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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN : 0019-5189 CODEN : IJEB (A6) 41(10) 1089-1212 (2003)
VOLUME 41

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2003

 

Special Issue on

Bacterium-plant Symbiosis

CONTENTS  

Preface

   1091

 

 

Milestones in the genetical research on rhizobia

Gursharn S Randhawa & Anvita Kumar

1095

 

 

Regulation of expression of symbiotic genes in Rhizobium sp. NGR234

Xavier Perret, Hajime Kobayashi & Julio Collado-Vides

1101

 

 

Molecular aspects of soybean cultivar-specific nodulation by Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257

K Annapurna & Hari B Krishnan

1114

 

 

Cysteine proteases in nodulation and nitrogen fixation

Sunita Sheokand & Nicholas J. Brewin

1124

 

 

Proteomics: A novel approach to explore signal exchanges in Rhizobium-legume

symbiosis

Neeraj Vij

 

1133

 

 

Effects of drought stress on legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation: Physiological mechanisms

Rachid Serraj

 

1136

 

 

Effects of biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and the tropical leguminous trees Acacia and Prosopis

Leena A Räsänen & Kristina Lindström

 

1142

 

 

Rhizobia as a biological control agent against soil borne plant pathogenic fungi

V K Deshwal, P Pandey, S C Kang & D K Maheshwari

1160

 

 

Symbiosis between Frankia and actinorhizal plants: Root nodules of non-legumes

K Pawlowski & A Sirrenberg

1165

 

 

Recent advances in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

Gursharn S Randhawa, Shubha G, Nand K Singh, Anvita Kumar & Anju Bhalla

1184

 

 

Isolation and symbiotic characterization of transposon Tn5-induced arginine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti

Anvita Kumar, Neeraj Vij & Gursharn S Randhawa

 

1198

 

 

11th International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions held at

St. Petersburg  A report

Barry G Rolfe, Ulrike Mathesius, Michael A Djordjevic, Peter M Gresshoff 

 

1205

 

 

Announcements

 

·     6th European Nitrogen Fixation Conference, Toulouse, France: July 24-27, 2004

·     XIV International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Beijing, China: Oct. 28-Nov. 1, 2004

·     IUPAC International Conference on Biodiversity and Natural Products: Chemistry and Medical Applications, New Delhi: Jan. 26-31, 2004

1190

 

 1190

 

1212

 

 

Accepted papers for the forthcoming issues

1209

Author Index
Keyword Index

 

 

Preface

Life, which because of its presence makes our planet (Earth) unique, has several interesting features. A dominant feature of it is competition. Living organisms compete among themselves for their existence. Another equally dominant feature of life is cooperation. Living beings help each other in their struggle for survival. The cooperation may be established not only between two organisms of the same species, but also between those belonging to different genera, families, classes and kingdoms. Sometimes this cooperation takes the form of an intimate association in which one organism provides living space to the other in its cells. Highly specialized and strictly coordinated molecular dialogues between the two partners are required to initiate, establish and sustain such association.

 

Many plants can grow on soil, poor in nutrients, by forming association with microbes like fungi and bacteria. The association, in which both the partners are benefited by exchanging nutrients, is called symbiosis. At least 85% of plants enter into symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These fungi in exchange of carbohydrates provide phosphorus-containing nutrients to the host plants. The association between plants and AM fungi originated about 400 million years ago. The plant bacterial symbiotic relationships developed much later and are thought to be 50-100 million years old. In these relationships nitrogen-fixing bacteria induce the formation of specialized structures, called nodules, on the plant roots and then invade the cells of the nodules. These bacteria in the nodule cells get carbon from the nodulated plants and convert the gaseous nitrogen into ammonia which is transported to the host plant. The process of establishment and functioning of the nodule symbiosis is very complex and has been a great challenge to the scientists who are trying to understand it for obtaining highly efficient symbiotic combinations and to extend the host range of these bacteria. After several decades of intensive research, our understanding of the nodule symbiosis has considerably improved, however still many mysteries have to be resolved. This special issue of Indian Journal of Experimental Biology tries to present the current status of our knowledge about symbiosis between nitrogen fixing bacteria and plants.

