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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 42(4) 337-438 (2004)

VOLUME 42

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Review Article

Nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B: Role in biology and medicine

Bharat B Aggarwal, Yasunari Takada, Shishir Shishodia, Angelica M Gutierrez, Oommen V Oommen, Haruyo Ichikawa, Yuh Baba & Ashok Kumar

341

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K 48/00]

 

 
Papers

 

Localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in thyroid tumor xenografts

Archana A Damle, Archana A Narkar & Damayanti H Shah

354

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61 K 51/10]

 

 

Cholinergic-NO-cGMP mediation of sildenafil-induced antinociception

Chandrashekhar S Patil, Naveen K Jain, Vijay Pal Singh & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

361

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K 45/00]

 

 

Investigation of central mechanism of insulin induced hypoglycemic convulsions in mice

K Anuradha, D Hota & P Pandhi

368

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K]

 

 

Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis

Bimala Singh, R K Kale & A R Rao

 

 

373

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K 35/00]

 

Interrelationship among testicular cells in wall lizard hemidactylus flaviviridis (rüppell): An ultrastructural seasonal and experimental study

U W Khan & Umesh Rai

 

378

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

Effect of Bacopa monniera and Azadirachta indica on gastric ulceration and healing in experimental NIDDM rats

M Dorababu, T Prabha, S Priyambada, V K Agrawal, N C Aryya & R K Goel

 

389

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K]

 

 

Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of effect of cortisol on chloride cells of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

Francis Sunny & Oommen V Oommen

 

398

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

Effects of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth of penaeid prawn
Metapenaeus dobsoni (de Man)

P R Venkitraman K V Jayalakshmy, T Balasubramanian, Maheswari Nair &
K K C Nair

 

403

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

Toxic and sub-lethal effects of oleandrin on biochemical parameters of fresh water air breathing murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch.)

Sudhanshu Tiwari & Ajay Singh

 

413

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

Inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis by mercury in excised etiolated maize leaf segments during greening: Effect of 2-oxoglutarate

Meeta Jain & Rekha Gadre

 

419

 

 

Efficient clonal propagation method for Decalepis hamiltonii, an endangered shrub, under the influence of phloroglucinol

H B Gururaj, P Giridhar & G A Ravishankar

 

424

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01H 1/00]

 

 

Notes

 

Formalin assay parameters differ in confirming the antinociceptive mechanism of domperidone in mice

M Sivasanker, P M K Reddy, C H Shashindran & S Ramaswamy

 

429

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

Semecarpus anacardium L, nuts inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced NO production in rat macrophages along with its hypolipidemic property

Y B Tripathi & R S Pandey

 

432

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K 35/00]

 

 

Antigenotoxic effect of allicin against SCEs induced by methyl methanesulphonate in cultured mammalian cells

Yasir Hasan Siddique & Mohammad Afzal

 

437

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K 35/00]

 

 
Author Index
 
   
Keyword Index
 

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 341-353

 

Nuclear transcription factor NF-kappa B: Role in
biology and medicine

Bharat B Aggarwal, Yasunari Takada, Shishir Shishodia,
Angelica M Gutierrez, Oommen V Oommen, Haruyo Ichikawa, Yuh Baba & Ashok Kumar

 

The inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) plays a central role in regulation of many immune, inflammatory and carcinogenic responses. While normal activation of NF-kB is required for cell survival and immunity, aberrant regulation of NF-kB leads to development of many pathological states especially those involved in acute inflammation. Recent advances in our knowledge of the signaling mechanisms those control the activation of NF-kB highlights the intriguing aspect of NF-kB regulation, namely the ability of many different signal transduction pathways originating from a wide variety of inducing mechanisms to converge on a single target, the NF-kB/IkB complex. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the NF-kB signaling pathways, their role in various cellular responses and the potential of using NF-kB as a therapeutic target in modern medicine.

