Total visitors:584 since 08-01-04

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  42(1)  1-126  (2004)

VOLUME 42

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2004

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

Genetics of metal resistance in acidophilic prokaryotes of acidic mine environments

P C Banerjee

9

 

 

Goat serum: An alternative to fetal bovine serum in biomedical research

Smita Paranjape

26

 

 

Papers

 

Differential depression of spinal synaptic transmission in vitro by different hypoxic insults

Archana Jha, Shyamal Das Gupta & Shripad B Deshpande

36

 

 

Ca2+-free medium enhances the magnitude of slow peak in compound action potential of frog sciatic nerve in vitro

Maloy B Mandal & Shripad B Deshpande

 

43

 

 

Effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. leaf gel and pulp extracts on kidney in type-II diabetic
rat models

Sehnaz Bolkent, Nuriye Akev, Nurten Özsoy, Meliha Şengezer-Inceli, Ayse Can, Alper Okyar & Refiye Yanardag

 

48

 

 

Influence of coconut kernel protein on lipid metabolism in alcohol fed rats

S Mini & T Rajamohan

53

 

 

Evaluation of dietary essentiality of vitamins for Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

Ashwin Rai & H R V Reddy

58

 

 

Partial suppressive effect of melatonin on indomethacin-induced renal injury in rat

Faried A E Hemieda, Mohammad A El-Missiry, Mohey E Badawy & Ahmad A Goda

63

 

 

Standardization of the method for estimation of ethambutol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluid

Prema Gurumurthy, T N Gayathri, S Bhagavathy, P Venkatesan

 

68

 

 

Effect of precocene on development of ovarian follicles in flesh fly, Sarcophaga ruficornis F.

Krishna Kumar & Irfan Ahmad Khan

74

 

 

Effect of potassium channel modulators on toxicity of Cleistanthus collinus

Vinu M Jose, K N Anand, L Jeyaseelan, Kalpana Ernest & Alice Kuruvilla

81

 

 

Effect of nitric oxide on H+-efflux in presence of various nutrients in Candida albicans

Md Mahfuzul Haque, Nikhat Manzoor, M Ejaz Hussain & Luqman A Khan

86

 

 

Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

Pushpa Pawar, Mary Joseph, Vijay Tungikar & Swati Joshi

 

91

 

 

Chemical nature, ligand denticity and quantification of fungal siderophores

Arefa Baakza, B P Dave & H C Dube

96

 

 

Production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in roots of tissue culture raised and acclimatized plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., an endangered shrub endemic to Southern India and evaluation of its performance vis-a-vis plants from natural habitat

P Giridhar, T Rajasekaran, S Nagarajan & G A Ravishankar

 

 

 

106

 

 

Culture filtrate of Lasiodiplodia theobromae restricts the development of natural resistance in Brassica nigra plants

Vasudev R Thakkar, R B Subramanian & I L Kothari

 

111

 

 

Notes

 

Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of Suvarnamalini vasant,â a generic Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation

Vishwas Sangle, Medha Darp & Shailesh Nadkarni

 

115

 

 

Sex differences in oxidative stress induced by benzene in rats

Yeshvandra Verma & S V S Rana

117

 

 

In vivo enhancement of nucleopolyhedrovirus of oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata using spindles from Helicoverpa armigera entomopoxvirus

M Chakraborty, K Narayanan & M K Sivaprakash

 

121

 

 

Author index

4

 

 

Keyword index

7

 

 

Announcement

 

International Nutrition Conference 2004

8

 

 

Editor’s Note

8

 

 

Obituary

124

 

 

Information for authors

125

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 9-25

 

 

Review Article

 

Genetics of metal resistance in acidophilic
prokaryotes of acidic mine environments

P C Banerjee

 

Acidophilic bacteria inhabiting acidic mine regions cause natural leaching of sulphidic ores. They are now exploited in industrial operations for leaching of metals and beneficiation of low-grade and recalcitrant ores. Recent trends emphasize application of thermoacidophiles and genetic engineering of ore-leaching bacteria for greater success in this area. This requires an in-depth understanding on the molecular genetics of these bacteria and construction of cloning vectors for them. Metal resistance is considered as the most suitable phenotypic trait for cloning vectors of  bio-mining chemolithoautotrophic (viz. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) and heterotrophic (Acidiphilium and Acidocella species) bacteria of mine environments. These bacteria take part in ore-leaching either directly or indirectly, exhibit low to high level of resistance/ tolerance to various metals under different conditions. Majority of these bacteria contain one or more plasmids - the genetic elements that usually carry metal resistant genes. But none of the At. ferrooxidans plasmids has been definitely proved to harbour metal-resistant genes which have mostly been found in the chromosome of this bacterium. Plasmids of acidophilic heterotrophs of the genera Acidiphilium and Acidocella, on the other hand, carry metal resistant genes. While genes bestowing arsenic resistance in Acidiphilium multivorum are similar to those analyzed from other sources, the metal (Cd and Zn)-resistance conferring cloned plasmid DNA fragments from Acidiphilium symbioticum KM2 and Acidocella GS19h strains were found to have no sequence similarity with the reported Cd- and Zn-resistant genes. Such observations indicate some novel aspects of metal resistance in acidophilic bacteria.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 26-35

