field bean pod borer, Adisura atkinsoni Moore

K Narayanan

 

Dietary requirement of tryptophan for growth and survival of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchanan) fry

S Benakappa &  TJ Varghese

 

In vitro micropropagation of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg: A medicinal plant

M Johnson & VS Manickam

 

Central inhibitory effect of Moringa oleifera root extract: Possible role of neurotransmitters

Kausik Ray, Rimi Hazra & Debjani Guha

 

Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures

Raj K Jaggi, Reecha Madan & Balbir Singh

 

Modulatory influence of Brassica compestris Linn. var sarson on phase-II carcinogen metabolizing enzymes and glutathione levels in mice

Samir Qiblawi, AK Khan AR Rao, R Prashar & Ashok Kumar

 

Enhancement of metastatic potential of mouse B16-melanoma cells to lung after treatment with gangliosides of B-16-melanoma cells of higher metastatic potential to lung

S Saha & KC Mohanty

 

In vitro control of fasciation in proliferating nucellar embryos of Mangifera indica L. var totapari red small cloning

HC Chaturvedi, S Agnihotri, M Sharma, AK Sharma, M Jain & A Chourasia

 

 

 

Papers appearing in forthcoming Symposium in Print on

BIOREMEDIATION

 

Biosorption and elution of chromium from immobilized Bacillus coagulans biomass

T Srinath, S K Garg & P W Ramteke

 

Biorecovery of gold

Ronald Eisler

 

Biodegradation of nitro-explosives

Pradnya Kanekar, Premlata Dautpure & Seema Sarnaik

 

Bioremediation concepts for treatment of dye containing wastewater

Haresh Keharia & Datta Madamwar

 

Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents

R H Iyer

 

Bioremediation : An important alternative for soil and industrial wastes clean-up

Carlos R. Soccol, Luciana P S Vandenberghe, Adenise L Woiciechowski, Eduardo Dechechi

& Ashok Pandey

 

Microbial biomass: An economic alternative for removal of heavy metals from waste waters

Rani Gupta & Harapriya Mohapatra

 

Microbes in heavy metal remediation

P Rajendran, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

 

Microbiologically influenced corrosion in petroleum product pipelines- A review

N Muthukumar, A Rajasekar, S Ponmariappan, S Mohanan, S Maruthamuthu, S Muralidharan,

P Subramanian,N Palaniswamy & M Raghavan

 

Copntrol of metallic corrosion through microbiological route

S Maruthamuthu, S PonmariappN, S Mohanan, N Palaniswamy, R Palaniappan, & N S Rengaswamy

 

Bioremediation of chromium contaminated environments

Sara Parwin Banu Kamaludden, K R Arunkumar, S Avudainayagam & K Ramasamy

 

Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds

P Jothimani, G Kalaichelvan, A Bhaskaran, D Augustine Selvaseelan & K Ramasamy

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

Ahmed M Shakeel

710

Nandedkar Tarala

724

 

 

Narkar Madhura

724

Bala Aruna

710

 

 

Bala Satyare

710

Puri Chander

773

Basak Sayantani

748

 

 

Brunswig-Spickenheier Bärbel

669

Ravi Chitra

682

 

 

Reddy Anuradha

710

Chandrashekar B V N

710

 

 

Choudhury Sangeeta

682

Sachdeva Geetanjali

773

 

 

Seshagiri P B

756

Das Chandana

748

Shah Chirag

773

 

 

Shailaja K

710

Gadkar Sushama

773

Shirwalkar Heena

701

Gaur Ajay

710

Shivaji S

710

Gupta Sandeep

710

Singh Anju

710

Gupta Satish K

682

Singh Lalji

710

 

 

Sireesha G V

756

Jyotsna B

710

Sivaram V

710

 

 

Sontakke Sadanand

710

Khole Vrinda

764

Sreeja S

740

Kholkute S D

710

Srivastava Neelu

682

 

 

Surya Prakash

710

Lalitha H S

756

Szabó I

694

 

 

Szilágyi A

694

Maitra Anurupa

701

 

 

Mishra A

756

Thampan RaghavaVarman

740

Modi Deepak

773

 

 

Monika S

710

Umapathy G

710

Mukhopadhyay Amal K

669

 

 

 

 

Verma S K

710

 

 

KEYWORD INDEX

Acrosome reaction

773

MHC

710

Androgen

701

Microsatellite

710

Angiotensin receptors

669

mt DNA

710

Angiotensinogen

669

 

 

Anovulatory infertility

694

Niche

724

Artificial insemination

710

Non-genomic actions

773

Atresia

724

Nuclear transport

740

Autosomal recessive disorder

701

 

 

 

 

Oocyte

724

Blastocyst

748

Ovarian function

669

 

 

Ovary

682

Clathrin-coated vesicles

740

 

 

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

701

PCOS

694

Contraception

764

Plasma membrane

740

Corticosteroid

701

Polycystic ovary syndrome

694

Cryopreservation

710

Primordial germ cells

724

Cytokine

748

Progesterone receptors

773

 

 

Prorenin-renin-angiotensin-system

669

Embryo implantation

756

Proteases

756

Endocrinopathy

694

 

 

Endometrium

756

Recombinant proteins

682

Epididimal antigens

764

Regulation of ovarian function

669

Epididymal protein

764

 

 

 

 

Semen profile

710

Epididymis

764

SNPs

710

Estrogen receptors

740

Sperm maturation

764

Estrogen

748

Sperm PR protein

773

 

 

Sperm PR transcript

773

Gonad

724

Sperm

773

 

 

Synthetic peptides

682

Immunocontraception

682

 

 

Implantation

748

Zona pellucida glycoproteins

682

Infertility diagnosis

764

Zymography

756

Integrin

748