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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  41(11)  1213-1356  (2003)

VOLUME 41

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2003

  

CONTENTS

Review Articles

Natural killer cells in HIV-1 infection: Role of NK cell-mediated non-cytolytic mechanisms in pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection

Shyam Kottilil

 

1219

 

 

Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis: Risk factors, prevention and management

Z Hussain, P Kar & S A Husain

1226

 

 

Internet  Implications for the future of phytopharmacological research

K K Mueen Ahmed, A C Rana, V K Dixit & B G Shivananda

1233

 

 

Bioremediation of paper and pulp mill effluents

K Murugesan

1239

 

 

Methodology/Technique

 

Localization of bypass-induced changes in flow in coronary artery models

M Singh & D Liepsch

1249

 

 

Papers

 

Enhancement of metastatic potential of mouse B16-melanoma cells to lung after treatment with gangliosides of B-16-melanoma cells of higher metastatic potential to lung

S Saha & K C Mohanty

 

1253

 

 

Effect of alcohol on neurons of iso-cortex  A histomorphometric study

N K Mitra & S K Ghosh

1259

 

 

FK506 as effective adjunct to L-dopa in reserpine-induced catalepsy in rats

Amanpreet Singh, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

1264

 

 

Evaluation of cognitive function of fluoxetine, sertraline and tianeptine in isolation and chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive Wistar rats

M Ramanathan, S N Ashok Kumar & B Suresh

 

1269

 

 

Suicidal oxidative stress induced by certain antioxidants

Ligy Koshy, B S Dwarakanath, H G Raj, R Chandra & T Lazar Mathew

1273

 

 

Central inhibitory effect of Moringa oleifera root extract: Possible role of

neurotransmitters

Kausik Ray, Rimi Hazra & Debjani Guha

 

1279

 

 

Effect of Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bael) fruit extract on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin diabetic rats

Kamalakkannan N & Stanely Mainzen Prince P

 

1285

 

 

Effect of housing rats within a pyramid on stress parameters

Surekha Bhat, Guruprasad Rao, K Dilip Murthy & P Gopalakrishna Bhat

1289

 

 

Effect of a polyherbal formulation, Ambrex, on butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) induced toxicity in rats

R S Devi, Shoba Narayan, K Vijai Mohan, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

1294

 

 

Effect of arsenic on cell growth of the cellular slime mould, Dictyostelium discoideum

S Mukhopadhyay & S Chatterjee

1300

 

 

Oxygen uptake and filtration rate as animal health biomarker in Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck)

Shamik Das & B B Jana

 

1306

 

 

In vitro control of fasciation in proliferating nucellar embryos of Mangifera indica L. var totapari red small for cloning

H C Chaturvedi, S Agnihotri, M Sharma, A K Sharma, M Jain & A Chourasia

 

1311

 

 

Notes

 

Modulatory influence of Brassica compestris Linn var sarson on phase-II carcinogen metabolizing enzymes and glutathione levels in mice

Samir Qiblawi, A K Khan, A R Rao, R Prashar & Ashok Kumar

 

1317

 

 

Influence of acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in healthy rabbits

Amit Kondal & S K Garg

 

1322

 

 

Chemopreventive action of Phyllanthus urinaria Linn on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice

R Bharali, J Tabassum & M R H Azad

 

1325

 

 

Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures

Raj K Jaggi, Reecha Madaan & Balbir Singh

1329

 

 

Changes in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in kidney of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats

Bilvadaa U Sawant, Ganeshsunder D Nadkarni, Usha R Thakare, Lebana J Joseph & M G R Rajan

 

1334

 

 

In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa Linn on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: An insect of public health concern

Bishnupada Roy & B K Dutta

 

1338

 

 

Dietary requirement of tryptophan for growth and survival of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchanan) fry

S Benakappa & T J Varghese

 

1342

 

 

Occurrence and cross infectivity of granulovirus of field bean pod borer
A
disura atkinsoni Moore

K Narayanan

 

1346

 

 

In vitro micropropagation of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg  A medicinal plant

M Johnson & V S Manickam

 

1349

 

 

News Scan

1352

Yeast made somewhat human to produce human proteins

New insights into DNA transcription

G S Randhawa & Shubha G

 

 

Author Index

Keyword Inedx
 

 

 

Review Articles

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1219-1225

 

 

Natural killer cells in HIV-1 infection:
Role of NK cell-mediated non-cytolytic mechanisms in pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection

Shyam Kottilil

 

Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit both cytolytic and non-cytolytic effector functions against HIV-infected targets. Their precise role in immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection is yet to be fully understood. This review addresses the non-cytolytic functions exhibited by NK cells, their potential role in pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and the effect of HIV-1 viremia on NK cell functions. Activated NK cells are capable of secreting CC-chemokines and suppressing HIV-1 replication in a non-cytolytic fashion. However, HIV-1 viremia suppresses the ability of NK cells to secrete CC-chemokines. Suppression of HIV-1 viremia by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) restores the ability of NK cells to secrete CC-chemokines and suppress endogenous HIV-1 replication by non-cytolytic mechanisms. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in HIV-1-NK cell interactions would be helpful in delineating novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1226-1232

 

 

Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis: Risk factors,
prevention and management

Z Hussain, P Kar & S A Husain

 

Apart from infectious or viral hepatitis, other most common non-infectious causes of hepatitis are alcohol, cholestatic, drugs and toxic materials. The most common mode that leads to liver injuries is antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis. The severity of drug-induced liver injury varies from minor nonspecific changes in hepatic structure to fulminant hepatic failure, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Patients receiving antitubercular drug frequently develop acute or chronic hepatitis. The time required for the metabolites to reach hepatotoxic levels is much earlier with isoniazid plus rifampicin treatment than isoniazid alone and this has been shown to be synergistic rather than additive. Antituberculosis drug (ATT)-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 (CYP2E1) is constitutively expressed in the liver. Recent studies show that polymorphism of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genes and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are the major susceptibility risk factors for ATT-induced hepatitis. The hepatic NAT and GST are involved in the metabolism of several carcinogenic arylamines and drugs. The NAT2 enzyme has a genetic polymorphism in human. N- acetyltransferase 2 genes (NAT2) have been identified to be responsible for genetic polymorphism of slow and rapid acetylation in humans. Slow acetylators of NAT2 prove to develop more severe hepatotoxicity than rapid acetylators making it a significant risk factor. Deficiency of GST activity, because of homozygous null mutations at GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci, may modulate susceptibility to drug and xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity. Polymorphisms at GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 loci had been linked to various forms of liver injury, including hepatocellular carcinoma.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1233-1238

 

 

Internet  Implications for the future of phytopharmacological research

K K Mueen Ahmed, A C Rana, V K Dixit & B G Shivananda

 

Modern information technologies and world wide communications through the Internet play a significant role in medicinal plant research across the globe. The phenomenal growth in Internet usage is largely due to the success of World Wide Web. Various useful websites and databases on phytopharmacology are already in the “Net” and many more are being added constantly. The future of phytopharmacological research is handling the existing information in proper way. In this review of the Internet, compilation of important websites is expected to stimulate, instruct and update academicians and researchers involved in phytopharmacological research.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1239-1248

 

 

Bioremediation of paper and pulp mill effluents

K Murugesan

 

Pulp and paper mill effluents pollute water, air and soil, causing a major threat to the environment. Several methods have been attempted by various researchers throughout the world for the removal of colour from pulp and paper mill effluents. The biological colour removal process uses several classes of microorganisms  bacteria, algae and fungi  to degrade the polymeric lignin derived chromophoric material. White rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Corius versicolor, Trametes versicolor etc., are efficient in decolourizing paper and pulp mill effluents. Gliocladium virens, a saprophytic soil fungus decolourised paper and pulp mill effluents by 42% due to the production of hemicellulase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase.

 

 

 

Methodology/Technique

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1249-1252

 

 

 

Localization of bypass-induced changes in flow in
coronary artery models

M Singh & D Liepsch

 

Right coronary artery bypass restores blood flow through heart tissues. This also induces changes in flow leading to its failure. By this work the sites which are prone to such changes are localized. The bypass models are developed from transparent silicon rubber of elastic properties similar to arterial tissues. Flow visualization is carried out by photoelasticity technique by using dilute solution of vanadium pentoxide. This analysis carried out under pulsatile flow conditions shows that the proximal stenotic region continues to contribute to the alteration in flow in the hood region of the bypass. Thus making its proximal and distal regions prone to flow-induced changes, which may lead to its blockage over the long duration.

