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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

  CODEN : IJEB (A6) 41(9) 929-1088 (2003)
VOLUME 41

NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2003

 

Special Issue on

Bioremediation & Biodegradation

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Preface

931

 

 

Microbes in heavy metal remediation

P Rajendran, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

935

 

 

Microbial biomass: An economical alternative for removal of heavy metals from waste water

Rani Gupta & Harapriya Mohapatra

 

945

 

 

Biorecovery of gold

Ronald Eisler

967

 

 

Bioremediation of chromium contaminated environments

Sara Parwin Banu Kamaludeen, K R Arunkumar, S Avudainayagam & K Ramasamy

972

 

 

Biosorption and elution of chromium from immobilized Bacillus coagulans biomass

T Srinath, S K Garg & P W Ramteke

986

 

 

Biodegradation of nitro-explosives

Pradnya Kanekar, Premlata Dautpure & Seema Sarnaik

991

 

 

Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents

R H Iyer

 

1002

 

 

Microbiologically influenced corrosion in petroleum product pipelines  A review

N Muthukumar, A Rajasekar, S Ponmariappan, S Mohanan, S Maruthamuthu, S Muralidharan, P Subramanian, N Palaniswamy & M Raghavan

1012

 

 

Control of metallic corrosion through microbiological route

S Maruthamuthu, S Ponmariappan, S Mohanan, N Palaniswamy, R Palaniappan & N S Rengaswamy

1023

 

 

Bioremediation: An important alternative for soil and industrial wastes clean-up

Carlos R Soccol, Luciana P S Vandenberghe, Adenise L Woiciechowski, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Cristiane Tagliari Correia & Ashok Pandey

1030

 

 

Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds

P Jothimani, G Kalaichelvan, A Bhaskaran, D Augustine Selvaseelan & K Ramasamy

1046

 

 

Bioremediation concepts for treatment of dye containing wastewater: A review

Haresh Keharia & Datta Madamwar

1068

 

 

Synthetic dye decolourization by white rot fungi

K Murugesan & P T Kalaichelvan

1076

 

 

Announcement
 

CSIR Diamond Jubilee Special Issue on Bacterium-plant Symbiosis October 2003

930

 

 

Erratum

930

   
Author Index  
   
Keyword Index  

 

 

Preface

Environmental contamination due to anthro­pogenic and natural sources is increasing day by day because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. The enigma for the public, scientists, academicians and politicians is how to tackle the contaminants that jeopardize the environment. Advances in science and technology, since industrial revolution has also increasingly enabled humans to exploit natural resources. Vast number of pollutants and waste materials containing heavy metals are disposed into the environment annually. Approximately 6 ´ 106 chemical compounds have been synthesized, with 1,000 new chemicals being synthesized annually. Almost 60,000 to 95,000 chemicals are in commercial use. According to Third World Network reports more than one billion pounds (450 million kilograms) of toxins are released globally in air and water. The contaminants causing ecological problems leading to imbalance in nature is of global concern. The environmentalists around the world are trying to overcome it by several means. Though they are raising their voices at international platforms regarding the depletion of natural resources, little attention is given to their words and continues to use them without caring the adverse consequences.

 

Nature has provided us with several means to tackle the environmental problems, which are the boomerangs of our own activities. The ideal solution for pollution abatement is Bio­remediation, the most effective innovative technology to come along in this century that uses biological systems for treatment of contaminants. Although, this novel and recent technology is a multidisciplinary approach, its central thrust depends on microbiology. This technology includes, biostimulation (stimulating viable native microbial population), bio­augumentation (artificial introduction of viable population), bioaccumulation (live cells), biosorption (dead microbial biomass) and phyto­remediation (plants).