 

Two types of root nodule symbioses exist between nitrogen fixing soil bacteria and higher plants. The first is between bacteria of the genera Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium (collectively called rhizobia) and leguminous plants, and the second is between bacteria of the genus Frankia and actinorhizal plants. Except for one, all the articles in this issue cover different aspects of symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and legumes.

 

The first article in this issue lists the milestones in the genetical research on rhizobia. A quick glance at this article gives some idea about the slow progress during the initial stages in the research on the genetic analysis of symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. This slow progress was due to several difficulties in the genetic analysis of legumes as well as rhizobia. Considering the host plant to be very tough to handle, almost all geneticists (notable exceptions being P. S. Nutman, T. LaRue, P. Gresshoff, D.P.S. Verma,T. Bisseling, K. Marcker, J. Torrey and H. Kouchi) decided to focus on rhizobia. But even these bacteria, which have much smaller genomes as compared to those of legumes, posed big challenges. The main difficulties in the rhizobial genetic research were the lack of an efficient genetic recombination system and the presence of large plasmids (called megaplasmids) in rhizobia. The following two observations may illustrate the slow progress in rhizobial genetics. The circularity of E. coli chromosome was demonstrated by genetic methods in 1957, whereas the Rhizobium geneticists had to toil hard for exactly two decades after this to get the circular linkage map of Rhizobium chromosome. When the recombinant DNA technology was almost one decade old and the use of plasmid detection and isolation techniques became a routine, the leading Rhizobium researchers were not able to detect all the plasmids in their strains! Eventually the circular linkage map of Rhizobium chromosome was constructed by introducing chromosome-mobilizing plasmids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Rhizobium megaplasmids were detected and characterized by several innovative approaches.

 

Since the days of above stated initial problems, we have come a long way in our understanding of symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. Using the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene probes, structural genes for nitrogenase enzyme of Rhizobium have been  detected and cloned. Flavonoids have been found to be plant signals inducing nodulation genes and rhizobia are found to produce nod factor signal for induction of nodules on plant roots. After the reports of the complete genomic sequences of rhizobia, the plant protein receiving the rhizobial nod factor signal has been identified. Recently, the identification of two plant genes controlling the nodule numbers has also been reported in both soybean and Lotus japnicus. The above mentioned and many other discoveries on nodule symbiosis have been reviewed in the various articles covered in this issue. The second article on regulation of expression of symbiotic genes in Rhizobium sp. NGR234 illustrates the powerful impact of genomic approach on our understanding of the living processes. The third article discusses why certain combinations of Sinorhizobium fredii strains and soybean cultivars yield nitrogen-fixing nodules, whereas other combinations fail to initiate the same. The role of cysteine proteases are known to occur widely in plants. Role of these enzymes in nodulation and nitrogen fixation has been discussed in the fourth article. The fifth article covers recent develop­ments and future strategies of the proteomics approach to explore the signal transduction in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The physiological mechanisms that are important in understanding the regulation of nitrogen fixation and its response to drought stress have been explained in the sixth article. The seventh article deals with the biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous trees, Acacia and Prosopis, which are preferable trees for aforestation in arid and semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. The eighth article presents the various reports on biocontrol effect of rhizobia against the soil borne plant pathogenic fungi and assesses the future potential of these bacteria in the control of various plant diseases. Research findings on the various aspects of symbiosis between Frankia and actinorhizal plants have been reviewed in the ninth article. The development in the field of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis reported during the year 2002 and 2003 have been summarized in the tenth article. Isola­tion and symbiotic characterization of transposon Tn5-induced arginine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti have been reported in the eleventh article. The presenta­tion at the 11th International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction held during July 18-27, 2003 at St.-Petersburg have been discussed in the last article.

 

It is a matter of great pleasure for us that the present special issue is a part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India. We are thankful to the entire staff of the IJEB, NISCAIR, New Delhi  for helping us in bringing out this issue. No words would be sufficient to express our gratitude to Mr. A. K. Sen for providing support to undertaking this challenging task. He tried to keep us in high spirits even in difficult situations.