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1253-1258

 

 

Enhancement of metastatic potential of mouse
B16-melanoma cells to lung after treatment with gangliosides of B-16-melanoma cells of higher metastatic potential to lung

S Saha & K C Mohanty

 

Mouse B16LuF1 melanoma cells of lower metastatic potential to lung were treated in vitro with same concentration (50 µM) of gangliosides isolated from B16LuF5, B16LuF9 or B16LuF10 cells with higher metastatic potential to lung (LuF1< LuF5< LuF9< LuF10) and injected to groups of normal mice through tail vein. The number of metastatic tumor nodules formed in lung increased in mice receiving B16LuF5, B16LuF9 and B16LuF10-ganglioside-treated B16LuF1 cells compared to mice receiving B16LuF1 cells without any ganglioside treatment. Metastatic potential of B16LuF1 cells gradually increased after treatment with gangliosides of B16-melanoma cells of increasing metastatic potential to lung. The six major gangliosides isolated from B16LuF10 cells corresponded with standard gangliosides GT1b, GD1b, GD1a, GM1, GM2 and GM3 respectively on TLC-analysis. When B16LuF1 cells were treated in vitro with each of these six individual gangliosides and injected to groups of normal mice through tail vein the number of tumor nodules formed in lung varied. The four groups of mice receiving B16LuF1 cells treated with each of four gangliosides corresponding to GT1b, GD1b, GD1a or GM1 produced lung metastasis comparable to that of untreated control group. Only remaining two gangliosides which corresponded with standard gangliosides GM2 and GM3 increased metastatic potential of B16LuF1 cells. Thus, these results indicated that gangliosides GM2 and GM3 of B16-melanoma cells are definitely associated with metastatic potential of these tumor cells.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1259-1263

 

 

Effect of alcohol on neurons of iso-cortex  
A histomorphometric study

N K Mitra & S K Ghosh

 

Received 13 January 2003; revised 2 June 2003

Effect of chronic intake of alcohol and its subsequent withdrawal was studied in albino mice on the layers of neurons of the iso-cortex. Neuronal density per mm2 of section in different layers of iso-cortex was counted and compared in 3 groups of animals (control, ethanol fed and withdrawal). Qualitative changes on nissl granules of neurons and myelinated fibres were also studied. Mice fed with 10% ethanol v/v ad libitum for 6 months showed loss of nissl granules and nucleolus and discontinuity of nuclear membrane. Quantitatively, significant reduction in neuronal density (P < 0.001) was observed in layers II+III, IV and V neurons of iso-cortex. Withdrawal of ethanol for 2 months showed continued reduction of counts of neuronal density in layers II+III and V only whereas reversal of count was found significantly (P < 0.001) in layer IV of iso-cortex. Qualitatively, only few neurons showed prominent nissl granules after withdrawal of ethanol. More afferent synaptic connection in layer IV may be suggested as probable factor helping relative replenishment of neuronal count after withdrawal of alcohol.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1264-1268

 

 

FK506 as effective adjunct to L-dopa in reserpine-induced catalepsy in rats

Amanpreet Singh, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

Reserpine-induced catalepsy is a widely accepted animal model of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study reserpine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) 20 hr and alpha-mehyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT; 200 mg/kg, ip), one hour before the experiment induced significant catalepsy in rats as assessed by bar test. There was a significant increase in the time spent on the bar in bar test as compared to the control untreated rats. L-dopa (100 mg/kg, ip) and carbidopa (10 mg/kg, ip) combination, a conventional therapy was less effective in reversing reserpine-induced catalepsy. Pretreatment with FK506, a neuroprotectant (0.5-2 mg/kg, po) not only dose dependently reduced the catalepsy in reserpine-treated rats but a lower dose (1 mg /kg) potentiated the motor stimulant actions of sub threshold dose of L-dopa (100 mg/kg, ip) and carbidopa (10 mg/kg, ip) combination. Anticataleptic effect of FK506 was blocked dose dependently by specific D2 receptor blocker sulpiride (25-100 mg/kg, ip). In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that FK506 has an indirect modulatory action on the dopamine D2 receptors. FK506 being a neuroprotectant, could be used as an effective adjunct to L-dopa for the treatment of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1269-1272

 

 

Evaluation of cognitive function of fluoxetine, sertraline
and tianeptine in isolation and chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive Wistar rats

M Ramanathan, S N Ashok Kumar & B Suresh

 