 

Bioremediation is a sustainable strategy that utilizes the metabolic potential of micro­organisms and plants to clean-up contaminated environments. It achieves contaminant decom­po­sition or immobilization by exploiting the existing metabolic potential of micro­organisms with novel catabolic functions derived from selection or by introduction of genes encoding such functions. Certain plants, working together with soil organisms, can transform contaminants into harmless and often, valuable forms. In addition to this rhizospheric effect plants themselves are able to passively take up a wide range of organic wastes from soil through their roots. One important characteristic of bioremediation is that it is carried out in non-sterile open environments that contain a variety of organisms. This technology may be applied in the removal of xenobiotic compounds from agrochemical and petro­chemical industries, oil spills, heavy metals in sewage, sludge, marine sediments, various chemicals, pesticides, excessive nutrients, phenols, hydrocarbons and the waste water arising from dye industry. The bioremediation technology is cost effective, eco-friendly and alternative to conventional treatments, which rely on incinerations, volatili­zation or immobi­lization of the pollutants. The conventional treatment technologies simply transfer the pollutants, creating a new waste such as incineration residues and not eliminate the problem. However, the general acceptance of bioremediation as a treatment technology requires demonstration of its effectiveness, reliability and predictability and its advantages over conventional treatment technologies.

 

Bioremediation techniques are divided into three categories; in situ, ex situ solid and ex situ slurry. With in situ techniques, the soil and associated ground water is treated in place without excavation, while it is excavated prior to treatment with ex situ applications. Selection of appropriate technology among the wide range of bioremediation strategies developed to treat contaminants depends on three basic principles ie., the amenability of the pollutant to biological transformation (Biochemistry), the accessibility of the contaminant to microorganisms (Bioavailability) and the opportunity for optimization of biological activity (Bioactivity).

 

The successful implementation of a bioremediation process and demonstration of its effectiveness require an interdisciplinary, systematic monitoring and evaluation strategy at each process-scale level. An appropriate treatment process and optimization during scale-up depends on five interrelated criteria: Chemical and engineering aspects;, Economics; Eco-toxical aspects; Biological nature and Aesthetic aspects. Today, bioremediation is primarily explored for purifying metal contaminated wastes. The ultimate goal is to transferring lab technology to the field, making this as a common strategy to remove pollutants and to make the world free of contaminants.

 

This publication, the latest in the Diamond Jubilee Special Series is designed to provide up-to-date information regarding Bioremediation & Biodegradation approaches to address the global environmental issues. Eminent scientists working in biosorption, biodegradation, biorecovery, biotrans­­for­mation and corrosion have bestowed the current trends and affordable bioremediation strategies in their respective areas. I take this opportunity to thank the scientific contributors from our country and abroad for their illustrious contribution in this special number to regain the prosperity of Mother Nature for her future generation. I also thank Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, for providing me an opportunity to be the Guest Editor for this special issue on ‘Bioremediation & Biodegradation’ a stepping-stone for a clean environment.

P Gunasekaran

(Guest editor)

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 935-944

 

 

Microbes in heavy metal remediation

P Rajendran, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

 

Heavy metal contamination due to natural and anthropogenic sources is a global environmental concern. Release of heavy metal without proper treatment poses a significant threat to public health because of its persistence, biomagnification and accumulation in food chain. Non- biodegradability and sludge production are the two major constraints of metal treatment. Microbial metal bioremediation is an efficient strategy due to its low cost, high efficiency and ecofriendly nature. Recent advances have been made in understanding metal – microbe interaction and their application for metal accumulation/detoxification. This article summarizes the potentials of microbes in metal remediation.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 945-966

 

 

Microbial biomass: An economical alternative for removal of heavy metals from waste water

Rani Gupta & Harapriya Mohapatra

 

Today indiscriminate and uncontrolled discharge of metal contaminated industrial effluents into the environment has become an issue of major concern. Heavy metals, being non-biodegradable and persistent, beyond a permissible concentration form unspecific compounds inside the cells thereby causing cellular toxicity. The only alternative to remove them from the wastewater is by immobilizing them. The conventional methods adopted earlier for this purpose included chemical precipitation, oxidation, reduction, filtration, electrochemical treatment, evaporation, adsorption and ion-exchange resins. These methods require high energy inputs especially when it refers to dilute solutions. Here microbial biomass offers an economical option for removing heavy metals by the phenomenon of biosorption. Non-living or dead biomass sequester metal (s) on their cell surface due to certain reactive groups available like carboxyl, amine, imidazole, phosphate, sulphydryl, sulfate and hydroxyl. The process can be made economical by procuring spent biomass from industry or naturally available bulk biomass. A batch or a continuous process of removal of heavy metals directly from effluents can be developed in a fixed bed reactor using the immobilized biomass. Further biosorption potential of the biomass can be improved by various physical and chemical treatments. The availability of variety of microbial biomass and their metal binding potential makes it a economical and sustainable option for developing effluent treatment process for removal and recovery of heavy metals.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 967-971

