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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  42(2)  127-230  (2004)

VOLUME 42

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2004

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

Cellular automata and its advances to drug therapy for HIV infection

M A Peer, N A Shah & K A Khan

131

 

 

Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules

Neera Garg, Ranju Singla & Geetanjali

138

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of simultaneous exposure to lead and cadmium on gonadotropin binding and steroidogenesis on granulosa cells: An in vitro study

P N Laxmi Priya, Anil Pillai & Sarita Gupta

 

143

 

 

Inhibitory effect of manganese on contraction of isolated rat aorta

R R Ettarh

149

 

 

Experimental pathogenicity evaluation of Mycoplasma canadense from bovine mastitis in vitro and in vivo laboratory models

D N Garg , Y Singh, R Yadav & S K Mahajan

 

152

 

 

Potentiation of insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 by proteinase inhibitors in the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

G T Gujar, V Kalia, Archana Kumari & T V Prasad

 

157

 

 

Development and mechanisms of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac in the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

K Chandrashekar & G T Gujar

 

164

 

 

Protective effect of Terminalia chebula against experimental myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol

S Suchalatha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

174

 

 

Antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities of phytic acid in rats

M Sudheer Kumar, B Sridhar Reddy, S Kiran Babu, P M Bhilegaonkar, A Shirwaikar & M K Unnikrishnan

179

 

 

Phytochemical studies and effect on urine volume of Glossostemon bruguieri Desf. constituents

N H El-Sayed, A S Awaad & T J Mabry

 

186

 

 

A partial sequence of lipoxygenase gene from genomic DNA of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.)

S Basak, A Sachdev & R P Johari

190

 

 

Role of phenolics and boron in reproductive success in seasonally transient sterile Tecoma stans L.

S V S Chauhan, Jolly Singh & Satoshi Tahara

 

197

 

 

Production of lipase in a fermentor using a mutant strain of Corynebacterium species: Its partial purification and immobilization

Nityananda Roy, Lalitagauri Ray & Parimal Chattopadhyay

 

202

 

 

Effect of glyphosate toxicity on growth, pigment and alkaline phosphatase activity in cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: A role of inorganic phosphate in glyphosate tolerance

Shikha, D P Singh & N S Darmwal

 

 

208

 

 

Notes

 

Hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds by an esterase isozyme from insecticide resistant pest Helicoverpa armigera

R Srinivas, S K Jayalakshmi & K Sreeramulu

 

214

 

 

Ferric reductase, superoxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase activities in siderophore producing fungi

Arefa Baakza, B P Dave & H C Dube

 

217

 

 

Vitamin E prevents nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress in testis of rats

K C Chitra & P P Mathur

220

 

 

Role of Arogh, a polyherbal formulation to mitigate          oxidative stress in experimental myocardial infarction

S Suchalatha, P Thirugnanasambandam, E Maheswaran & C S Shyamala Devi

 

224

 

 

Effect of different temperature on starch synthase activity in excised grains of
wheat cultivars

Pravin Prakash, Poonam Sharma-Natu & M C Ghildiyal

 

227

Author Index
Keyword Index

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 131-137

 Review Articles

 

Cellular automata and its advances to drug therapy
for HIV infection

M A Peer, N A Shah & K A Khan

 

This paper gives an over view of the use of cellular automata (CA) model of drug therapy for HIV infection. Non-uniform CA is employed to simulate drug treatment of HIV infection, where each computational domain may contain different CA rules, in contrast to normal uniform CA models. Ordinary (or partial) differential equation models are insufficient to describe the two extreme time scales involved in HIV infection (days and decades), as well as the implicit spatial heterogeneity. Zorzenon and Coutinho [Phy Rev Lett, 16 (2001) 1] reported a cellular automata approach to simulate three-phase patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection consisting of primary response, clinical latency and onset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). But here we present a related model, based on non-uniform CA to study the dynamics of drug therapy of HIV infection. The main aim in this model is to simulate the four phases (acute, chronic, drug treatment responds and onset of AIDS). The results shown here indicate that both simulations (with and without treatments) evolve to the relatively same steady state (characteristics of Wolfram’s class II behavior). Different kinds of drug therapies can also be simulated in this model, which can be found useful for developing a proper drug therapy.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 138-142

 

 

Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules

Neera Garg, Ranju Singla & Geetanjali

 