Depressive illness is generally associated with cognitive impairment. Serotonergic selective antidepressant drugs, fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER) and tianeptine (TIA), are claimed to have less or no effect on cholinergic system, the key system involved in memory. In the present study, these drugs were evaluated for their influence on cognitive behavior in both depressive and non-depressive animals. Depression was induced by two models, (i) 60 days social isolation of litter; and ii) by applying chronic unpredictable mild stress for 21 days. Depression in the rats was confirmed by behavioral despair test. Transfer latency on elevated plus maze and inflexion ratio in passive avoidance step through behavior were employed to assess learning and memory. The results indicated that administration of fluoxetine; sertraline and tianeptine attenuated the cognitive deficits observed in depressive rats. In non-depressive rats these drugs produced retention deficit, which was found to be parameter and model dependent. Data suggested that, FLX and SER (SSRI’s) effectively attenuated the isolation-induced depression and cognitive deficit, whereas TIA (SSRE) produced better effect in stress-induced depressive conditions. It was concluded that behavioral profiles of fluoxetine, sertraline and tianeptine on cognition were model and parameter dependent.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1273-1278

 

 

Suicidal oxidative stress induced by certain antioxidants

Ligy Koshy, B S Dwarakanath, H G Raj, R Chandra & T Lazar Mathew

 

Well known antioxidants-coumarins (7,8-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin-DHMC and 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methyl coumarin-DAMC) and flavonoids (quercetin-Q and quercetin penta-acetate-QPA) were investigated for their pro-oxidant effects in two human tumor cell lines. The breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468) was found to be more sensitive to treatment by the drugs-DAMC, Q and QPA at 10 mM than the glioma cell line (U-87MG), while DHMC was non toxic in both cell lines at this concentration. In MDA-MB-468 distinct growth inhibition was observed by 48 hr post treatment. Paradoxically, an increase in the formazan production was revealed by MTT assay at this time indicating an increase in the production of free radicals. An increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also confirmed by DCFH-DA assay. In cells treated with DAMC, Q and QPA an increase in the percentage of cells with the hypodiploid DNA content was suggestive of apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that an increase in oxidative stress caused by the pro-oxidant action of these drugs is responsible for cell death.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1279-1284

 

 

Central inhibitory effect of Moringa oleifera root extract:
Possible role of neurotransmitters

Kausik Ray, Rimi Hazra & Debjani Guha

 

Effect of chronic treatment of standardized aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera (MO) root (100, 200, 300, 350, 400, 450 mg/kg; po) on penicillin (PCN) induced convulsion, locomotor behaviour, brain serotonin(5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) level was studied in Holtzman strain adult albino rats. The result revealed that pretreatment with MO inhibited PCN-induced seizure and markedly reduced locomotor activity. Chronic treatment with MO significantly increased the 5-HT and decreased the DA level in cerebral cortex (CC), midbrain (MB), caudate nucleus (CN) and cerebellum (CB). NE level was significantly decreased in CC but no appreciable change was observed in MB, CB and CN. Thus the central inhibitory effect of MO is discussed in the light of the disturbed balance between 5-HT, DA and NE.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1285-1288

 

 

Effect of Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bael) fruit extract on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin diabetic rats

Kamalakkannan N & Stanely Mainzen Prince P

 

A study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-lipid peroxidative activity of an aqueous extract of A. marmelos fruits (AMFEt) in streptozotocin diabetic rats in heart and pancreas. Oral administration of AMFEt for 30 days (125 and 250 mg kg-1 body weight twice daily) produced a significant decrease in the elevated levels of peroxidation products, viz. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides in the tissues of diabetic rats. The depressed activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and lowered glutathione content in the heart and pancreas of diabetic rats were found to increase on treatment with AMFEt. AMFEt at a dose of 250 mg kg-1 was more effective than glibenclamide (300 mg kg-1) and both reversed all the values significantly. Thus AMFEt exhibits anti-oxidative activity in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1289-1293

 

Effect of housing rats within a pyramid on stress parameters

Surekha Bhat, Guruprasad Rao, K Dilip Murthy & P Gopalakrishna Bhat

 

The Giza pyramids of Egypt have been the subject of much research. Pyramid models with the same base to height ratio as of the Great Pyramid of Giza, when aligned on a true north-south axis, are believed to generate, transform and transmit energy. Research done with such pyramid models has shown that they induced greater relaxation in human subjects, promoted better wound healing in rats and afforded protection against stress-induced neurodegenerative changes in mice. The present study was done to assess the effects of housing Wistar rats within the pyramid on the status of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in their erythrocytes and cortisol levels in their plasma. Rats were housed in cages under standard laboratory conditions. Cages were left in the open (normal control), under a wooden pyramid model (experimental rats) or in a cubical box of comparable dimensions (6 hr/day for 14 days). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde and plasma cortisol levels were significantly decreased in rats kept within the pyramid as compared to the normal control and those within the square box. Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the rats kept in the pyramid as compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters between the normal control and rats kept in the square box. The results showed that exposure of adult female Wistar rats to pyramid environment reduces stress, oxidative stress and increases antioxidant defense in them.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1294-1299