 

The requests for the contributions to this special issue were mailed by one of us (GSR) during his stay at the house of his brother in Hounslow, U.K. We would like to convey our gratitude to Mr. Manvir Singh Randhawa for making available his personal computer and the Internet facility for this work. We are thankful to Drs X Perret, H B Krishnan, N J Brewin, N Vij, R Serraj, K Lindström, D K Maheshwari, K Pawlowski and B G Rolfe for agreeing to contribute to this special issue. We are equally thankful to all other authors of this issue. Drs X Perret, H B Krishnan and R. Serraj are also acknowledged for their constructive suggestions. We are also grateful to Prof. P. Gresshoff, Prof. B.G. Rolfe, Dr J E González, Dr Nautiyal and Dr J I Sprent for their valuable comments. Due to their prior commitments Drs Adam Kondorosi, Eduardo Patriarca, Andrew Johnston, Allan Downie, Jacques Batut and Peter Young expressed their inability to contribute to this issue but the messages from these scientists were full of encouraging words. We would like to express our gratitude to all of them. Prof. P Gresshoff deserves  special thanks for providing the photographs of super nodulated root system for the cover page of this issue.

 

We would like to record our gratefulness to the young researchers Anvita Kumar, Anju Bhalla, Nand Kumar, Shalini Sinha, Harjinder Singh and Shubha G, who helped in many ways in the work of this special issue. Among these Anvita and Shubha deserve special mention for their critical suggestions related to presentation of some of the articles.

 

We will be failing in our duty if we do not thank our families for their patience and cooperation. A lot of our time, which actually belonged to them, was devoted to this issue.

Guest Editors

Gursharn S Randhawa

and

György B Kiss

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1095-1100

 

  

 

Milestones in the genetical research on rhizobia

Gursharn S Randhawa & Anvita Kumar

 

The first isolation of the rhizobial bacteria from the legume roots was done in 1888. Since then a large number of scientists have made efforts to understand the molecular basis of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The important developments of 115 years of genetical research on rhizobia have been listed in this article.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1101-1113

 

 

Regulation of expression of symbiotic genes in
Rhizobium sp. NGR234

Xavier Perret, Hajime Kobayashi & Julio Collado-Vides

 

Research in the field of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis faces a new challenge: integrate the wealth of information generated by genomic projects. The goal: apprehend the complexity of the molecular mechanisms involved in symbiotic associations. At the time of writing, the genomes of three micro-symbionts (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti and Sinorhizobium meliloti) have been sequenced, and two more (those of Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli) will be completed in the near future. Together, completed rhizobial genomes represent already 23,393,822 bp of DNA sequence and 21,797 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). To identify candidate-symbiotic genes in such a broad database, predict their function and dissect the regulatory networks that govern their expression are no simple tasks. One way to confront this problem is to combine different datasets, in particular genetic and transcriptional maps as well as predicted promoters from bioinformatics analyses. Here, we would like to illustrate this type of approach with the analysis of the symbiotic plasmid (pNGR234a) of the broad host-range Rhizobium sp. NGR234.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1114-1123

 

 

Molecular aspects of soybean cultivar-specific nodulation by
Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257

K Annapurna & Hari B Krishnan

 

Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 forms nitrogen-fixing nodules in association with the primitive soybean cultivar 'Peking' but fails to initiate nodules on many advanced soybean cultivars, including 'McCall'. This distinction is controlled by a set of nodulation genes termed nolXWBTUV. Inactivation of any of these genes enables USDA257 to nodulate McCall and many other improved soybean cultivars. Mutation in the nolXWBTUV locus also alters the Nod factor structure resulting in the production of a novel molecule with glucose incorporated into the chitin backbone. Some of the genes located in the nolXWBTUV locus reveal sequence homologies to known components of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of a complete TTSS in USDA257 and few other symbiotic bacteria. The TTSS cluster of USDA257 contains 27 open reading frames out of which 10 code for the structural components of the TTSS. USDA257, when grown in presence of flavonoids, secrete several proteins called Nops (Nodulation Outer Proteins) into the extracellular environment. Genes located in the TTSS of USDA257 encode some of the extracellular proteins, such as NopX, NopB, and NopL. These type III secreted proteins appear to play an important role in regulating nodulation in a host-dependent manner. Failure to elaborate the Nops results in a drastic phenotypic effect on soybean nodulation, indicating that these proteins may play a pivotal role in soybean cultivar specificity. The secretion of Nops appears to be facilitated by novel filamentous appendages (pili) that are produced by USDA257 upon induction by flavonoids. Biochemical studies have demonstrated the close association of several Nops with the purified pili. However, it remains to be seen if the filamentous appendages can function as conduits for delivery of Nops into the host cell. This review examines the current state of our knowledge on the molecular aspects of soybean cultivar-specific nodulation by USDA257.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1124-1132