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 354-360 

 

Localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies
in thyroid tumor xenografts

Archana A Damle, Archana A Narkar & Damayanti H Shah

 

Monoclonal antibodies to human thyroglobulin were produced using the hybridoma technique. Two monoclonal antibodies D5I and F9I were radiolabeled with 125I and used for radioimmunolocalization studies in an immunosuppressed animal model bearing xenografts of human thyroid tumor tissue. Biodistribution studies were carried out at various time intervals post-injection. Maximum tumor uptake was obtained at 72 hr after administration of the antibodies. The absolute tumor uptake (ATU) expressed as percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) was 15.49 ± 2.47, 4.51 ± 0.69 and 2.50 ± 0.41 for D5I, F9I and control Igs respectively. The tumor to blood ratios (T/B) obtained were 3.01 ± 0.43 for D5I, 0.98±0.2 for F9I and 0.47 ± 0.12 for control Igs. ATU as well as T/B ratio obtained with D5I was significantly higher as compared to F9I and control Igs. The results indicated the potential application of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to human thyroglobulin for tumor targetting in patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, particularly those metastases which did not concentrate radioiodine.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 361-367

 

Cholinergic-NO-cGMP mediation of sildenafil-induced antinociception

Chandrashekhar S Patil, Naveen K Jain, Vijay Pal Singh, Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Acetylcholine and cholinomimetic agents with predominant muscarinic action are known to increase the concentration of cGMP by activation of nitric oxide signaling pathway in the nociceptive conditions. The present study was aimed to investigate the NO-cGMP-PDE5 pathway in nociceptive conditions in the experimental animals. Nociceptive threshold was assessed by acetic acid-induced writhing assay (chemonociception) or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia. Sildenafil [1-5 mg/kg, ip, 50-200 μg/paw, intraplantar (ipl)] produced dose dependent antinociception in both the tested models. Co-administration of acetylcholine (50 mcg/paw, ipl) or cholinomimetic agent, neostigmine (0.1 mcg/kg, ip and 25 ng/paw, ipl) augmented the peripheral antinociceptive effect of sildenafil. This effect was sensitive to blockade by L-NAME (20 mg/kg, ip, 100 μg/paw, ipl), a non-selective NOS inhibitor and methylene blue (1 mg/kg, ip), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor,which per se had little or no effect in both the models of nociception. Further, the per se analgesic effect of acetylcholine and neostigmine was blocked by both L-NAME and methylene blue in the models of nociception, suggesting the activation of NO-cGMP pathway. Also, both L-NAME and methylene blue blocked the per se analgesic effect of sildenafil. These results indicate the peripheral accumulation of cGMP may be responsible for antinociceptive effect, and a possible interaction between cholinergic agents and PDE5 system in models of nociception.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 368-372

 

Investigation of central mechanism of insulin induced hypoglycemic convulsions in mice

K Anuradha, D Hota & P Pandhi

 

Insulin produces seizures in healthy and diabetic animals. Amongst suggested mechanisms, the role of neuromodulators and neurotransmitters is not clear. The present study explores the mechanisms involved in insulin-induced convulsions. Convulsions were induced in Swiss male albino mice with graded doses of insulin. Blood sugar levels were measured prior to and after the first convulsion. Drugs like 5-HTP (5-HT precursor), pCPA (5-HT depletor), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist), ketanserin (5-HT2 antagonist), ketamine (NMDA antagonist), l-dopa (dopamine precursor) and reserpine (amine depletor) were studied for interaction with convulsive behaviour induced by insulin. Insulin in 2 IU/kg dose did not produce convulsions while 4 and 8 IU/kg doses produced convulsions in 50% and 100% of animals respectively. 5-HTP, ondansetron, ketanserin, ketamine and l-dopa significantly protected / inhibited animals from convulsions at all studied doses of insulin. On the contrary, pCPA and reserpine potentiated insulin induced convulsions. Insulin caused mortality in 40 and 100% animals with 4 and 8 IU/kg doses respectively. pCPA and reserpine treatments caused mortality at all doses of insulin, while other drugs did not influence insulin induced mortality. Blood sugar levels were reduced in all groups irrespective of the presence or absence of convulsions. A definitive link of serotonergic, dopaminergic and excitatory amino acid pathways in mediating insulin-induced hypoglycemic convulsions is suggested.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 373-377

