Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 41(6) 545-662 (2003)

VOLUME 41

 NUMBER 6

 JUNE 2003

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)  A review: Molecular biology of the virus, immunodiagnostics, genomic heterogeneity and the role of virus in hepatocellular carcinoma

C D Poduri

 

549

 

 

Papers

 

Tissue engineering: In vitro embryonal nidation in a murine endometrial construct

Abraham F G Stevenson

563

 

 

Site specific integration of FLP recombinase in BHK-21 cell line

P Ellaiah, G Jaya Prakash, T Prabhakar & V Saisha

570

 

 

Vasopressin mediates neuroprotection in mice by stimulation of V1 vasopressin receptors : Influence of PI-3 kinase and gap junction inhibitors

Manoj G Tyagi & K V Parthiban

 

574

 

 

Effects of low level pulsed radio frequency fields on induced osteoporosis in rat bone

Jayanand, Jitendra Behari & Rajeev Lochan

581

 

 

Influence of aluminium on neurotoxicity of lead in adult male albino rats

A Shakoor, P K Gupta & M Kataria

587

 

 

Immunotoxicological effects of dermal application of scum of waste crankcase oil in mice

Santosh Khanna & Ram K S Dogra

592

 

 

Comparative role of proteins in transport of HCH-isomers in desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal and bovines

Sapna Mahajan, S K Patyal, S B Ahmed & A Nath

 

598

 

 

Karyotype, Ag-NOR, CMA3 and SEM studies in a fish (Mystus tengara, Bagridae) with indication of female heterogamety

Jayanta Kumar Das & A R Khuda-Bukhsh

 

603

 

 

Detection and characterization of enterocins from Enterococcus sp.

Randhir Singh & S R Garg

609

 

 

Isolation and purification of an extracellular protease from a new strain of Bacillus subtilis, viz. NCIM 2711

A M Surti & M M Bapat

 

614

 

 

Xylanase production by Ganoderma lucidum on liquid and solid state fermentation

K Malarvizhi, K Murugesan & P T Kalaichelvan

620

 

 

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L) and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2

H P Deka Boruah & B S Dileep Kumar

 

627

 

 

Fatty acids derived from a marine crustacean Diogenes avarus (Heller) and their antiangiogenic activity

Sujala Pathare & Madhavi Indap

 

632

 

 

Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and Abroma augusta in diabetes rats

Eshrat Halim M

 

636

 

 

Notes

 

Anti-steroidogenic activity of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and
Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed in mouse ovary

M Gupta , U K Mazumder, D K Pal & S Bhattacharya

 

641

 

 

Pyramid environment reduces the wound healing suppressant properties of dexamethasone in albino rats

Surekha Nayak, S Gurumadhva Rao, K Dilip Murthy, S N Somayaji & K L Bairy

 

645

 

 

Analgesic activity of Piper longum Linn. root

G Vedhanayaki, Geetha V Shastri & Alice Kuruvilla

649

 

 

Trace element concentration in various tissues following fluoride administration to

female mice

Maheep Bhatnagar, Pratima Rao, C Bhatnagar & Rekha Bhatnagar

 

652

 

 

Field evaluation of difethialone, a new second generation anticoagulant rodenticide in

the rice fields

K Saravanan, R Kanakasabai & K Thiyagesan

 

655

 

 

Accepted papers for forthcoming issue(s)

659

 

 

Information for Authors

661

Author Index

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 549-562

 

 

Review Article

 

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) — A review Molecular biology of the virus, immunodiagnostics, genomic heterogeneity and the role of virus in hepatocellular carcinoma

C D Poduri*

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati North Guwahati, Guwahati 781 039, Assam, India

Tel: +91 361 2690321 to 2690328 ext. 2229

Fax: +91 361 2690762; Email: chetan@iitg.ernet.in; chetan_poduri@hotmail.com

 