 

 

Cysteine proteases in nodulation and nitrogen fixation

Sunita Sheokand & Nicholas J. Brewin

 

The cysteine proteinases or cysteine endopeptidases (EC 3.4.22) are known to occur widely in plant cells. They are involved in almost all aspects of plant growth and development including germination, circadian rhythms, senescence and programmed cell death. They are also involved in mediating plant cell responses to environmental stress (such as water stress, salinity, low temperature, wounding, ethylene, and oxidative conditions) and plant-microbe interactions (including nodulation). In the development and function of legume root nodules, cysteine proteases could be involved in several important processes:-(i) a defence response to root invasion by microorganisms; (ii) protein turnover required during the formation of new tissue; (iii) cellular homeostasis and metabolism; (iv) adaptation of host cells to physiological stresses; (v) control of nodule senescence. Because of their central importance to plant physiology, cysteine proteases could serve as important targets for the study of nodule development and functioning at the molecular level. Because of their widespread occurrence in nodulating plants they could also serve as candidate genes for targeted plant breeding programmes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1133-1135

 

 

Proteomics: A novel approach to explore signal exchanges in
Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

Neeraj Vij

 

Recent developments and future strategies on the proteomics approach to explore the signal exchanges in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis have been discussed. It is expected that this approach will provide new possibilities for investigating the complex interactions of rhizobia and legumes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1136-1141

 

 

Effects of drought stress on legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation: Physiological mechanisms

Rachid Serraj

 

Drought stress is one of the major factors affecting nitrogen fixation by legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Several mechanisms have been previously reported to be involved in the physiological response of symbiotic nitrogen fixation to drought stress, i.e. carbon shortage and nodule carbon metabolism, oxygen limitation, and feedback regulation by the accumulation of N fixation products. The carbon shortage hypothesis was previously investigated by studying the combined effects of CO2 enrichment and water deficits on nodulation and N2 fixation in soybean. Under drought, in a genotype with drought tolerant N2 fixation, approximately four times the amount of 14C was allocated to nodules compared to a drought sensitive genotype. It was found that an important effect of CO2 enrichment of soybean under drought was an enhancement of photo assimilation, an increased partitioning of carbon to nodules, whose main effect was to sustain nodule growth, which helped sustain N2 rates under soil water deficits. The interaction of nodule permeability to O2 and drought stress with N2 fixation was examined in soybean nodules and led to the overall conclusion that O2 limitation seems to be involved only in the initial stages of water deficit stresses in decreasing nodule activity. The involvement of ureides in the drought response of N2 fixation was initially suspected by an increased ureide concentration in shoots and nodules under drought leading to a negative feedback response between ureides and nodule activity. Direct evidence for inhibition of nitrogenase activity by its products, ureides and amides, supported this hypothesis. The overall conclusion was that all three physiological mechanisms are important in understanding the regulation of N2 fixation and its response of to soil drying.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1142-1159

 

 

Effects of biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and the tropical leguminous trees
Acacia and Prosopis

Leena A Räsänen & Kristina Lindström

 

N2-fixing, drought tolerant and multipurpose Acacia and Prosopis species are appropriate trees for reforestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Acacia and Prosopis trees form N2-fixing nodules with a wide range of rhizobia, for example African acacias mainly with Sinorhizobium sp. and Mesorhizobium sp., and Australian acacias with Bradyrhizobium sp. Although dry and hot seasons restrict formation of N2-fixing nodules on Acacia and Prosopis spp., fully grown trees and their symbiotic partners are well adapted to survive in harsh growth conditions. This review on one hand deals with major constraints of arid and semiarid soils, i.e. drought, salinity and high soil temperature, which affect growth of trees and rhizobia, and on the other hand with adaptation mechanisms by which both organisms survive through unfavourable periods. In addition, defects in infection and nodulation processes due to various abiotic and biotic constraints are reviewed. This knowledge is important when Acacia and Prosopis seedlings are used for forestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid tropics.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1160-1164