A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 143-148

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of simultaneous exposure to lead and
cadmium on gonadotropin binding and steroidogenesis on granulosa cells: An in vitro study

P N Laxmi Priya, Anil Pillai & Sarita Gupta

 

Effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) both alone or in combination on the binding of LH and FSH on isolated granulosa cells were studied. Granulosa cells isolated from proestrous rats were incubated (in vitro) with lead acetate and / or cadmium acetate (0.03 mM of Pb or Cd) for 1 hr. LH binding was dropped to 84% in Pb treated cells, 72.5% in Cd treated cells and 74.8% in combined metal treated cells compared to control. FSH binding dropped to 85.5% in Pb treated cells, 71.16% in Cd treated cells and 72.5% in combined metal treated cells compared to control. Activity of 17b Hydroxy Steroid Dehydrogenase (17bHSDH), a key steroidogenic enzyme was reduced by 52% in Cd and 37% in combined metal exposed cells whereas Pb exposed cells showed 31% reduction in the enzyme activity. Pretreatment with SH groups protectants (glutathione [GSH], dithiothretol [DTT]) and zinc caused an ameriolation in enzyme activity whereas Zn pretreatment showed an increase in gonadotropin binding in metal exposed cells. These results suggest that both Pb and Cd can cause a reduction in LH and FSH binding, which significantly alters steroid production in vitro and exerts a direct influence on granulosa cell function.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 149-151

 

Inhibitory effect of manganese on contraction of
isolated rat aorta

R R Ettarh

 

The effects of MnCl2 on vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by noradrenaline (NA) and KCl were investigated. Rings segments from rat aorta were isolated and changes in isometric tension recorded. MnCl2 (10 µM and 1 mM) significantly attenuated the contractile responses to NA and KCl. There were also reductions in the contractile responses to CaCl2 in NA- and KCl-stimulated rings, after pretreatment with MnCl2. The magnitude of the phasic contraction to NA was significantly reduced in presence of MnCl2. The results suggest that MnCl2 inhibits vascular smooth muscle contraction by influencing a Ca2+-mediated mechanism.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 152-156

 

Experimental pathogenicity evaluation of
Mycoplasma canadense from bovine mastitis in vitro
and in vivo laboratory models

D N Garg, Y Singh & R Yadav

and

S K Mahajan

 

Mycoplasma canadense, a clinical isolate from milk of a mastitic buffalo, was experimentally tested for its pathogenic potential in hamster tracheal ring and rabbit fallopian tube explant organ cultures (in vitro) and rat and rabbit mammary gland (in vivo) models. The activity percentage reduction in M. canadense infected hamster tracheal rings was 99.1% in comparison to 16.4% in control rings. Mycoplasma canadense, also induced complete ciliostasis at 11-day post-infection in rabbit fallopian tube explants. Histopathological lesions in these infected organ cultures were loss of cilia, desquamation or denudation of epithelium, infiltration of inflammatory cells and proliferation of macrophages as well as oedema in lamina propria. At the end of the experiments, M. canadense organisms were reisolated in pure colonies from the infected but not the control organ cultures. In the rat and rabbit mammary glands, M. canadense organisms persisted upto 6-day and 7-day postinfection, respectively and caused histopathological changes suggestive of subacute to chronic mastitis during the experimental period. The results indicate that the tested M. canadense clinical isolate was virulent.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 157-163

 

 

Potentiation of insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 by proteinase inhibitors in the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

G T Gujar, V Kalia, Archana Kumari & T V Prasad

 

The effect of crude proteinase inhibitor extracts from seeds of different crop plants (black gram, chickpea, chickling vetch, finger millet, French bean, green gram, horse gram, lentil, pea and soybean) on the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 was investigated against neonate larvae of H. armigera by diet incorporation method. The larval mortality due to crude proteinase inhibitors alone (5% seed weight equivalent) ranged from 4.1 to 19.1%; the maximum mortality with finger millet and the minimum with pea var. DDR-23. A mixture of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (10 ppm) and proteinase inhibitor (5% seed weight equivalent) was synergistic in larval mortality with respect to proteinase inhibitors of pea var. DMR-16, chickling vetch var. RLK-1098 and B101-212, lentil var. ILL-8095 and L-4076, soybean var. PK-1042, PK-416 and Pusa-22, chickpea var. Pusa-413, French bean (Chitra) and black gram; and antagonistic with respect to those of finger millet, horse gram and kidney bean. The larval growth reduction with crude proteinase inhibitors alone ranged from 17.9 to 53.1%; the maximum growth reduction with soybean var. PK-1042 and minimum with lentil var. L-4076. A mixture of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and proteinase inhibitor was synergistic in growth reduction with respect to proteinase inhibitors of lentil var. ILL-8095, and L-4626 and antagonistic with respect to that of finger millet. The midgut proteinase inhibition with crude seed extracts (3.3% seed weight equivalent) ranged from 9.3 to 60.9% and was negatively correlated with larval mortality. These results showed that interactive effect of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 and proteinase inhibitors in the larvae of H. armigera depended upon the quality and quantity of proteinase inhibitors, which vary widely in different plants.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 164-173