 

Modulation of antioxidant potential in liver of mice by kernel oil of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and its lack of tumour promoting ability in DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis

Bimala Singh, R K Kale & A R Rao

 

Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 ml/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 378-388

 

Interrelationship among testicular cells
in wall lizard hemidactylus flaviviridis (rüppell): An ultrastructural seasonal and experimental study

U W Khan & Umesh Rai

 

The present study was aimed at investigating ultrastructure of different testicular cells and their interactions through various junctional specializations during different phases of reproductive cycle in wall lizard H. flaviviridis to develop an integrated approach of cell-cell interaction in control of testicular functions. Specialized steroid synthesizing cell organelles such as smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and long slender mitochondria with tubulo-vesicular cristae were predominantly seen in Leydig as well as Sertoli cells during spermatogenically active phase, suggesting their active involvement in steroid biosynthesis. Peritubular cells also exhibited marked seasonal variations. multi-layered fibroblast-like peritubular cells during regressed phase became single layered myoid-like during spermatogenically active phase. The presence of various types of junctions, including gap and tight junctions (occluding junctions) and adhering junctions such as desmosomes, septate-like junction, ectoplasmic specializations and tubulo-bulbar complexes, were demonstrated among testicular cells in wall lizard H. flaviviridis. However, the nature and degree of junctional (environmental) interaction varied with the reproductive state of the wall lizard. Further, administration of dihydrotestosterone in wall lizards during regressed phase resulted in increase of lipid droplets in Leydig cells and accumulation of germ cell debris in seminiferous tubules. Some of the Sertoli cells were seen darker in response to testosterone treatment probably due to its inhibitory effect on lipid metabolism. These results suggest that testosterone either directly or via inhibiting pituitary basal gonadotropin secretion has suppressive effect on testicular cells.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 389-397

 

Effect of Bacopa monniera and Azadirachta indica on gastric ulceration and healing in experimental NIDDM rats

M Dorababu, T Prabha, S Priyambada, V K Agrawal, N C Aryya & R K Goel

 

Gastric ulcers were induced in normal/ NIDDM rats by various physical (2 hr cold restraint stress and 4 hr pylorus ligation) and chemical agents (ethanol, 1 ml/200 g, oral, 1 hr before; aspirin, 200 mg/kg, oral, 4 hr) and duodenal ulcers were induced by cysteamine (40 mg/200 g). Ulcer healing activity was studied in gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid (50%) and HCl (0.6 M). The result indicated that in both, normal and NIDDM rats, B. monniera extract (BME, 20-100 mg/kg) did not show any significant effect on blood glucose level, while A. indica (AIE, 250-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased it. However, both BME (50 mg/kg) and AIE (500 mg/kg) showed significant anti-ulcer and ulcer-healing activities in normal and NIDDM rats. Further, the present results also indicated that the ulcer protective effects of BME was more pronounced in non-diabetic, while that of AIE was more in NIDDM rats. The anti-ulcer and ulcer-healing activities of BME and AIE may be due to their effects on various mucosal offensive and defensive factors, and correction of blood sugar level by AIE may help to have more ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 398-402

 

Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of effect of cortisol on chloride cells of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

Francis Sunny and and Oommen V Oommen

 

The effect of exogenous administration of cortisol (0.2 µg/g body weight) for 24, 48 and 72 hr on the gill epithelium of Tilapia has been studied. The results clearly revealed that out of the three sub-types of chloride cells viz., shallow basin, wavy convex and deep hole, the shallow basin ones are the most abundant in number. In vivo administration of cortisol conspicuously increased the number of the shallow basin chloride cells and caused noticeable changes in the microridges of pavement cells right from 24 hr treatment onwards. The present study confirms heterogeneity of chloride cells in teleosts.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 403-412