 

 

Effect of a polyherbal formulation, Ambrex, on butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) induced toxicity in rats

R S Devi, Shoba Narayan, K Vijai Mohan, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

Effect of polyherbal formulation Ambrex was evaluated in butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) induced toxicity of lungs and liver in rats. Toxicity was produced by administering BHT (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 days. Lung damage was evidenced by elevated levels of broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BAL) parameters such as protein, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Liver damage was proved by elevated levels of serum protein and markers such as LDH, ALP, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), decreased level of lipid peroxides (LPO) in serum and glutathione (GSH) in liver. Administration of aqueous suspension of Ambrex (50 mg/kg orally) retained these elevated levels of BAL-protein, lactate, LDH, ALP, ACP, G6PDH and serum-protein, LDH, ALP, AST and ALT at near normal values. Decreased level of liver GSH was retained at near normalcy in Ambrex pretreated BHT-administered animals. There was no change in liver LPO in all the four groups.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1300-1305

 

 

Effect of arsenic on cell growth of the cellular slime mould,
Dictyostelium discoideum

S Mukhopadhyay & S Chatterjee

 

The growing D. discoideum cells were killed in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to 100 and 140ppm of arsenic (As2O3) at mid-log phase for 20 min. Reduced plaque sizes and changed cell and colony morphologies were observed in the treated cells. Endocytotic functions (both phagocytosis and pinocytosis) were also inhibited in the treated cells, Arsenic treated cell showed a lower DNA and protein synthetic activities. These findings are discussed in relation to known mechanism of action of the heavy metal on growth-related cellular functions.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1306-1310

 

 

Oxygen uptake and filtration rate as animal health biomarker in Lamellidens marginalis (Lamarck)

Shamik Das & B B Jana

 

The freshwater bivalve, L. marginalis was experimentally exposed to 10 and 30 ppm concentrations of CdCl2 to examine filtration rate, oxygen uptake and glycogen level of liver and gills for health assessment for their reuse in the reclamation of cadmium intoxicated environments. In situ experiment was also performed for better appraisal of the filtration rate in the lake. Oxygen uptake in the treated group exceeded that of control by 15-22% during the early 24 hr after cadmium exposure, but followed an essential decline (23-30%) thereafter. The reduction of filtration rate ranged from 12-62% in laboratory to 83-85% in field trials. At the tissue level, glycogen content was reduced by 61-72% in liver and 52-63% in gill. In both tissues, glycogen content was inversely proportional to the cadmium contents of the animal. Critical appraisal of data suggests that the threshold values of cadmium in gill and liver were 50-80 µg/g dw for oxygen uptake and 50-60 µg/g for filtration rate because of marked reduction of these parameters beyond the values of cadmium. It is concluded that filtration rate, oxygen uptake of the freshwater bivalve, L. marginalis can be used as biomarker for animal health assessment and for possible reuse of the stock animals.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1311-1316

 

 

In vitro control of fasciation in proliferating nucellar embryos of Mangifera indica L. var totapari red small for cloning

H C Chaturvedi, S Agnihotri, M Sharma, A K Sharma, M Jain & A Chourasia

 

Nucellar tissue contained in ovular halves of young fruits of Mangifera indica L. totapari red small, a dwarfing rootstock, differentiated fasciated embryonal structures in presence of 6-benzylaminopurine [BAP(0.15 mg l-1)], 6-(g-g-dimethylallylamino) purine [2iP(0.15 mg l-1)] and indole-3-acetic acid [(IAA(0.5 mg l-1)] incorporated in the semisolid medium during 50-60 days. Due to embryonal fasciation, hardly 2-3 well-formed embryos could be obtained per culture of proliferating embryos. Of the 3 ethylene inhibitors [L-a-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)-glycine-HCl (AVG), AgNO3 and salicylic acid (SA)] used, embryonal fasciation and necrosis of intervening tissue was completely controlled by 3-4 subcultures of fasciated mass of embryos under the influence of AVG (0.05 mg l-1) in presence of adenine sulphate [AdS (50 mg l-1)] incorporated in the same medium. Almost synchronized development of isolated embryos, measuring ca 2 cm in length, was observed in a different medium used in liquid stationary state and supplemented, particularly with stress-producing substances [abscisic acid (ABA, 0.01 mg l-1); and polyethylene glycol (PEG, 100 mg l-1)] besides certain other modifications. About 34% convertibility of processed embryos was obtained during a period of 90 days. The plantlets had well-developed roots along with laterals which were longer than leafy shoots. In vitro raised plants survived ex vitro for about 2 months.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1317-1321