 

 

Rhizobia as a biological control agent against
soil borne plant pathogenic fungi

V K Deshwal, P Pandey, S C Kang & D K Maheshwari

 

Rhizobia promote the growth of plants either directly through N2 fixation, supply of nutrients, synthesis of phytohormones and solubilization of minerals, or indirectly as a biocontrol agent by inhibiting the growth of pathogens. The biocontrol effect of rhizobia is due to the secretion of secondary metabolites such as antibiotics and HCN. Siderophore production in iron stress conditions provides rhizobia an added advantage, resulting in exclusion of pathogens due to iron starvation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1165-1183

 

 

Symbiosis between Frankia and actinorhizal plants: Root nodules of non-legumes

K Pawlowski & A Sirrenberg

 

In actinorhizal symbioses, filamentous nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria of the genus Frankia induce the formation of nodules on the roots of a diverse group of dicotyledonous plants representing trees or woody shrubs, with one exception, Datisca glomerata. In the nodules, Frankia fixes nitrogen and exports the products to the plant cytoplasm, while being supplied with carbon sources by the host. Possibly due to the diversity of the host plants, actinorhizal nodules show considerable variability with regard to structure, oxygen protection mechanisms and physiology. Actinorhizal and legume-rhizobia symbioses are evolutionary related and share several features.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1184-1197

 

 

Recent advances in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

Gursharn S Randhawa, Shubha G, Nand K Singh, Anvita Kumar & Anju Bhalla

 

The research findings in the field of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis reported worldwide during the years 2002 and 2003 (up to September) have been summarized. The information is presented under the various topics, viz., isolation and characterization of rhizobial strains, physiological aspects of nitrogen fixation, rhizosphere interactions and root surface signals, genomics and proteomics, plant genes involved in nodule formation, bioremediation and biocontrol, and review articles and conference reports. The postal and e-mail addresses of the concerned scientists have also been included.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1198-1204

 

 

Isolation and symbiotic characterization of transposon Tn5-induced arginine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti

Anvita Kumar, Neeraj Vij & Gursharn S Randhawa

 

Seventeen arginine auxotrophic mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rmd201 were isolated by random transposon Tn5 mutagenesis using Tn5 delivery vector pGS9. Based on intermediate feeding studies, these mutants were designated as argA/argB/argC/argD/argE (ornithine auxotrophs), argF/argI, argG and argH mutants. The ornithine auxotrophs induced ineffective nodules whereas all other arginine auxotrophs induced fully effective nodules on alfalfa plants. In comparison to the parental strain induced nodule, only a few nodule cells infected with rhizobia were seen in the nitrogen fixation zone of the nodule induced by the ornithine auxotroph. TEM studies showed that the bacteroids in the nitrogen fixation zone of ornithine auxotroph induced nodule were mostly spherical or oval unlike the elongated bacteroids in the nitrogen fixation zone of the parental strain induced nodule. These results indicate that ornithine or an intermediate of ornithine biosynthesis, or a chemical factor derived from one of these compounds is required for the normal development of nitrogen fixation zone and transformation of rhizobial bacteria into bacteroids during symbiosis of S. meliloti with alfalfa plants.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1205-1208

 

 

11th International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions held at St. Petersburg  A report

Barry G Rolfe, Ulrike Mathesius, Michael A Djordjevic, Peter M Gresshoff

 

The report is a short summary of the most interesting presentations at the 11th International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions held during July 18-27, 2003 at St. Petersburg, Russia. The key elements from several sessions on the legume-Rhizobium interactions have been discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1090

 

 

Announcements

 

 

6th European Nitrogen Fixation Conference, Toulouse, France

July 24-27, 2004

 

Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) is an exclusive property of prokaryotic organisms, with a considerable positive impact on the global nitrogen cycle. In particular the ability of certain nitrogen-fixing bacteria to establish a symbiotic interaction with higher plants (mainly legumes) allows these to grow in the absence of costly nitrogen fertilizers. The study of BNF spans fields as diverse as biochemistry, physiology, molecular genetics and agronomy. The interdisciplinary nature of BNF was recognized from the onset of the biennial European Nitrogen Fixation Conferences which have been held previously in Szeged (1994), Poznan (1996), Lunteren (1998), Sevilla (2000) and Norwich (2002). Continuing the tradition of the previous ENFCs, the meeting will give students and scientists form Europe and the rest of the world the opportunity to update and exchange knowledge at the forefront of basic and applied research in the broad field of Nitrogen Fixation. The organizing committee consists of Drs. Julie Cullimore, Frans de Bruijn, Jean Dénarié, Thierry Huguet, Daniel Kahn and André Trigalet.

 

further information for the conference may be obtained at the website http://www.toulouse.inra.fr/6enfc

The organizers may be contacted at the following email address: nitfix@toulouse.inra.fr

 

 

 

XIV International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation,
Beijing, China

October 28-November 1, 2004

 

The 14th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation will be held from October 28 to November 1, 2004 at Beijing International Convention Center in Beijing, P. R. China. This Congress will be a meeting for chemists, biochemists, physiologists, molecular biologists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists and applied agricultural scientists that work in the area of Nitrogen Fixation. The website of the conference http://www.n2fix.com/ can be consulted for updated information. The congress will have a format similar to the previous ones with plenary talks by invited speakers and concurrent sessions. Some talks of the concurrent sessions will be selected on the basis of abstracts received from registered participants. Posters will be on display throughout the week, and there will be a scientific exhibition as well. Further information regarding the congress may be obtained at the website http://www.n2fix.com. The organizers may be contacted: Prof. Yiping Wang, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China, Tel: 86-10-6275 8490, Fax: 86-10-6275 6325, E-mail: wangyp@pku.edu.cn

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, October 2003, pp. 1209-1212

 

 

Accepted papers for forthcoming issue(s)

Natural killer cells in HIV-1 infection: Role of NK cell-medicated non-cytolytic mechanisms in pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection

Shyam Kottilil

 

Bioremediation of paper and pulpmill effluents

K Murugesan

 

Internet  Implications for the future of phytopharmacological research

K K Mueen Ahmed, A C Rana, V K Dixit & B G Shivananda

 

Alterations in radiation-induced cell cycle perturbations by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human tumor cell lines

J S Adhikari, B S Dwarakanath, Rohit Mathur & T Ravindranath

 

Contribution of oxidative stress to radiosensitization by a combination of 2-DG and 6-AN in human cancer cell line

R Varshney, J S Adhikari & B S Dwarakanath

 

Significance of regional difference in ion concentrations in lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Rüppell): Assessment of ionic influence on sperm motility in vitro

Umesh Rai & B K Nirmal

 

Biological control of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan(L.) Millsp.} with chitinolytic Alcaligenes xylosoxydans

R J Vaidya, S L A Macmil, P R Vyas, L V Ghetiya, K J Thakor & H S Chhatpar

 

Efficacy of Euphorbia splendens and Leonotis nepetaefolia on aflatoxin –producing fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

M N Abubacker & R Ramanathan

 

Prevalence of Listeria in soil

H Moshtaghi, S R Garg & Usha V Mandokhot

 

Influence of colchicine on pulmonary silicotic fibrogenesis in rats

M Waseem, A K Khanna, S Dogra & J L Kaw

 

Antinociceptive action of FK506 in mice

Amanpreet Singh, Gaurav Kumar, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Antagonistic effect of fluorescent pseudomonads against Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut

Shweta Bhatia, Shivani Bhatia, R C Dubey & D K Maheshwari

 

In vitro propagation of emetic nut Randia dumetorum (Lamb.)