 

 

Biorecovery of gold

Ronald Eisler

 

Recovery of ionic and metallic gold (Au) from a wide variety of solutions by selected species of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, and higher plants is documented. Gold accumulations were up to 7.0 g/kg dry weight (DW) in various species of bacteria, 25.0 g/kg DW in freshwater algae, 84.0 g/kg DW in peat, and 100.0 g/kg DW in dried fungus mixed with kerati­nous material. Mechanisms of accumulation include oxidation, dissolution, reduction, leaching, and sorption. Uptake patterns are significantly modified by the physicochemical milieu. Crab exoskeletons accumulate up to 4.9 g Au/kg DW; however, gold accumulations in various tissues of living teleosts, decapod crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs are negligible.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 972-985

 

 

Bioremediation of chromium contaminated environments

Sara Parwin Banu Kamaludeen, K R Arunkumar, S Avudainayagam & K Ramasamy

 

Bioremediation is the most promising and cost effective technology widely used nowadays to clean up both soils and wastewaters containing organic or inorganic contaminants. Discharge of chromium containing wastes has led to destruction of many agricultural lands and water bodies. Utilisation of chromium(Cr) reducing microbes and their products has enhanced the efficiency of the process of detoxification of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). This review focuses mainly on the current technologies prevalent for remediation like natural attenuation, anaerobic packed bed bioreactors (using live cells, Cr(VI) reductases or their byproducts) and use of engineered microorganisms. Treatment of wastewaters by biosorption or using biofilms and immobilized microbial cells are also discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 986-990

 

 

Biosorption and elution of chromium from immobilized
Bacillus coagulans biomass

T Srinath, S K Garg & P W Ramteke

 

Bacillus coagulans, a tannery wastewater isolate, previously shown to bind dissolved Cr(VI), retained its ability to biosorb Cr(VI) in different matrices. Polymeric materials like agar, agarose, calcium alginate and polyacrylamide were screened. Agarose emerged as the suitable candidate for biomass immobilization mainly due to its higher stability and integrity in acidic pH. Aptness of agarose as the matrix for B. coagulans biomass was revealed during Cr(VI) biosorption from natural wastewater.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 991-1001

 

 

Biodegradation of nitro-explosives

Pradnya Kanekar, Premlata Dautpure & Seema Sarnaik

 

Environmental contamination by nitro compounds is associated principally with the explosives industry. However, global production and use of explosives is unavoidable. The presently widely used nitro-explosives are TNT (Trinitrotoluene), RDX (Royal Demolition Explosive) and HMX (High Melting Explosive). Nevertheless, the problems of these nitro-explosives are almost parallel due to their similarities of production processes, abundance of nitro-explosives and resembling chemical structures. The nitro-explosives per se as well as their environmental transformation products are toxic, showing symptoms as methaemoglobinaemia, kidney trouble, jaundice etc. Hence their removal/degradation from soil/water is essential. Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of TNT and RDX have been reported, while for HMX anaerobic or anoxic degradation have been described in many studies. A multisystem involvement using plants in remediation is gaining importance. Thus the information about degradation of nitro-explosives is available in jigsaw pieces which needs to be arranged and lacunae filled to get concrete degradative schemes so that environmental pollution from nitro-explosives can be dealt with more successfully at a macroscale. An overview of the reports on nitro-explosives degradation, future outlook and studies done by us are presented in this review.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1002-1011

 

 

Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents

R H Iyer

 

An update is presented on liquid membrane –based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track – etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 mm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 mm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1012-1022

 

 

Microbiologically influenced corrosion in petroleum product pipelines  A review

N Muthukumar, A Rajasekar, S Ponmariappan, S Mohanan, S Maruthamuthu,

S Muralidharan, P Subramanian,N Palaniswamy & M Raghavan

 