 

 

Notes

 

Modulatory influence of Brassica compestris Linn
var sarson on phase-II carcinogen metabolizing enzymes
and glutathione levels in mice

Samir Qiblawi, A K Khan, A R Rao, R Prashar & Ashok Kumar

 

The present study reports the modulatory influence of 95% ethanolic extract from the seeds of B. compestris on the activity of phase-II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the skin, lung, kidney and forestomach of the mouse. Oral treatment with the seed extract at 800 mg/kg body wt. for 15 days significantly elevated GST in lung and forestomach and DT-diaphorase in forestomach and skin and GSH level in lung, kidney forestomach and skin. The lower dose 400 mg/kg body wt was effective only in inducing GST and DT-diaphorase activity in forestomach and reduced glutathione level in lung. The findings suggest that B. compestris seed extract may block or suppress the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis at least in part, by inducing metabolic detoxification of the carcinogen.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1322-1324

 

 

Influence of acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on pharmacokinetics
of ibuprofen in healthy rabbits

Amit Kondal & S K Garg

 

The study was aimed at determining the effect of Coca-Cola on the pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in rabbits. In a cross-over study, ibuprofen was given orally in a dose of 56 mg/kg, prepared as 0.5% suspension in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and blood samples (1 ml) were drawn at different time intervals from 0-12 hr. After a washout period of 7 days, Coca-Cola in a dose of (5 ml/kg) was administered along with ibuprofen (56 mg/kg) and blood samples were drawn from 0-12 hr. To these rabbits, 5 ml/kg Coca-Cola was administered once daily for another 7 days. On 8th day, Coca-Cola (5 ml/kg) along with ibuprofen (56 mg/kg), prepared as a suspension was administered and blood samples (1 ml each) were drawn at similar time intervals. Plasma was separated and assayed for ibuprofen by HPLC technique and various pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The Cmax and AUC0-a of ibuprofen were significantly increased after single and multiple doses of Coca-Cola, thereby indicating increased extent of absorption of ibuprofen. The results warrant the reduction of ibuprofen daily dosage, frequency when administered with Coca-Cola.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1325-1328

  

Chemopreventive action of Phyllanthus urinaria Linn on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice

R Bharali, J Tabassum & M R H Azad

 

The inhibition of tumor incidence by hydro-alcoholic extract of the whole plant of P. urinaria was evaluated in 6-7 weeks old female albino mice on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (50 mg/50ml of acetone), and 2 weeks later, promoted by repeated application of croton oil
(1% in acetone/ three times a week) till the end of the experiment (15 weeks). Topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight/ day for 15 weeks at the peri-initiational stage (i.e., 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application), promotional stage (i.e., from the time of croton oil application) and both peri and post-initiational stages (i.e., 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the end of the experiment) on the shaven backs of the mice recorded a significant reduction in tumor incidence to 50, 33.3 and 16.7% respectively in comparison to the control (i.e., the mice treated with DMBA and croton oil only) where tumor incidence was found to be 81.8%. The average number of papillomas per mouse was also significantly reduced. The results suggest a possible chemopreventive property of P. urinaria against DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1329-1333

 

 

Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures

Raj K Jaggi, Reecha Madaan & Balbir Singh

 

Callus cultures from stem of O. sanctum were induced on slightly modified Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium and supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1-2 ppm) and kinetin (kn, 1 ppm). Different extractives of stem, leaf and stem callus of O. sanctum were tested for anticonvulsant activity against standard drug phenytoin using maximal electroshock (MES) model. Ethanol and chloroform extractives of stem, leaf and stem calli were effective in preventing tonic convulsions induced by transcorneal electroshock.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1334-1337

 

 

Changes in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in kidney of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats

Bilvadaa U Sawant, Ganeshsunder D Nadkarni, Usha R Thakare, Lebana J Joseph & M G R Rajan

 

Kidney weight was significantly decreased in hypothyroidism (induced by Na131I administration) and increased in hyperthyroidism (induced by thyroxine treatment) as compared to control in female Wistar rats. The tissue lipid peroxidation level remained unchanged in hyperthyroid rats but significantly increased in hypothyroid rats. Superoxide dismutase was decreased in both experimental groups but more so in hyperthyroid rats. Catalase was reduced significantly in hyperthyroid rats but remained unaffected in hypothyroid rats. Tissue glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was increased while reduced glutathione levels remained unaltered in both hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. Plasma GPx activity was significantly low in both the hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rats. The results suggest alterations in the oxidative stress in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid rat kidneys with concomitant changes of free radical scavengers.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1338-1341