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an RNA and a hepatotropic virus, is the leading cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Infection with this virus causes a repertoire of liver diseases that include acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in addition to a number of extra-hepatic manifestations such as lichen planus, oral cancer, etc. At present, patients infected with this virus are treated with interferon either alone or in combination with ribavirin, a guanosine-like nucleoside analog. However, response to this treatment has been rather disappointing. For about a decade, lack of an alternative animal model other than chimpanzee, and an efficient cell culture system that could support long-term replication of the virus, hampered research on HCV. Despite this, a significant amount of information with regard to the molecular biology of the virus is available using bacterial cloning-expression systems, and based on computer predictions and analysis. Recent discovery of a cellular receptor to which the virus binds, identification of efficient cell culture/cell-free systems, HCV replicons and the development of a chimeric mouse model, provide a platform to verify the existing knowledge about this virus in the coming years. Additionally these developments aid the researchers in identifying novel therapeutic agents, apart from allowing us to reassess the efficiency of the currently available therapeutics. Presented in this article are a review of existing information with regard to the molecular biology of the virus, immunodiagnostic assays, genomic heterogeneity and the role of the virus in hepatocellular carcinoma. Likely therapeutic strategies other than those currently available are also introduced.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 563-569

 

 

Papers

 

Tissue engineering: In vitro embryonal nidation in a murine
endometrial construct*

Abraham F G Stevenson

Radiation Toxicology Unit, Institute for Experimental Toxicology, Centre for Environmental Sciences

University of Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, D-24105 Kiel, Germany

 

Received 28 September 2002; revised 5 March 2003

 

 

The epithelial and mesothelial cellular components of organs can be obtained as dissociated cells using adequate procedures of enzymatic digestion followed by pycnotic separation on density gradients. Using a specially developed procedure for tissue dissociation, the epithelial and connective tissue components of endometria from pseudopregnant mice were grown in culture using a combination of three dimensional culture of connective tissue components in collagen gel, with the superimposition of epithelial components in liquid medium on the surface of the gells. After a few days of growth, when the cultures became dense, murine blastocysts obtained on postcoital day 4.5 by fallopian flushing of hormonally primed and mated mice, were transferred onto the imitated endometria. The blastocysts hatched and grew on the endometrial epithelium as spherical coherent conglomerates of cells quite different from hatched blastocysts grown on the surface of a petri dish, in which the presumtive trophoblasts spred around the central mass. Light and electronmicroscopy of resin embeded sections (2 days after nidation on the simulated endometria) revealed that at least two populations of cell types were recognisable as layers. This is interpreted as an early sign of morphogenesis and the first visible steps of differentiation. The presence of mitotic figures indicates viability and continuing growth. Electronmicroscopy of cell types grown under conditions simulating in vivo tissue architectonics showed overtly less cytopathology and better cell function. Simulated endometria may, therefore, serve as an attractive model for studying early mammalian embryogenesis and the effects of toxic agents.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 570-573

 

 

Site specific integration of FLP recombinase in BHK-21 cell line

P Ellaiah, G Jaya Prakash*, T Prabhakar & V Saisha

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India

 

Received 16 September 2002; revised 1 March 2003

 

 

A binary system for gene activation and site specific integration based on conditional recombination of transfected sequences mediated by FLP recombinase from yeast was implemented in mammalian cells. In several cell lines, FLP rapidly and precisely recombined copies of its specific target sequences to activate an otherwise silent beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Clones of marked cells were generated by excisional recombination within a chromosomally integrated copy of the silent reporters. These clones exhibited intense blue colour with X-Gal staining solution.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 574-580

 

 

Vasopressin mediates neuroprotection in mice by stimulation of V1 vasopressin receptors : Influence of PI-3 kinase and gap junction inhibitors

Manoj G Tyagi* & K V Parthiban

Department of Pharmacology, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632 002, India

 

Received 27 December 2002; revised 28 March 2003

 

 

Neuroprotective effect of vasopressin analogues, arginine Vasopressin (AVP) and lysine Vasopressin (LVP) was evaluated against MgCl2 induced cerebral ischemia model. AVP significantly prevented (P < 0.01) MgCl2 (1M) induced cerebral ischemia as compared to lysine Vasopressin (LVP) which was less effective (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with PI-3 kinase inhibitors, Wortmannin and LY-294002 (50 μg/kg, ip) significantly attenuated the protective effects of vasopressin. AVP was also effective in reducing the maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsive time and this protective effect was blocked by PI-3 kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, pretreatment with gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC) blocker, mephenamic acid (30 mg/kg, ip) significantly potentiated the MgCl2 induced cerebral ischemia. This enhancement of cerebral ischemia was not reversed by vasopressin analogue, LVP. The role of V1 vasopressin receptor was evaluated by pretreating the animals with non-selective V1 receptor antagonist, des Gly-NH2, d (CH2)5 [D-Tyr2, Thr 4] OVT which reversed the effects of AVP suggesting a role for vasopressin V1 receptors. This study suggests that neurohypophyseal hormone, AVP is neuroprotective against MgCl2 induced cerebral ischemia and this effect is modulated by PI-3 kinase enzyme inhibitors and protein kinase C inhibitors through possible influence on the cerebral vascular tone. This study suggests that gap junctions have potential role in the induction of MgCl2 induced cerebral ischemia.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 581-586