Microbiologically influenced corrosion is responsible for most of the internal corrosion problems in oil transportation pipelines and storage tanks. One problematic area in treating gas lines is the occurrence of the stratification of water in the line. Under these conditions, corrosion inhibitors do not come into contact properly and oil and inhibitors undergo degradation. The role of bacteria on oil degradation, the consequences of oil degradation in fuel systems and its influence on corrosion have been explained in detail. Besides, factors influencing on degradation of oil and corrosion inhibitors have also been discussed. Mechanism of microbiologically influenced corrosion in oil pipeline has been explained. Many of the misapplication of biocides/inhibitors occur mainly because the characteristics of biocides/inhibitors are not considered before use in pipeline industry. List of biocides and monitoring programme have been collected from literature and presented.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1023-1029

 

 

Control of metallic corrosion through microbiological route

S Maruthamuthu, S Ponmariappan, S Mohanan, N Palaniswamy,

R Palaniappan and N S Rengaswamy

 

Involvement of biofilm or microorganisms in corrosion processes is widely acknowledged. Although majority of the studies on microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) have concentrated on aerobic/anaerobic bacteria. There are numerous aerobic bacteria, which could hinder the corrosion process. The microbiologically produced exopolymers provide the structural frame work for the biofilm. These polymers combine with dissolved metal ions and form organometallic complexes. Generally heterotrophic bacteria contribute to three major processes: (i) synthesis of polymers (ii) accumulation of reserve materials like poly-b-hydroxy butrate (iii) production of high molecular weight extracellular polysaccharides. Poly-b-hydroxy butyrate is a polymer of D(-)b-hydroxy butrate and has a molecular weight between 60,000 and 2,50,000. Some extracellular polymers also have higher molecular weights. It seems that higher molecular weight polymer acts as biocoating. In the present review, role of biochemistry on corrosion inhibition and possibilities of corrosion inhibition by various microbes are discussed. The role of bacteria on current demand during cathodic protection is also debated. In addition, some of the significant contributions made by CECRI in this promising area are highlighted.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1030-1045

 

 

Bioremediation: An important alternative for soil and industrial wastes clean-up

Carlos R. Soccol, Luciana P.S. Vandenberghe, Adenise L. Woiciechowski,
Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Cristiane Tagliari Correia & Ashok Pandey

 

Industrial and environmental biotechnology are going to new paths, resulting in processes with “clean technologies”, with the maximum production and the less residues. Technologies of remediation and bioremediation are continuously being improved using genetically modified microorganisms or those naturally occurring, to clean residues and contaminated areas from toxic organics. Bioremediation of soils, water and marine environments has many advantages but at the same time it is a challenge for the researchers and engineers. Consequently, it is extremely important to carry out feasibility study based on pilot-testing before starting a remediation project in order to determine the best conditions for the process. The article presents a brief review of bioremediation including the description of the different methods applied to soil and industrial wastes, and, finally, some experiences of solid-state fermentation in relation to bioremediation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1046-1067

 

 

Anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds

P Jothimani, G Kalaichelvan, A Bhaskaran, D Augustine Selvaseelan & K Ramasamy

 

Many aromatic compounds and their monomers are existing in nature. Besides they are introduced into the environment by human activity. The conversion of these aromatic compounds is mainly an aerobic process because of the involvement of molecular oxygen in ring fission and as an electron acceptor. Recent literatures indicated that ring fission of monomers and obligomers mainly occurs in anaerobic environments through anaerobic respiration with nitrate, sulphate, carbon dioxide or carbonate as electron acceptors. These anaerobic processes will help to work out the better situation for bioremediation of contaminated environments. While there are plenty of efforts to reduce the release of these chemicals to the environment, already contaminated sites need to be remediated not only to restore the sites but to prevent the leachates spreading to nearby environment. Basically microorganisms are better candidates for breakdown of these compounds because of their wider catalytic mechanisms and the ability to act even in the absence of oxygen. These microbes can be grouped based on their energy mechanisms. Normally, the aerobic counterparts employ the enzymes like mono-and-di -oxygenases. The end product is basically catechol, which further may be metabolised to CO2 by means of quinones reductases cycles. In the absense of reductases compounds, the reduced catechols tend to become oxidised to form many quinone compounds. The quinone products are more recalcitrant and lead to other aesthetic problems like colour in water, unpleasant odour, etc. On the contrary, in the reducing environment this process is prevented and in a cascade of pathways, the cleaved products are converted to acetyl co-A to be integrated into other central metabolite paths.