 

Development and mechanisms of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac in the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

K Chandrashekar & G T Gujar

 

The American bollworm, H. armigera, evolved 31-fold resistance to selection pressure of B. thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac within six generations. The Cry1Ac selected larvae of H. armigera showed cross-resistance to Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab both in terms of mortality and growth reduction. Studies on mechanisms of resistance to Cry1Ac showed that proteases of resistant insects degraded Cry1Ac faster than those of susceptible insects, which led to the relative unavailability of toxin of about 58 kDa for binding and perforation of midgut epithelial membrane of the target insect. Besides, resistant and susceptible populations of H. armigera differed in the binding of their receptors with Cry1Ac toxin. These results suggest the possibility of both mechanisms existing in imparting resistance. These findings mandate the necessity of B. thuringiensis resistance management for usage of B. thuringiensis either as a conventional insecticide or through transgenic crops.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 174-178

 

Protective effect of Terminalia chebula against experimental myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol

S Suchalatha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

Cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits (500 mg/kg body wt) was examined in isoproterenol (200 mg/kg body wt) induced myocardial damage in rats. In isoproterenol administered rats, the level of lipid peroxides increased significantly in the serum and heart. A significant decrease was observed in the activity of the myocardial marker enzymes with a concomitant increase in their activity in serum. Histopathological examination was carried out to confirm the myocardial necrosis. T. chebula extract pretreatment was found to ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol on lipid peroxide formation and retained the activities of the diagnostic marker enzymes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 179-185

 

Antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities of phytic acid in rats

M Sudheer Kumar, B Sridhar Reddy, S Kiran Babu, P M Bhilegaonkar,

A Shirwaikar & M K Unnikrishnan

 

Maximum antiinflammatory activity of phytic acid (PA) was seen at an oral dose of 150 mg/kg in the carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. Although PA showed ability to prevent denaturation of proteins, it showed less antiinflammatory activity than ibuprofen. Ability of PA to bring down thermal denaturation of proteins might be a contributing factor in the mechanism of action against inflammation. PA, at all the doses tested, showed significant protection from ulcers induced by ibuprofen, ethanol and cold stress, with a maximum activity at 150 mg/kg. There was a significant increase in gastric tissue malondialdehyde levels in ethanol treated rats but these levels decreased following PA pretreatment. Moreover, pretreatment with PA significantly inhibited various effects of ethanol on gastric mucosa, such as, reduction in the concentration of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, necrosis, erosions, congestion and hemorrhage. These results suggested that gastro-protective effect of PA could be mediated by its antioxidant activity and cytoprotection of gastric mucosa.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 186-189

 

Phytochemical studies and effect on urine volume of Glossostemon bruguieri Desf. constituents

N H El-Sayed, A S Awaad & T J Mabry

 

Two new flavonoids, takakin 7-O-glucoside (1) and bucegin 7-O-glucoside (2), and six other known compounds (3-8), takakin, isosctullarien, its 7-O-glucoside, takakin 8-O-glucoside, xanthotoxin and esculetin, were separated and identified from Glossostemon bruguieri. The new compounds were characterized using modern spectroscopic techniques, including UV spectroscopy, proton nuclear resonance (1HNMR), carbon thirteen nuclear resonance (13CNMR), homomolecular quantum coherance (HMQC), heteromolecular bonding connectivity (HMBC) and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI). The effect on rats urine volume of the plant powder, its ethanolic extract, (500 mg kg-1) along with four of the purified compounds (1,4-6), (100 mg kg-1) are described. Eight groups of albino rats (200-300 g body weight) (n=5 for each group) were used in the tests for a one-time treatment, and other seven groups (150-180 g body weight) (n=5 for each group) were tested using the same dose with repeated administration for 15 days. The rat sera were collected and used to determine liver and kidney functions based on alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) for both single and repeated administration. Levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid were determined for both sets of experiments. The toxic effects of both the powder and its alcoholic extract were also studied on mice to determine their LD50, both materials proved to be non-toxic up to 2500 mg kg-1 body weight.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 190-196

 

A partial sequence of lipoxygenase gene from genomic DNA of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.)