 

 

Effects of low level pulsed radio frequency fields on induced osteoporosis in rat bone

Jayanand, Jitendra Behari* & Rajeev Lochan

311, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India

 

Received 17 July 2002; revised 13 March 2003

 

 

Effect of modulated pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs; carrier frequency, 14 MHz. modulated at 16 Hz of amplitude 10 V peak to peak) on sciatic neurectomy induced osteoporosis in rat femur and tibia resulted in statistically significant increase in bone mineral density, and deceleration in bone resorption process and consequently further osteoporosis in rat bone. These results suggest that such an effective window of pulsed radio frequency fields may be used therapeutically for the treatment of osteoporosis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 587-591

 

 

Influence of aluminium on neurotoxicity of lead in
adult male albino rats

A Shakoor, P K Gupta, & M Kataria

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India

 

Received 16 April 2002; revised 17 March 2003

 

 

Influence of aluminium on neurotoxicity of lead was studied in male albino rats. Aluminium enhanced the net deposition of lead in brain. This was further substantiated by higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and lower activities of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in the brain homogenates of the rats treated with both lead and aluminium as compared to those of rats treated with lead only. In lead plus aluminium treated animals, a significant neurological deficit was observed when the animals were subjected to rota-rod, traction performance (TP) and tail immersion tests.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 592-597

 

 

Immunotoxicological effects of dermal application of scum of
waste crankcase oil in mice

Santosh Khanna & Ram K S Dogra

Immunotoxicology Laboratory, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow 226 001, India

 

Received 10 June 2002; revised 27 February 2003

 

 

The scum of waste crankcase oil (SWCO) forms due to weathering of waste crankcase oil, deposited on the surface of water bodies. It is known to attach to the feathers of aquatic birds and cause toxicity to the eggs of nestling birds. The water bodies contaminated with SWCO can also be a source of toxicity to the human beings and animals entering such bodies. Since SWCO used in the present study had an appreciable content of heavy metals like Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr and Ni, the present investigation was undertaken to study a probable effect on immune system of mice. Animals treated with SWCO at a dose of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight for 28 days, had no effect on the weight gain of vital organs. A depressing effect was observed on the cell population of spleen and thymus. The number of primary antibody (IgM) producing cells was significantly depressed in spleen. The IgM antibody titer of serum, reduction of NBT dye by peritoneal exudat cells and mounting of delayed hypersensitivity response were not affected. In view of above immunotoxic effects of SWCO, the waste crankcase oil should be carefully disposed of, away from water bodies.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 598-602

 

 

Comparative role of proteins in transport of HCH-isomers in
desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal and bovines

Sapna Mahajan, S K Patyal, S B Ahmed & A Nath*

Department of Entomology and Apiculture, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173 230, India

 

Received 25 January 2002; revised 7 March 2003

 

 

The studies on binding of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) with carrier proteins were carried out to establish the role of proteins in the transport of insecticides in insects. Sephadex G-200 column chromatography resolved haemolymph of adult male desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria into three major protein peaks. There was significant binding of -HCH with first protein peak (F1). Two classes of binding sites were observed on first protein peak for -HCH. However low level of binding was observed with the third protein peak (F3) of the haemolymph. Bindings of HCH-isomers (,  and ) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were not related to their water solubilities. Moderate to low affinities (1.4 -1.84  106 M-1) of HCH-isomers for BSA were observed. The present studies showed that more HCH binds to haemolymph lipoprotein of locust as compared to BSA. This indicates a significant role of haemolymph proteins in the transport of insecticides in insects.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 603-608

 

 

Karyotype, Ag-NOR, CMA3 and SEM studies in a fish (Mystus tengara,
Bagridae) with indication of female heterogamety

Jayanta Kumar Das & A R Khuda-Bukhsh*

Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India

 

Received 11 September, 2002; revised 7 March 2003

 

 