 

 

In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of
Cannabis sativa Linn on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: An insect of public health concern

Bishnupada Roy and B K Dutta

 

Leaf extract of C. sativa causes paralysis leading to death in larvae of C. samoensis. The extract brought a drastic change in the morphology of sensilla trichoidea and the general body cuticle. The larvae exposed to the leaf extract also showed a significant reduction in the concentration of Mg and Fe, while Mn showed only slight average increase. Since the sensilla trichoidea has nerve connection, it is expected that the toxic principle of the leaf extract has affected the central nervous system. The significant reduction of the level of Fe indicates that the extract could cause the reduction in oxygen binding capacity of the haemolymph, thereby acting as a respiratory poison in addition to its known role as a neurotoxic substance.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1342-1345

 

 

Dietary requirement of tryptophan for growth and
survival of the Indianmajor carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton-Buchanan) fry

S Benakappa & T J Varghese

 

The experimental diets (40% protein) contained graded levels of tryptophan (0.60, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75%) of dietary protein. Each test diet was fed to triplicate groups of mrigal fry twice daily at 10% of the total biomass for 8 weeks. The dietary tryptophan requirement was estimated by plotting weight gain against dietary levels of tryptophan using two separate regression equations, the point of intersection of two equations was taken as optimum level, which occurred at 0.48% of the diet (1.20% of dietary protein).

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1346-1348

 

 

Occurrence and cross infectivity of granulovirus of
field bean pod borer Adisura atkinsoni Moore

K Narayanan

 

A granulovirus (GV) was isolated from the field–bean pod borer, Adisura atkinsoni. Electron microscopic observation showed capsule or granular shaped occlusion bodies. The virus was highly virulent against second instar larvae when tested at 1 ´ 106 occlusions/larva through food surface (pod/seed) contamination technique. The incubation period ranged from 6-10 days in the case of second instar larvae. In contrast to green coloured healthy larvae, GV infected A. atkinsoni became brownish/ pale white in colour mostly due to accumulation of large number of occlusion bodies. Study on the cross infectivity of A. atkinsoni GV to gram caterpillar, Helicoverpa armigera revealed the high susceptibility of H. armigera to A. atkinsoni GV, thereby widening the scope of controlling both the species on the same cropping system. This is the first record of GV from A. atkinsoni from India.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1349-1351

 

 

In vitro micropropagation of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg —A medicinal plant

M Johnson & V S Manickam

 

Micropropagation of B. montanum was achieved on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium augmented with BAP using nodal segments. Maximum number of shoots (3.4 ± 0.25) were found in MS medium fortified with BAP (3.10µM). In vitro raised shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium augmented with various concentrations and combination of auxins viz., IAA, IBA and NAA. Maximum number of roots were observed on half strength MS medium fortified with IBA
(9.84 µM) combined with NAA (5.37µM).

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, November 2003, pp. 1352-1353

 

 

 

News Scan

 

Yeast made somewhat human to produce human proteins
New insights into DNA transcription

G S Randhawa & Shubha G

 

 
 
 Author Index

 

Agnihotri S

1311

Jaggi Raj K

1329

Qiblaw Samir

1317

Ahmed Mueen K K

1233

Jain M

1311

 

 

Ashok Kumar S N

1269

Jana B B

1306

Raj H G

1273

Azad M R H

1325

Johnson M

1349

Rajan M G R

1334

 

 

Joseph Lebana J

1334

Ramanathan M

1269

Benakappa S

1342

 

 

Rana A C

1233

Bharali R

1325

Kamalakkannan N

1285

Randhawa G S

1352

Bhat Gopalakrishna P

1289

Kar P

1226

Rao A R

1317

Bhat Surekha

1289

Khan A K

1317

Rao Guruprasad

1289

 

 

Kondal Amit

1322

Ray Kausik

1279

Chandra R

1273

Koshy Ligy

1273

Roy Bishnupada

1338

Chatterjee S

1300

Kottilil Shyam

1219

 

 

Chaturvedi H C

1311

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

1264

Sabitha K E

1294

Chourasia A

1311

Kumar Ashok

1317

Saha S

1253

 

 

 

 