S Basak, A Sachdev & R P Johari

 

Aromatic (Bas-370, PB-1) and non-aromatic (Pusa-677, Pusa-834) rice were selected for the characterization and for distribution of lipoxygenase (Lox) genes. Polymorphism was observed when genomic DNA of rice varieties was hybridized with a heterologous lipoxygenase probe. A distinct polymorphic fragment (~1.2 kb) was found in Bas-370. Sub-genomic library of Bas-370 was constructed and screened with LoxA probe. The smallest putative clone (pBas-14) of ~1.2 kb was sequenced. Complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence showed the clone was 1134 bp long and comprised of 378 amino acid residues. PCR amplification of genomic DNA from four rice varieties with a soybean Lox primer also showed a polymorphic fragment of size ~600 bp (amplicon) in aromatic varieties that was sequenced directly. Nucleotide sequence alignment between pBas-14 and amplicon concluded that the amplicon was a part of the insert pBas-14.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 197-201

  

Role of phenolics and boron in reproductive success in seasonally transient sterile Tecoma stans L.

S V S Chauhan, Jolly Singh & Satoshi Tahara

 

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of phenolics and boron in stigma of transient sterile Tecoma stans L. during seedless (May-July), partially seedbearing (August - November, April) and seedbearing periods (December - March) was made. UV absorption profile of stigmatic exudates indicated the presence of simple phenolics. Total phenolics were higher in stigma during seedless period. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of stigmatic extracts exhibited only three principal spots. Mass spectrophotometry showed the presence of derivatives of cinnamic acid, namely, caffeic acid in these spots. Quantity of boron in stigma during seedless period was lowest but the difference with other periods was not significant. lt was suggested that the accumulation of higher quantity of caffeic acid in the stigma during seedless period due to high temperature (40°-45°C) could lead to inhibition of pollen germination in vivo, thereby rendering the plants seedless. This was confirmed by inhibition of in vitro pollen germination in the basal medium containing higher quantity of caffeic acid.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 202-207

 

Production of lipase in a fermentor using a mutant strain of Corynebacterium species: Its partial purification and immobilization

Nityananda Roy, Lalitagauri Ray & Parimal Chattopadhyay

 

Extracellular Corynebacterium lipase was produced using a 2.5 L Chemap fermentor using 1300 ml fermentation medium at temperature 33°C, agitator speed 50 rpm, aeration rate 1 VVM having KLa 16.21hr-1. Crude lipase was purified by salting out method followed by dialysis and immobilized using calcium alginate gel matrix followed by glutaraldehyde cross linking Purification process increased specific activity of enzyme from 2.76 to 114.7 IU/mg. Activity of immobilized enzyme was 107.31IU/mg. Optimum temperature for purified and immobilized enzyme activity were 65° and 50°C respectively. Optimum pH was 8.0 in both the cases, Km and Vmax value for purified lipase were 111.1 mmol/min and 14.7% respectively. Ca2+ (5 mM) was found to be stimulator for enzyme activity. Immobilized lipase retained 68.18% of the original activity when stored for 40 days.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 208-213

 

Effect of glyphosate toxicity on growth, pigment and alkaline phosphatase activity in cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum: A role of inorganic phosphate in glyphosate tolerance

Shikha, D P Singh & N S Darmwal

 

Response of glyphosate toxicity on photoautotrophic cyanobacterium A. doliolum and its mutant strain was investigated. Chlorophyll a content of both the wild type and mutant strain in the presence of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) initially showed an increasing trend when supplemented with Pi and a declining tendency under the Pi-starved condition. The results suggested that both the wild type and mutant strains were more sensitive to glyphosate in the absence of phosphate. Alkaline phosphatase activity of wild type strain in the presence of Pi, enhanced in response to addition of glyphosate (40 mg/ml), but the activity remained unaltered by addition of glyphosate in the Pi-starved cells, whereas the alkaline phosphatase activity in the mutant strain under both Pi-starved as well as unstarved conditions was stimulated (approximately 5.4 and 3.1-fold, respectively) by addition of glyphosate. The results on alkaline phosphatase activity indicated a glyphosate-induced depletion in the phosphate content of the cells, particularly in the mutant strain, as evident from the stimulated activity of alkaline phosphatase. It is suggested that enzyme activity in the Pi-starved wild type cells may not be influenced any further by glyphosate, as cellular phosphate reserve might not be available for further depletion.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 214-216