 

The central metabolite of anaerobic degradation is invariably co-A thio-esters of benzoic acid or hydroxy benzoic acid. The benzene ring undergoes various substitution and addition reactions to form chloro-, nitro-, methyl- compounds. For complete degradation the side chains must be removed first and then the benzene ring is activated by carboxylation or hydroxylation or co-A thioester formation. In the next step the activated ring is converted to a form that can be collected in the central pool of metabolism. The third step is the channeling reaction in which the products of the catalysis are directed into central metabolite pool. The enzymes involved in these mechanisms are mostly benzyl co-A ligase, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Other enzymes involved in this path are yet to be purified though many of the reactions products that have been theoretically postulated have been identified. This is mainly due to the instability of intermediate compounds as well as the association of the enzyme substrate is femoral and experimental conditions need to be sophisticated further for isolation of these enzymes. The first structural genes of benzoate and hydroxy benzoate ligases were isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. This gene cluster of 30 kb size found in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coded for the Bad A protein. Similarly, some of the bph A,B,C and D cluster of genes coding for the degradation of pentachlorobenzenes were located in Pseudomonas pseudoalgaligenesKF 707.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1068-1075

 

 

Bioremediation concepts for treatment of dye containing wastewater: A review

Haresh Keharia & Datta Madamwar

 

Synthetic dyes are extensively used in wide range of industries amongst which textile processing industries are the major consumers. Large amounts of dyes are lost in wastewaters of these industries during dyeing and subsequent washing steps of textiles. These dyes are resistant to degradation by conventional wastewater treatment plants and are released into environment untreated thus causing pollution of surface and ground waters in the areas of the world harboring such industries. Presence of color in wastewaters has become major environmental concern and stringent discharge standards are being enforced on release of colored wastewaters in environment. The seriousness of the problem is apparent from the magnitude of the research done in this field in last decade. Increasing number of microorganisms are being described for their ability to decolorize and degrade artificial dyes and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment dye bearing wastewaters are being worked out. In this review we have investigated potential microbial processes for developing feasible remediation technology to combat environmental pollution due to dye bearing wastewaters.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, September 2003, pp. 1076-1087

 

 

Synthetic dye decolourization by white rot fungi

K Murugesan & P T Kalaichelvan

 

Synthetic dyes are integral part of many industrial products. The effluents generated from textile dyeing units create major environmental problems and issues both in public and textile units. Industrial wastewater treatment is one of the major problems in the present scenario. Though, the physical and chemical methods offer some solutions to the problems, it is not affordable by the unit operators. Biological degradation is recognized as the most effective method for degrading the dye present in the waste. Research over a period of two decades had provided insight into the various aspects of biological degradation of dyes. It is observed that the white rot fungi have a non-specific enzyme system, which oxidizes the recalcitrant dyes. Detailed and extensive studies have been made and process developed for treatment of dye containing wastewaters by white rot fungi and their enzyme systems. An attempt is made to summarize the detailed research contributions on these lines.

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

CSIR Diamond Jubilee Special Issue
on

Bacterium-plant Symbiosis

 

The October 2003 issue of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology will be a special issue devoted to the most contemporary theme: ‘Bacterium-plant Symbiosis’. This issue will cover the expression of symbiotic genes in Rhizobium sp. NGR234, soybean cultivar-specific nodulation by Sinorhizobium fredii, cysteine proteases in nodulation and nitrogen fixation, proteomics approach to explore signal exchanges in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, effect of drought stress on nitrogen fixation, biotic and abiotic constraints on symbiosis, nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodulation, rhizobia as a biocontrol agent and root nodulation of non-legumes. The research findings on the isolation and symbiotic characterization of Tn5-induced arginine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti are being reported.