Somatic karyotypes in M. tengara contained 54 chromosomes, comprising 26 homomorphic pairs in both sexes and one pair of heteromorphic nature in female (one big submetacentric and one small subtelocentric chromosomes), while in males this pair was homomorphic (with two big sub-metacentric chromosomes). The Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs) were located at one arm of the suspected sex elements in both sexes, while another pair of metacentric chromosomes (No.7) also showed Ag-positive arm. The CMA3 technique revealed relatively bright fluorescing zones in the regions of chromosomes that showed Ag-positive staining, revealing thereby the preponderance of GC-rich active sites of rRNA genes in NORs. SEM studies revealed clear heteromorphism to exist in the elements suspected as sex chromosomes in females.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 609-613

 

 

Detection and characterization of enterocins from Enterococcus sp.

Randhir Singh** & S R Garg*

Department of Veterinary Public Health, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, 125 004, India

 

Received 22 October 2002; revised 26 February 2003

 

 

Examination of 90 isolates of Enterococcus sp. revealed production of enterocin by two isolates of E. faecalis which was inhibitory to Listeria monocytogenes. Two isolates of E. gallinarum produced enterocin active against Staphylococcus aureus. None of the isolates antagonized Salmonella enteritidis. The enterocins of E. faecalis isolates were inactivated by ά-chymotrypsin but not by trypsin and papain, while those of E. gallinarum were resistant to all the three enzymes. Enterocins produced by all 4 strains were resistant to heating at 60°C for 30 min and 80°C for 10 min, but sensitive to 121°C for 15 min. At 100°C for 10 min, two enterocins, one each of E. faecalis and E. gallinarum were inactivated, while the remaining two retained the bactericidal activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 614-619

 

 

Isolation and purification of an extracellular protease
from a new strain of Bacillus subtilis, viz.NCIM 2711

A M Surti & M M Bapat*

Department of Biochemistry, The Institute of Science, 15, Madam Cama Road,Mumbai 400 032,India

 

Received 16 May 2002; revised 21 November 2002

 

 

A new extracellular protease having a prospective application in the food industry was isolated from Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2711 by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation from the cell broth. It was purified using DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography. With casein as a substrate, the proteolytic activity of the purified protease was found to be optimal at pH 7.0 and temperature 55C with Km 1.06 mg/ml. The enzyme was stable over a pH range 6.5-8.0 at 30C for 1 hr in presence of CaCl2.2H2O. At 55C, the enzyme retained 60% activity upto 15 min in presence of CaCl2.2H2O. EDTA and o-phenanthroline (OP) completely inhibited the enzyme activity while DFP, PMSF and iodoacetamide were ineffective. The enzyme was completely inhibited by Hg2+ and partially by Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Fe2+. The OP inhibited enzyme could be reactivated by Zn2+ and Co2+ up to 75% and 69% respectively. It is a neutral metalloprotease showing a single band of 43 kDa on SDS-PAGE.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 620-626

 

 

Xylanase production by Ganoderma lucidum on liquid and
solid state fermentation

K Malarvizhi, K Murugesan & P T Kalaichelvan*

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India

 

Received 6 September 2002; revised 1 April 2003

 

 

Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot fungus, was exploited for its potentials to produce xylanase employing shake and solid-state culture conditions. Different culture conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen requirements for its growth and production of xylanase were optimized. The culture media pH 6.0-7.0 and temperatures 30-35C significantly promoted the growth as well as xylanase secretion into the media. Xylan and peptone were found to be the suitable carbon and nitrogen sources. Among the different agrowastes used, wheat bran was found to be the best substrate for the test fungus for the production of xylanase than sugarcane bagasse and rice bran in solid-state fermentation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 627-631

 

 

Rhizoctonia wilt suppression of brinjal (Solanum melongena L)
and plant growth activity by Bacillus BS2

H P Deka Boruah* & B S Dileep Kumar

Soil Microbiology, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat 785 006, India

 

Received 18 October 2002; revised 4 March 2003

 

 