 

 

Notes

 

Hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds by an esterase isozyme from insecticide resistant pest Helicoverpa armigera

R Srinivas, S K Jayalakshmi & K Sreeramulu

 

Esterase activity of resistant and susceptible H. armigera were compared in gels with different substrate such as naphthyl acetate, naphthyl phosphate, paraoxon and monocrotophos. Whole body extract of resistant H. armigera hydrolyzed paraoxon, monocrotophos and naphthyl phosphate in gels. Resistant H. armigera showed high esterase, phosphatase and paraoxon hydrolase activity compared to susceptible ones.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 217-219

 

Ferric reductase, superoxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase activities in siderophore producing fungi

Arefa Baakza, B P Dave & H C Dube

 

Enzymes associated with release of iron from internalized ferrated siderophore (ferrisiderophore reductase), with damage to the cell at high iron concentration (superoxide dismutase) and siderophore synthesis (alkaline phosphatase), were examined in 3 test fungi viz., Aspergillus sp. ABp4, Aureobasidium pullulans and Rhizopus sp. Extracellular ferrisiderophore reductase activity was present in all the three fungi, but Aureobasidium pullulans, that showed the highest activity (84.3 mM min-1), was the only one to produce intra-cellular ferric reductase (147.9mM min-1). Superoxide dismutase was produced by Aureobasidium pullulans and Rhizopus sp., but not by Aspergillus sp. ABp4, that showed intra-cellular enzyme activity in case of ferric reductase and alkaline phosphatase. Maximum SOD activity was seen in Aureobasidium pullulans both extra-cellularly (93.83 ng ml-1) and intra-cellularly (57.14 ng ml-1). All the test fungi examined, produced intra-cellular alkaline phosphatase. There was no extra-cellular alkaline phosphatase. Among the three fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans showed highest alkaline phosphatase activity (129.9 mM min-1) and Aspergillus sp. ABp4 the least
(76.4 m
M min-1).

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 220-223

 

Vitamin E prevents nonylphenol-induced oxidative
stress in testis of rats

K C Chitra & P P Mathur

 

In the present study we have investigated if administration of nonylphenol-induced oxidative stress in various subcellular fractions of adult rat testis and the effect of vitamin E on reactive oxygen species mediated nonylphenol toxicity. Male rats were administered orally with nonylphenol at 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight per day for 45 days with and without supplementation of vitamin E (20 mg/kg body weight). In nonylphenol-treated rats the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase decreased significantly while the levels of lipid peroxidation increased significantly in the crude homogenate and in the mitochondrial and microsome-rich fractions of testis. Co-administration of nonylphenol and vitamin E did not cause changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in various subcellular fractions of rat testis. The results suggest that graded doses of nonylphenol elicit depletion of antioxidant defence system in rat testis, indicating nonylphenol induced oxidative stress in the testis of rats which could be reversed by the administration of vitamin E.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 224-226

 

Role of Arogh, a polyherbal formulation to mitigate        oxidative stress in experimental myocardial infarction

S Suchalatha, P Thirugnanasambandam, E Maheswaran & C S Shyamala Devi

 

Antioxidant role of Arogh in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats has been studied. The activity of heart tissue antioxidants like glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase were significantly decreased in isoproterenol administered group. The activity of ceruloplasmin and levels of glutathione, vitamins E and C were also found to be substantially decreased in serum with a concomitant rise in lipid peroxide levels after isoproterenol exposure to rats. The synergistic effect of Arogh pretreatment, significantly suppressed the alterations induced by isoproterenol alone in rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, February 2004, pp. 227-230

 

Effect of different temperature on starch synthase activity in excised grains of wheat cultivars

Pravin Prakash, Poonam Sharma-Natu & M C Ghildiyal

 

Excised grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties HD 2285 (relatively tolerant) and HD 2329 (susceptible type) were incubated for 1 hr at 15°, 25°, 35° and 45°C. In an another treatment, excised grains were incubated for 1 hr at increasing temperature (15°, 25°, 35° and 45°C) continuously, thus exposing the grains to gradual rise in temperature. The above treated grains were then analysed for the activity of soluble starch synthase (SSS) and granule bound starch synthase (GBSS) assayed at 20°C. SSS activity decreased as the pre-exposure temperature was higher, though the tolerant variety showed lesser decrease. Decrease in SSS activity was lesser when excised grains were exposed to gradual rise in temperature from 15° to 45°C as compared to direct exposure to 45°C. Pre-exposure of excised grains to different temperatures however, had no significant effect on GBSS activity.