 

Eminent scientists like Drs. X.Perret (Switzerland), H.Kobayashi (Mexico), H. B. Krishnan (U.S.A.), N. J. Brewin (U.K.), R. Serraj (Morocco), K. Lindström (Finland), S. C. Kang (Korea), D. K. Maheshwari (India) and K. Pawlowski (Germany) have made contributions to this special issue which has been jointly Guest Edited by Dr. G. S. Randhawa (IIT, Roorkee, India, sharnfbs@iitr.ernet.in) and Dr. G.B. Kiss (Hungary).

 

 

 

 

 

———————————

Erratum

 

Registration of spontaneous photon emission from virus-infected cell cultures: Development of experimental system, by Michael Lipkind, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol. 41, May 2003, pp. 457-472.

Pages 462 and 463: The photoplate on page 462 is Fig. 2 and the one on p. 463 is Fig. 1.

 

———————————

 

 

Author Index

 

Arunkumar K R

972

Mohapatra Harapriya

945

Augustine Selvaseelan D

1046

Muralidharan S

1012

Avudainayagam S

972

Murugesan K

1076

 

 

Muthukrishnan J

935

Bhaskaran A

1046

Muthukumar N

1012

 

 

 

 

Correia Cristiane Tagliari

1030

Palaniappan R

1023

 

 

Palaniswamy N

1012,  1023

Dautpure Premlata

991

Pandey Ashok

1030

 

 

Ponmariappan S

1012, 1023

Eisler Ronald

967

 

 

 

 

Raghavan M

1012

Garg S K

986

Rajasekar A

1012

Gunasekaran P

935

Rajendran P

935

Gupta Rani

945

Ramasamy K

1046

 

 

Ramasamy K

972

Iyer R H

1002

Ramteke P W

986

Jothimani P

1046

Rengaswamy N S

1023

 

 

 

 

Kalaichelvan G

1046

Sarnaik Seema

991

Kalaichelvan P T

1076

Soccol Carlos R

1030

Kamaludeen Sara Parwin Banu

972

Soccol Vanete Thomaz

1030

Kanekar Pradnya

991

Srinath T

986

Keharia Haresh

1068

Subramanian P

1012

 

 

 

 

Madamwar Datta

1068

Vandenberghe Luciana P S

1030

Maruthamuthu S

1012,1023

 

 

Mohanan S

1012,1023

Woiciechowaki Adenise L

1030

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Anaerobic biodegradation

1046

Immobilized biomass

986

Aromatic pollutant

1046

Industrial effluents

1002

 

 

Industrial waste management

1030

Bacillus coagulans

986

 

 

Biocides

1012

Lignoltic enzymes

1076

Biodegradation

991, 1046

Liquid membrane

1002

Biofilm

1023

 

 

Biological treatment

1068

Metal binding potential

945

Biorecovery of gold

967

Metal bioremediation

935

Bioremediation

972, 991

Metal pollutant

945

 

1030, 1046

Metallic corrosion

1023

 

1076

Microbial biomass

945

Bioremediation techniques

935

Microbial corrosion

1012

Biosorption

986

Microbial metal bioremediation

935

 

 

 

 

Cassava bagasse

1030

Nitro-explosives

991

Chromium (VI)

986

 

 

Chromium contamination

972

Oil pipelines

1012

Chromium reducing microbes

972

Oil shores

1030

Coffee husk

1030

 

 

Corrosion

1012, 1023

Petroleum product

1012

Corrosion control

1023

 

 

 

 

Recalcitrant compounds

1076

Decolourization

1076

Recovery of elements

1002

Degradation of oil

1012

 

 

Degradation of textile dyes

1068

Soil contamination

1030

Dyes in wastewater

1068

Solid-state fermentation

1030

 

 

Storage tanks

1012

Effluent treatment

945

Supported liquid membrane

1002

Elution

986

Synthetic dyes

1076

Engineered microorganisms

972

 

 

Environmental pollution

1068

Textile waste

1068

 

 

Trace elements

1002

Gold uptake

967

Track-etch membrane

1002

 

 

 

 

Heavy metals

935,945, 1030

Waste water

991

Heavy metal contamination

935

White rot fungi

1076

Heterotrophic bacteria

1023

 

 

Hydrocarbon-degrading

1030