An antibiotic-producing and hydrogen-cyanide-producing rhizobacteria strain Bacillus BS2 showed a wide range of antifungal activity against many Fusarium sp. and brinjal wilt disease pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Seed bacterization with the strain BS2 promoted seed germination and plant growth in leguminous plants Phaseolus vulgaris and non-leguminous plants Solanum melongena L, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, B. oleraceae var. gongylodes and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill in terms of relative growth rate, shoot height, root length, total biomass production and total chlorophyll content of leaves. Yield of bacterized plants were increased by 10 to 49% compared to uninoculated control plants. Brinjal sapling raised through seed bacterization by the strain BS2 showed a significantly reduced wilt syndrome of brinjal caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Control of wilt disease by the bacterium was due to the production of antibiotic-like substances, whereas plant growth-promotion was due to the activity of hydrogen cyanide. Root colonization study confirmed that the introduced bacteria colonized the roots and occupied 23-25% of total aerobic bacteria, which was confirmed using dual antibiotic (nalidixic acid and streptomycin sulphate) resistant mutant strain. The results obtained through this investigation suggested the potentiality of the strain BS2 to be used as a plant growth promoter and suppressor of wilt pathogen.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 632-635

 

 

Fatty acids derived from a marine crustacean Diogenes avarus (Heller) and their antiangiogenic activity

Sujala Pathare & Madhavi Indap

Department of Zoology, D. G. Ruparel College, Mahim, Mumbai 400016. India

 

Received 20 August 2002; revised 13 March 2003

 

 

An organic extract from a marine crustacean D. avarus was examined for antiangiogenic activity by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The methanol extract (HCM) inhibited angiogenesis in a dose dependent manner. The extract was further fractionated by bioactivity-guided separation to purify the active fractions successively. This resulted in three fractions HCM1, HCM2 and HCM3. The 50% inhibition shown by HCM was 600ng/disc, HCM1 was 100ng/disc and of HCM3 was 2.7ng/disc. HCM3 which was separated by column chromatography and showed single spot on TLC was analysed by GLC and showed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids such as lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic. The antiangiogenic activity of the fatty acids obtained from a marine crustacean is reported for the first time.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 636-640

 

 

Lowering of blood sugar by water extract of Azadirachta indica and
Abroma augusta in diabetes rats

Eshrat Halim M

National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008, India

 

Received 5 July 2002; revised 21 March 2003

 

 

Combination (1:1) of water extract of dried powder of root and leaves (200 mg/kg body wt) of A. augusta and A. indica respectively was administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats once a day for 8 weeks. This treatment caused significant lowering of blood sugar in fasted as estimated by glucose tolerance test. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction in serum lipids. Aqueous extract also decreased the formation of lipid peroxides estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, (TBARS), and increased antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase) in erythrocytes. There was reduction in LPO as TBARS in heart, liver, kidney, and muscles. It also prevented decrease in body weight. Present study showed that Abroma augusta roots and A. indica leaves when given together as water extract had hypoglycaemic action and had better effect than given alone.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 641-644

 

 

Notes

 

Anti-steroidogenic activity of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed in mouse ovary

M Gupta , U K Mazumder, D K Pal* & S Bhattacharya

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India

*Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jharpokharia, Mayurbhanj, Orissa 757 086, India

 

Received 11 May 2002; revised 24 March 2003

 

 

Methanolic extract (ME) of both C.reflexa stem and C.olitorius seed arrested the normal oestrus cycle of adult female mouse and significantly decreased the weight of ovaries and uterus. The cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents in ovaries were significantly increased in the treated mice. Two key enzymes, 5-3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were decreased significantly in ME of both C.reflexa stem and C.olitorius seed after 17 days of treatment. High level of substrates and low level of enzymes indicate the inhibition of steroidogenesis in treated mice and may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 645-648

 

 

Pyramid environment reduces the wound healing suppressant properties of  dexamethasone in albino rats

Surekha Nayak, S Gurumadhva Rao*, K Dilip Murthy, S N Somayaji† & K L Bairy‡

Departments of Physiology, Pharmacology* and Anatomy†, International Centre for Health Sciences

and

Department of Pharmacology‡, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119, India

 

Received 23 January 2003; revised 21 March 2003

 

 

With a view to investigate the contribution and role of environment within a wooden pyramid model on the wound healing suppressant effect of dexamethasone in rats, wound breaking strength, dry weight, hydroxyproline content and histology of granulation tissue of the dead space wound were studied in rats. The results indicate that the environment within the wooden pyramid not only promotes significant wound healing but also reduces the wound healing suppressant effect of dexamethasone. Histological studies also confirmed the results.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 649-651

 

 