 

Effects of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth of penaeid prawn Metapenaeus dobsoni (de Man)

P R Venkitraman and K V Jayalakshmy, T Balasubramanian, Maheswari Nair & K K C Nair

 

Penaeid prawns M. dobsoni of two different size ranges were ablated both unilaterally (UEA) and bilaterally (BEA) and subjected to individual study. The UEA prawns consumed almost the same amount of food as the control prawns in the size group, 35-40mm, but consumed about 57.8% more food than the control prawns in the larger size group, 48-53mm. Growth was estimated as length and weight changes and significant variation was observed. The moult rate and dry moult weight showed marked differences. Average intermoult period increases with second ablation. Dry weight of moult in every succeeding moult was found to decrease irrespective of the level of ablation. Unilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in increase in dry weight whereas bilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the dry weight of moult and this decrease in the rate increased after each subsequent moult. In the larger size group, values of protein efficiency ratio (PER) were almost same as that of the lower size group. The UEA prawns exhibited highest conversion efficiency. The production rate of UEA prawns was 84% more than that of the control whereas BEA prawns indicated negative production. The same trend followed for net growth efficiency also. The results suggest that unilateral eyestalk ablation can be resorted to accelerate growth and conversion efficiency. Eyestalk ablation has been frequently resorted in matured forms for inducing maturation of gonads. For the first time attempts have been made to compare between the effects of removing one eyestalk versus two and changes taking place in juvenile forms especially in their physiology related to growth.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 413-418

 

Toxic and sub-lethal effects of oleandrin on biochemical parameters of fresh water air breathing murrel,
Channa punctatus (Bloch.)

 Sudhanshu Tiwari & Ajay Singh

 

Active compound oleandrin extracted from Nerium indicum (Lal Kaner) leaf has potent piscicidal activity. The piscicidal activity of oleandrin on freshwater fish C. punctatus was both time and dose dependent. Exposure to sub-lethal doses of oleandrin for 24hr and 96hr to fish caused significant alteration in the level of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acid, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and enzyme protease, phosphatases, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and acetylcholinesterase activity in liver and muscle tissues. The alterations in all the above biochemical parameters were also significantly time and dose dependent. The results show a significant recovery in all the above biochemical parameters, in both liver and muscle tissues of fish after the 7th day of the withdrawal of treatment. Toxicity persistence test of oleandrin on juvenile Labeo rohita shows that fish seed of common culturing carp can be released into rearing ponds after three days of oleandrin treatment. It supports the view that the oleandrin is safer and may be useful substitute of other piscicides for removing the unwanted freshwater fishes from aquaculture ponds.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 419-423

 

Inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis by mercury in
excised etiolated maize leaf segments during greening :
Effect of 2-oxoglutarate

Meeta Jain & Rekha Gadre

 

Mercury (0.01-1.0 mM) inhibited chlorophyll formation in greening maize leaf segments. However, supplementing incubation medium with 2-oxoglutarate, maintained substantially higher level of chlorophyll in absence of metal after an initial period of 8 hr. On preincubation of leaf segments with HgCl2, per cent inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis by metal was same in the presence and absence of 2-oxoglutarate. Supply of 2-oxoglutarate (0.1-10.0 mM) exerted concentration dependent effect on chlorophyll formation in absence or presence of metal. Increase in δ-amino levulinic acid dehydratase as well as NADH-glutamate synthase activity and decrease in NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase activity by 2-oxoglutarate in the presence of Hg suggested that glutamate for δ–amino levulinic acid synthesis could be made available from NH4+ assimilation via.,glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway during mercury toxicity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 424-428

 