Ferdousi Begum, Kazi Mohammed Didarul Islam, Rathindra Nath Paul, Masfique Mehedi

& Shyamole Rani

 

In vivo model for dyslipidemia with diabetes mellitus in hamster

Gitika Bhatia, Farhan Rizvi, Rashmi Saxena, Anju Puri, A K Khanna, Ramesh Chander,

E M Wulff & A K Rastogi

 

Partial suppressive effect of melatonin on indomethacin-induced renal injury in rat

Faried A E Hemieda, Mohammad A El-Missiry, Mohey E.Badawy & Ahmad A Goda

 

Inhibition of cutaneous oxidative stress and two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hemidesmus

indicus (L.) in Swiss mice

Sarwat Sultana, Aftab Alam, Naghma Khan & Sonia Sharma

 

Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

Pratibha Pungle, M Banavalikar, A Suthar, M Biyani & S Mengi

 

Clenbuterol induced changes in cholesterol and triglyceride levels of gastrocnemius and heart of rat under work induced stress

Sushma Sharma & Asha Garg

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Haridradi ghrita on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats

P M Satturwar, S V Fulzele, S B Joshi & A K Dorle

 

Effects of repeated haemolymph withdrawals on haemocyte counts and moulting in lemon-butterfly, Papilio demoleus L.

J P Pandey, R K Tiwari & A K Chaubey

 

Simultaneous induced of ectopic pelvic zone and duplication of regenerated limbs in tadpoles of Polypedates maculates by vitamin A

A Pati, S K Dutta & P K Mahapatra

 

D2-dopamine receptor-and α2-adrenoreceptor- mediated analgesic response of quercetin

Pattipati S Naidu, Amanpreet Singh & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Toxicity assessment of wild bean seed protein-Arcelin on Asian armyworm, Spodoptera liture (Fabricius)

B Malaikozhundan, P Suresh, S Seshadri & S Janarthanan

 

Chemopreventive action of Phyllanthus urinaria Linn. on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice

R Bharali, J Tabassum & M R H Azad

 

Effect of alcohol on neurons of iso-cortex  A histomorphometric study

N K Mitra & K S Ghosh

 

Influence of acidic beverage of (Cocoa Cola) on pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in healthy rabbits

Amit Kondal & S K Garg

 

Effect of arsenic on cell growth of the cellular slime mould, Dicytostelium discoideum

S Mukhopadhyay & S Chatterjee

 

Optimization of wedelolactone accumulation in shoot culture of Eclipta alba

M G Jayathiratha & S H Mishra

 

Efficient regeneration of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) from shoot-tip explant

D Syamala & Prathibha Devi

 

Changes in lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in kidney of hypothyroid and

hyperthyroid rats

Bilvadaa U Sawant, Ganeshsunder D Nadkarni, Usha R Thakare, Lebana J Joseph

& M G R Rajan

 

Enhancement of metastatic potential of mouse B16-melanoma cells to lung after treatment

with gangliosides of B-16-melanoma cells of higher metastatic potential to lung

S Saha & K C Mohanty

 

In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa Linn. On the larvae of Chironomous samoenis Edward: An insect of public health concern

Bishnupada Roy & B K Dutta

 

Effect of Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bael) fruit extract on tissue antioxidants in streptozotocin

diabetic rats

N Kamalakkannan & Stanely Mainzen Prince P

 

Effect of a polyherbal formulation, Ambrex, on butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) induced toxicity in rats

R S Devi, Shoba Narayan, K Vijai Mohan, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

Effect of housing rats within a pyramid on stress parameters

Surekha Bhat, Guruprasad Rao, K Dilip Murthy, P Gopalakrishna Bhat

 

FK506 as effective adjunct to L-dopa in reserpine-induced catalepsy in rats

Amanpreet Singh, Pattipati S Nadiu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Role of phenolics and boron in reproductive success in seasonally transient sterile

Tecoma stans L.