Analgesic activity of Piper longum Linn. root

G Vedhanayaki, Geetha V Shastri* & Alice Kuruvilla

Department of Pharmacology, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Coimbatore 641 004, India

 

Received 25 November 2002; revised 18 March 2003

 

 

Piper longum root, commonly called Kandantippili, is traditionally used to treat rheumatism, insomnia, palsy and epilepsy. But a scientific study on its central actions is not available. This study screens P. longum root for opioid type analgesia using rat tail-flick method and for NSAID type analgesia using acetic-acid writhing method. Pentazocine (ip) and ibuprofen (oral) are used as respective drug controls. An aqueous suspension of P. longum root powder is given orally to mice and rat in doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. The delay in reaction time for thermal stimulus in rats and the number of writhings to chemical stimulus in mice are determined in each group. The results are analysed statistically. The 400 and 800 mg/kg doses of P. longum show significant NSAID type of analgesia (P < 0.001). Both Ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) and P. longum (800 mg/kg) show 50% protection against writhing. The delay in reaction time to thermal stimulus was less than 6% for different doses of P. longum as against 100% for pentazocine. This indicates that P. longum root has weak opioid but potent NSAID type of analgesic activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 652-654

 

 

Trace element concentration in various tissues following fluoride
administration to female mice

Maheep Bhatnagara,*, Pratima Raoa, C Bhatnagara & Rekha Bhatnagarb

aDepartment of Zoology, University College of Science, M.L.S.University, Udaipur 313 001, India

bDepartment of Preventive Social Medicine, R.N.T.Medical College, Udaipur 313 001, India

 

Received 10 November 2002, revised 4 March 2003

 

 

Brain, liver, kidney and muscles demonstrate significant changes in essential trace element (Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) level in adult female mice given 30, 60 and 120 ppm sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water. These changes involve excess removal or accumulation of these trace elements in respective tissues. Changes observed were dose dependent and significant at 120ppm NaF concentration in drinking water.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, June 2003, pp. 655-658

 

 

Field evaluation of difethialone, a new second generation anticoagulant
rodenticide in the rice fields

K Saravanan, R Kanakasabai* & K Thiyagesan

PG & Research Department of Zoology & Wildlife Biology, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal 609 305, India

 

Received 2 December 2002; revised 21 February 2003

 

 

A new second generation anticoagulant rodenticide, difethialone (0.0025%), was evaluated in the rice fields at three different cropping stages, viz. Milky, Panicle formation and Panicle maturation, during Kuruvai and Thaladi seasons. The difethailone (0.0025%) yielded satisfactory control success suggesting a great potential as a rodenticide especially in the early stages of rice.

 

 

 

Accepted papers for forthcoming issue(s)

 

Genetic alterations in cervical cancer

Khalida Wani & C K K Nair

 

Circadian clock genes in Drosophila: Recent developments

P Subramanian, E Balamurugan & G Suthakar

 

Inhibition of membrane Na+-K+-ATPase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags

C R Dhanya, A R Indu, K V Deepadev & P A Kurup

 

Performance of Uscana mukerjii (Mani) for the control of Callosobruchus maculates (Fab ) and allied bruchid species

Seema Sood, H R Pajani & P K Tewari

 

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of essential oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth

Ramesh B Agarwal & Vinod D Rangari

 

A protocol for shoot multiplication from foliar meristem of Vanda spathulata (L ) Spreng

S William Decruse, A Gangaprasad, S Seeni & V Sarojini Menon

 

Phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic and free-living cyanobacterial cultures using DNA amplification fingerprinting

B Jeberlin Prabina, K Kumar & S Kannaiyan

 

Lupeol, a triterpene, prevents free radical mediated macromolecular damage and alleviates benzoyl peroxide induced biochemical alterations in murine skin

Sarwat Sultana, Mohammad Saleem, Sonia Sharma & Naghma Khan

 

Brain tumor inhibition in experimental model by restorative immunotherapy with a corpuscular antigen

Soven Kumar Gangopaddhyay, Susobhan Sarkar, Zarina Begum, Swapna Chaudhri & Samaresh Chaudhuri

 

Larval pupation site preference in few species of Drosophila

N B Vandal, S A Modago & N Shivanna

 

Influence of nutritional supplements on keratinolysis by Amycolatopsis keratinophila

A A Al-Musallam, S S Al-Zarban, H K Al-Sarawi, R M Kroppenstedt, E Stackebrandt & Y A Fassi