Efficient clonal propagation method for
Decalepis hamiltonii, an endangered shrub,
under the influence of phloroglucinol

H B Gururaj, P Giridhar & G A Ravishankar

 

A highly efficient two stage protocol was developed for induction of multiple shoots from single node in vitro shoot tip explants of Decalepis hamiltonii. It was found that phloroglucinol (PG) had synergistic effect on shoot multiplication when added with N6-benzyladenine and gibberellic acid. This protocol uses PG for both multiple shoot induction from nodal explants, elongation of primary shoots and initiation of adventitious shoot formation from primary shoots , which was more in presence of triacontanol (TRIA). Maximum number of shoots per culture was observed on the medium containing N6-benzyladenine (1.1 µM; BA), GA3 (5.8 µM) and PG (800 µM). Sub-culturing of the shoots onto MS medium containing optimum concentration of BA (5.6 µM ), PG (200 µM) and TRIA (0.011 µM) produced elongated shoots along with secondary shoot formation. The long shoots were rooted on α -naphthalene acetic acid (5.38 µM; NAA) and PG (400 µM) containing medium. The rooted plantlets were hardened and their field survival rate was 80 -90%.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 429-431

 

Notes

 

Formalin assay parameters differ in confirming the antinociceptive mechanism of domperidone in mice

M Sivasanker, P M K Reddy, C H Shashindran & S Ramaswamy

 

Domperidone, a prokinetic drug with minimal extrapyramidal side-effects was investigated for its antinociceptive response in mice using formalin assay procedure. Two parameters namely the pain score and the time spent by the animal in licking/biting the formalin injected paw were considered. Domperidone (1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg; ip) injected 15 min prior to formalin effectively reduced the pain score bringing it to zero at the 15th minute and was also effective till 30 min but to a lesser degree. This effect of domperidone (2.5 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated in naloxone pretreated mice indicating a partial role for opioid pathways. In the other parameter i.e. time spent in licking/biting, domperidone in all the doses employed failed to modify significantly the same by the animal in the early phase. In contrast, a dose related inhibition of the time spent was recorded in the late phase. Besides, a trend towards the enhancement of the inhibitory effect of domperidone (2.5 mg/kg) in the late phase was noticed in naloxone pretreated mice. Possibly, the peripheral analgesic mechanisms may play a role in this response since the late phase was considered akin to inflammation. The results confirm the antinociceptive effect of domperidone and suggest that caution be exercised while selecting the parameters when formalin assay is employed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 432-436

 

Semecarpus anacardium L, nuts inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced NO production in rat macrophages along with its hypolipidemic property

Y B Tripathi & R S Pandey

 

Traditionally S. anacardium is used for rejuvenation, rheumatoid arthritis, fever and neurological disorders. In the present study it was observed that a fraction of S. anacardium at dose of 1 mg/100g body wt, significantly reduced serum cholesterol from 378.87 mg/dl in the rats fed with atherogenic diet (AD) to 197.99 mg/dl (45-52%) in the rats fed with AD diet and increased serum HDL-cholesterol (33-37%). The same fraction also inhibited LPS induced NO production  in the culture activated rat peritoneal macrophages in the dose dependent manner with IC 50 value at 50 ng/ml of the culture medium. The drug in the above doses was completely safe and non-toxic, (no change in the enzymes), to liver and kidney functions.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, April 2004, pp. 437-438

 

Antigenotoxic effect of allicin against SCEs induced by methyl methanesulphonate in cultured mammalian cells

Yasir Hasan Siddique & Mohammad Afzal

 

Allicin, one of the sulphur compounds of garlic (Allium sativum), possesses antioxidant and thiol disulphide exchange activity and is also shown to cause a variety of activities potentially useful for human health. In this investigation, the effect of 1,5,10 and 20 mM of allicin was determined for inhibiting the rate of SCE induced by 60 mM of MMS. Cultured human lymphocytes from two female donors were used for the experiment. The levels of SCEs were lowered by allicin suggesting its antigenotoxic activity in mammalian cells in vitro.