S V S Chauhan, Jolly Singh & Satoshi Tahara

 

Production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in roots of tissue culture raised and

acclimatized plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., an endangered shrub endemic

to Southern India and evaluation of its performance vis a vis plants from natural habitat

P Giridhar, T Rajasekaran, S Nagarajan & G A Ravishankar

 

Effect of potassium channel modulators on toxicity of Cleistanthus collinus

Vinu M Jose, K N Anand , L Jeyaseelan, Kalpana Ernest, Alice Kuruvilla

 

In vivo enhancement of nucleopolyhedrovirus of oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata using spindles from Helicoverpa armigera entomopoxvirus

M Chakravorty, K Narayanan & M K Sivaprakash

 

Effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. leaf gel and pulp extracts on kidney in type-II diabetic rat models

Sehnaz Bolkent, Nuriye Akev, Nurten Özsoy, Meliha Sengezer-Inceli, Ayse Can,

Alper Okyar & Refiye Yanardag

 

Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of Suvarnamalini vasantÒ, a generic Ayurvedic

herbomineral formulation

Vishwas Sangle, Medha Darp & Shailesh Nadkarni

 

Effect of simultaneous exposure to lead and cadmium on gonadotropin binding and steroidogenesis on granulosa cells: An in vitro study

P N Laxmi Priya, Anil Pillai & Sarita Gupta

 

Effect of glyphosate toxicity on growth, pigment and alkaline phosphatase activity in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: A role of inorganic phosphate in the glyphosate tolerance

Shikha, D P Singh & N S Darmwal

 

Role of phenolics and boron in reproductive success in seasonally transient sterile Tecoma stans L.

S V S Chauhan, Jolly Singh & Santoshi Tahara

 

Author Index

 

Annapurna K

1114

Krishnan Hari B

1114

Randhawa Gursharn S

1184

 

 

Kumar Anvita

1095

Randhawa Gursharn S 1198

Bhalla Anju

1184

Kumar Anvita 1184    

 Kumar Anvita

1198 

Räsänen Leena A

1142

Brewin Nicholas J

1124

Rolfe Barry G

1205

Lindström Kristina

1142

Collado-Vides Julio

1101

Serraj Rachid

1136

Maheshwari D K

1160

Sheokand Sunita

1124

Deshwal V K

1160

Mathesius Ulrike

1205

Shubha G

1184

Djordjevic Michael A

1205

Singh Nand K

1184

 

 

Pandey P

1160

Sirrenberg A

1165

Gresshoff Peter M

1205

Pawlowski K

1165

 

 

 

 

Perret Xavier

1101

Vij Neeraj

1133

Kang S C

1160

 Vij Neeraj

1198 

Kiss György B

1091

 Randhawa Gursharn S

1091

 

 

Kobayashi Hajime

1101

 Randhawa Gursharn S

1095 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Abiotic stress

1142

Legume

1095

Rhizobia

1160

Acacia

1142

Legume 1133

Rhizobium sp. NGR234

1101

Actinorhizal symbioses

1165

Legume 1136 Rhizobium 1095

Alnus

1165

Legume 1184 Rhizobium 1133

Antibiotics

1160

Legume 1198 Rhizobium 1136

Arginine biosynthesis

1198

Legume 1205

Rhizobium

1184

Autoregulation

1205

Rhizobium 1198

Medicago

1184

Rhizobium

1205

Biocontrol

1160

Mesorhizobium

1184

   

Bradyrhizobium

1184

   

NifA

1101

Salt stress

1142

Calcium spiking

1205

Nitrogen fixation

1095

Senescence

1124

Carbon limitation

1136

Nitrogen fixation 1136

Siderophore

1160

Casuarina

1165

Nitrogen fixation 1198

Sigma (s) 54

1101

Cysteine proteases

1124

Nodule

1205

Sinorhizobium fredii

1114

 

 

Nops

1114

 Sinorhizobium

1184

Datisca glomerata

1165

Sinorhizobium

1198

Drought

1136

ORFs

1101

Soybean

1114

Ornithine and transposon mutagenesis

1198

Symbiosis 1095
Flavonoids 1101

Oxygen

1136

Symbiosis 1133

Flavonoids

1114

Symbiosis

1184

Frankia

1165

Physiological stresses

1124

Symbiosome

1124

 

 

Pilli

1114

Symbiotic genes

1101

HCN

1160

Plant-microbe interactions

1205

Heat stress

1142

Prosopis

1142

TTSS

1114

Homeostasis

1124

Proteomic analysis

1205

Proteomics

1133

Ureides

1136