 

Validation of qualitative test for phosphine gas in human tissues

Anupuma Raina, H C Shrivastava, Nitin Mathur & T D Dogra

 

Interrenal responses to high ambient temperature in soft-shelled turtle, Lissemys punctata punctata

Prajna Paramita Ray & B R Maiti

 

Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd ) stem extract in male rats

R S Gupta & Aruna Sharma

Chronic low dose exposure to hydrogen peroxide changes sensitivity of V70 cells to different damaging agents

K Bose (Girigoswami), G Bhaumik & R Ghosh

 

Impact of CdCl2 on biochemical changes in planaria, Dugesia bengalensis, Kawakatsu

Shyamal Mitra, Suprakash Kar & Ajit Kumar Aditya

 

Isolation of etiological agent of hydropericardium syndrome in chicken embryo liver cell culture and its serological characterization

Rajesh Kumar, Rajesh Chandra & S K Shukla

 

Regional variations in fibre growth dynamics of myotomal and caudal fin muscles in relation to body size of a freshwater teleost, Barbus sarana (Cuv Val )

Swati Pandya, Kamakshi Arora, Sudipta Misra & Rahul Kundu

 

FK506 as effective adjunct to L-dopa in reserpine-induced catalepsy in rats

Amanpreet Singh, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Bacterial dynamics associated with algal antibacterial substances during post harvest desiccation process of Sargassum stolonifolium Phang et Yoshida

Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan

 

Curing of symbiotic plasmid of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp  rengei isolated from Astragalus sinicus

D Balachandar, S Kannaiyan, H Ono & Y Murooka

 

Efficacies of plant phenolic compounds on sodium butyrate induced anti-tumour activity

M A Indap & M S Barkume

 

Free radical scavenging potential of Picorrhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth

R Govindarajan, M Vijayakumar, A K S Rawat & Shanta Mehrotra

 

Inhibition of methanogenesis by interaction of aluminium ion with co-factor, F-420, in Methanosarcina barkeri

B D Chattopadhyay & A R Thakur

 

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in the blood of young rats subjected to chronic fluoride toxicity

Y M Shivarajashankara, A R Shivashankara, P  Gopalakrishna Bhat & S  Hanumanth Rao

 

Biosorption of Baftkar textile effluent

Mahnaz Mazaheri Assadi, Maryam Mazaheri, Taher Nejad Satari, Ashrafulsadat Noohi, Manoochehr Shahamat &       Morris Levin

 

Effect of hypothyroidism induced by 6N-propylthiouracil and its reversal by T3 on rat heart superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation

S Chattopadhyay, G Zaidi, K Das & G B N Chainy

 

Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: Influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect

S S Ghumare & S N Mukherjee

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Ahmed S B

598

Lochan Rajeev

581

 

 

 

 

Bairy K L

645

Mahajan Sapna

598

Bapat M M

614

Malarvizhi K

620

Behari Jitendra

581

Mazumder U K

641

Bhatnagar C

652

Murthy K Dilip

645

Bhatnagar Maheep

652

Murugesan K

620

Bhatnagar Rekha

652

 

 

Bhattacharya S

641

Nath A

598

Boruah H P Deka

627

Nayak Surekha

645

 

 

 

 

Das Jayanta Kumar

603

Pal D K

641

Dogra Ram K S

592

Parthiban K V

574

 

 

Pathare Sujala

632

Ellaiah P

570

Patyal S K

598

 

 

Poduri C D

549

Garg S R

609

Prabhakar T

570

Gupta M

641

 

 

Gupta P K

587

Rao S Gurumadhva

645

 

 

Rao Pratima

652

Halim Eshrat M

636

 

 

 

 

Saravanan K

655

Indap Madhavi

632

Shakoor A

587

Jaya Prakash G

570

Shastri Geetha V

649

Jayanand

581

Singh Randhir

609

 

 

Somayaji S N

645

Kalaichelvan P T

620

Stevenson Abraham F G

563

Kanakasabai R

655

Surti A M

614

Kataria M

587

 

 

Khanna Santosh

592

Thiyagesan K

655

Khuda-Bukhsh A R

603

Tyagi Manoj G

574

Kumar B S Dileep

627

 

 

Kuruvilla Alice

649

V Saisha

570

 

 

Vedhanayaki G

649