 
 
AUTHOR INDEX

 

 

Afzal Mohammad

437

Jain Meeta

419

Rai Umesh

378

Aggarwal Bharat B

341

Jain Naveen K

361

Ramaswamy S

429

Agrawal V K

389

Jayalakshmy K V

403

Rao A R

373

Anuradha K

368

 

 

Ravishankar G A

424

Aryya N C

389

Kale R K

373

Reddy P M K

429

 

 

Khan U W

378

 

 

Baba Yuh

341

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

361

Shah Damayanti H

354

Balasubramanian T

403

Kumar Ashok

341

Shashindran C H

429

 

 

 

 

Shishodia Shishir

341

Damle Archana A

354

Nair K K C

403

Siddique Yasir Hasan

437

Dorababu M

389

Nair Maheswari

403

Singh Ajay

413

 

 

Narkar Archana A

354

Singh Bimala

373

Gadre Rekha

419

 

 

Singh Vijay Pal

361

Giridhar P

424

Oommen V Oommen

341

Sivasanker M

429

Goel R K

389

Oommen V Oommen

398

Sunny Francis

398

Gururaj H B

424

 

 

 

 

Gutierrez Angelica M

341

Pandey R S

432

Takada Yasunari

341

 

 

Pandhi P

368

Tiwari Sudhanshu

413

Hota D

368

Patil Chandrashekhar S

361

Tripathi Y B

432

 

 

Prabha T

389

 

 

Ichikawa Haruyo

341

Priyambada S

389

Venkitraman P R

403

 

 

 

 

KEYWORD INDEX

 

 

Air breathing murrel

413

Gill epithelium

398

Oleandrin

413

Allicin

437

Growth

403

Oreochromis mossambicus

398

Allium sativum

437

 

 

Osmoregulation

398

Anacardium occidentalte

373

Hemidactylus flaviviridis

378

Oxoglutarate (2)

419

Anti-atherosclerotic

432

Herbal medicine

432

 

 

Antigenotoxicity

437

Hypoglycemia

368

Pavement cells

 398

Anti-inflammatory

432

Hypolipidemic

432

PDE 5 inhibitors

 361

Antinociception

429

 

 

Penaeid prawns

 403

Antioxidant

373

Immunity

341

Peritubular myoid cell

 378

Axillary bud

424

Inflammation

341

Phloroglucinol

 424

Azadirachta indica

389

Insulin

368

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rat

 389

Bacopa monniera

389

Leydig cell

378

 

 

 

 

Liver, Kernel oil

373

Semecarpus anacardium

 432

Cashew nut

373

 

 

Sertoli cell

 378

Channa punctatus

413

Macrophage function

432

Sister-chromatid exchange

437

Chloride cells

398

Mammalian cells

437

Skin papillomagenesis

373

Chlorophyll

419

Mercury effects

419

 

 

Cholinergic

361

Metapenaeus dobsoni

403

Testosterone

378

cholinomimetic agents

361

Methyl methanesulphonate

437

Therapy

341

Clonal propagation

424

Mice

368

Thyroglobulin

354

Convulsion

368

Modulation of antioxidant

373

Thyroid tumor xenograft

354

Cortisol

398

Monoclonal antibodies

354

Tilapia

398

 

 

Moulting

403

Tumorigenesis

341

Decalepis hamiltonii

424

Multiple shoots

424

Tumour

373

DMBA

373

 

 

 

 

Domperidone

429

Naloxone

429

Ulcer healing

389

 

 

NF-kB

341

Ultrastructure

378

Eyestalk ablation

403

NIDDM

389

 

 

Formalin assay

429

Nitric oxide

432

Wall lizard

378

 

 

Nociception

361

 

 

Gastric ulceration

389

NOS

361

Zea mays

419

Germ cell

378