 

 

Author Index

 

Awaad A S

186

Jayalakshmi S K

214

Sachdev A

190

Johari R P

190

Shah N A

131

Baakza Arefa

217

Sharma-Natu Poonam

227

Basak S

190

Kalia V

157

Shikha

208

Bhilegaonkar P M

179

Khan K A

131

Shirwaikar A

179

 

 

Kiran Babu S

179

Shyamala Devi C S

174, 224

Chandrashekar K

164

Kumari Archana

157

Singh D P

208

Chattopadhyay Parimal

202

 

 

Singh Jolly

197

Chauhan S V S

197

Laxmi Priya P N

143

Singh Y

152

Chitra K C

220

Singla Ranju

138

Mabry T J

186

Sreeramulu K

214

Darmwal N S

208

Mahajan S K

152

Srinivas R

214

Dave B P

217

Maheswaran E

224

Suchalatha S

174, 224

Dube H C

217

Mathur P P

220

Sudheer Kumar M

179

 

 

 

 

El-Sayed N H

186

Peer M A

131

Tahara Satoshi

197

Ettarh R R

149

Pillai Anil

143

Thirugnanasambandam P

224

 

 

Prakash Pravin

227

 

 

Garg D N

152

Prasad T V

157

Unnikrishnan M K

179

Garg Neera

138

 

 

Geetanjali

138

Ray Lalitagauri

202

Yadav R

152

Ghildiyal M C

227

Reddy Sridhar B

179

Gujar G T

157, 164

Roy Nityananda

202

Gupta Sarita

143

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Alanine aminotransferase

186

Malondialdehyde

179

Organophosphorus compounds

214

Alkaline phosphatase

208, 217

Marker enzymes

174

Oryza sativa

190

American bollworm

157, 164

MnCl2

149

Oxidative stress

220, 224

Anabaena doliolum

208

Mycoplasma canadense

152

 

 

Antiinflammatory

179

Myocardial infarction

174, 224

Phenolics

197

Antioxidant enzymes

220

 

 

Phosphate

208

Antiulcer

179

Ferric reductase

217

Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase

138

Arogh

224

Fungi

217

Phytic acid in rats

179

Aromatic rice

190

 

 

Phytochemical study

186

Aspartate amino transferase

186

Gene sequence

190

Polyherbal formulation

224

 

 

Genomic DNA

190

Polyvinyl chloride

220

Bacillus thuringiensis

157, 164

Glossostemon bruguieri

186

Proteinase inhibitors

157

Bacteroids

138

Glyphosate tolerance

208

 

 

Boron

197

Gonadotropin binding

143

Rat

186,220, 224

Bovine mastitis

152

Granulosa cells

143

Resistance

164

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cadmium

143

Helicoverpa armigera

157, 164, 214

Siderophore

217

Caffeic acid

197

HIV-AIDS

131

Starch synthase

227

Calcium

149

 

 

Steroidogenesis

143

Carbon metabolism

138

Immobilization

202

Superoxide dismutase

217

Carrageenan

179

Insecticide resistance

214

 

 

Cellular automata

131

Isoproterenol

174

T. chebula

174

Corynebacterium

    202

 

 

Tecoma stans

197

Cry1Ac

164

Lead

143

Temperature effect

227

Cyanobacteria

208

Legume

138

Testis

220

 

 

Lipase production

202

Triticum aestivum

227

Denaturation of proteins

179

Lipid peroxide

174

 

 

Drug therapy

131

Lipoxygenase gene

190

Urine volume

186

 

 

 

 

 

 

Esterase isozyme

214

Nitrogen fixation

138

Vascular contraction

149

Experimental pathogenicity

152

Nodule

138

Vitamin E

220

 

 

Nonylphenol

220

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wheat

227