Sawant Bilvadaa U

1334

Das Shamik

1306

Liepsch D

1249

Sharma A K

1311

Devi R S

1294

 

 

Sharma M

1311

Devi Shyamala C S

1294

Madaan Reecha

1329

Shivananda B G

1233

Dixit V K

1233

Manickam V S

1349

Shubha G

1352

Dutta B K

1338

Mathew Lazar T

1273

Singh Amanpreet

1264

Dwarakanath B S

1273

Mitra N K

1259

Singh Balbir

1329

 

 

Mohanty K C

1253

Singh M

1249

Garg S K

1322

Mukhopadhyay S

1300

Stanely Mainzen Prince P

1285

Ghosh S K

1259

Murthy Dilip K

1289

Suresh B

1269

Guha Debjani

1279

Murugesan K

1239

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tabassum J

1325

Hazra Rimi

1279

Nadkarni Ganeshsunder D

1334

Thakare Usha R

1334

Husain S A

1226

Naidu Pattipati S

1264

 

 

Hussain Z

1226

Narayan Shoba

1294

Varghese T J

1342

 

 

Narayanan K

1346

Vijai Mohan K

1294

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prashar R

1317

 

 

 

 

 

 Keyword Index

 

 

Adisura atkinsoni

1346

Dietary requirement

1342

Microbes in bioremediation

1239

Aegle marmelos

1285

Drug-induced hepatitis

1226

Minopropagation

1349

Alcohol ethyl

1259

Dwarfing rootstock

1311

Modulatory influence

1317

Ambrex

1294

 

 

Moringa oleifera

1279

Animal health

1306

Ethylene inhibitors

3311

Multiple shoots

1349

Anticonvulsant activity

1329

Flow visualization technique

1249

 

 

Anti-lipid peroxidase

1285

Fluoxetine

1269

Neuronal count

1259

Antioxidant enzymes

1334

Free radical scavengers

1334

Neurotransmitters

1279

Antioxidants

1273

 

 

NK cells

1219

Anti-oxidative

1285

Gangliosides

1253

Nucellar embryos

1311

Antituberculosis drug

1226

Glutathione peroxidase

1289

 

 

Arsenic

1300

Glutathione

1289, 1317

Ocimum sanctum

1329

Arterial bypass

1249

Granulovirus

1346

Oxidative stress

1273

 

 

Gross-infectivity

1346

Oxygen uptake

1306

B16-melanoma

1253

 

 

 

 

BAL (Bronchoalveolar lavage)

1294

Hepatic drug metabolism

1226

Papermill effluents

1239

Baliospermum montanum

1349

Hepatotoxicity

1294

Parkinson’s disease

 1264

BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene)

1294

HIV-1

1219

Pharmacokinetics

1322

Brassica compestris

1317

Human tumor cell line

1273

Phyllanthus urinaria

1325

Bypass-induced changes

1249

Hyperthyroidism

1334

Phytopharmacological research

1233

 

 

Hypothyroidism

1334

Pro-oxidant effect

1273

Cannabis sativa

1338

 

 

Pulp pollution

1239

Carcinogen

1317

Ibuprofen

1322

Pyramid model

1289

Carcinogenesis

1325

Idiosyncratic hepatotoxins

1226

 

 

Catalepsy

 

Indian major carp

1342

Rats

1334

CC-chemokines

1219

Internet

1233

Reserpine-induced catalepsy

1264

Cell growth

1300

Iso-cortex

1259

Rifampicin

1226

Central inhibitory effect

1279

Isoniazid

1226

 

 

Chemoprevention

1325

 

 

Sertraline

1269

Chironomous samoensis

1338

Kidney

1334

Serum markers

1294

Cirrhinus mrigala

1342

 

 

Stress

1269, 1289

Coca-Cola

1322

Lamellidens marginalis

1306

Suicidal oxidative stress

1273

Cognitive function

 1269

L-dopa

 1264

Superoxide dismutase

1289

Convertibility of embryos

1311

Lethal efficacy

1338

 

 

Coronary artery

1249

Lipid peroxidation

1334

Tianeptine

1269

Cortisol

1289

Lung toxicity

1294

Tryptophan

1342

 

 

 

 

Tumor cells

1253

Depression

1269

Malondialdehyde

1289

 

 

Diabetic

1285

Mangifera indica totapari red small

1311

Viral hepatitis

1226

Dictyostelium discoideum

1300

Medicinal plant

1349

 

 

 

 

Metastatic potential

1253

Water pollution

1239

 

 

Mice

1259