 

Goat serum: An alternative to fetal bovine serum in biomedical research

Smita Paranjape

 

Serum is frequently added to the defined basal medium as a source of certain nutritional and macromolecular growth factors essential for cell growth. Although a number of synthetic media have been prepared serum continues to be used in cell culture by many investigators. The best supplementation to a basal medium is fetal bovine serum (FBS) that is most frequently used for all types of cell cultures. During last four decades National Institute of Virology, Pune, has been working on isolation and identification of viruses from clinical specimens, employing tissue culture. Initially FBS was used for this purpose. However, due to its prohibitive cost and uncertain supply an alternative was sought. Commercially available sera from newborn calf, sheep, horse, human and serum obtained from goat blood (available from local abattoir) were tried. Goat serum (GS) was found to be suitable for most of the cell lines and primary cultures. Primary cultures from guinea pig embryo, monkey kidney, chick embryo, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and established cell lines were prepared and grown in growth media supplemented with GS. These cultures were studied for their morphology and growth in comparison with cultures grown in FBS containing media, and were used for mass cultivation of cells, quantitation and susceptibility of various virus strains, studies on effects of different nutrients and natural substances on cellular metabolism and virus replication, epitope analysis of various strains of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, strain differentiation studies, studies on antibody dependent plaque enhancement, assay of murine migration inhibition factor. Monoclonal antibodies against JE virus adapted to GS were characterised for their retention of functionalities. The results were comparable to those of cell cultures grown in FBS containing media. Similar results on chromosome studies were obtained from patient’s whole blood cultures prepared in GS and FBS containing growth media. Organ cultures from mammalian, reptile and avian hosts; successfully grown in GS supplemented growth media, were used for different virological studies. Growth media supplemented with GS were used for in vitro cultivation of malarial parasites. Thus since the last three decades many scientists are using GS in place of FBS, in various fields of biomedical research. The present article reviews an account of the same.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 36-42

 

Papers

 

Differential depression of spinal synaptic transmission in vitro by different hypoxic insults

Archana Jha, Shyamal Das Gupta & Shripad B Deshpande

 

The effects of hypoxia (O2-free), aglycemia (glucose-free), ischemia (O2- and glucose-free) and chemical anoxia (by 3-nitropropionic acid; 3-NPA) were evaluated on the synaptic transmission in vitro. Stimulation of a dorsal root in hemisected spinal cord from neonatal rat, evoked monosynaptic (MSR) and polysynaptic reflexes (PSR) in the segmental ventral root. In all the hypoxic conditions, the reflexes were depressed in a time-dependent manner. Hypoxia took longer time (> 240 min) to abolish the reflexes where as, aglycemia and ischemia abolished them within 35 min. Recovery after wash was complete in hypoxia, 60-70% in aglycemia and 20-25% in ischemia. The time required for 50% depression of reflexes (T-50) was also in the same order (100, 23 and 13 min). The elimination of O2 in hypoxic or ischemic solution by N2 bubbling abolished the reflexes within 16 min. The T-50 values in both the conditions were between 5-8 min. Superfusion of 3-NPA (an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase) depressed the reflexes. The abolition time and T-50 values were shorter with the increasing concentrations of 3-NPA. The present results reveal that the energy production in hypoxic condition with normal glucose level can sustain the synaptic activity for a longer time while the glucose deficiency even in normoxic conditions drastically impair the synaptic activity. Further, aglycemia depressed the reflexes almost in a similar time as seen with ischemia.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 43-47

 

Ca2+-free medium enhances the magnitude of slow peak in compound action potential of frog sciatic nerve in vitro

Maloy B Mandal & Shripad B Deshpande

 

The present investigation was carried out to know the effect of Ca2+ on different peaks of compound action potential (CAP) representing the fibers having different conduction velocity. CAP was recorded from a thin bundle of nerve fibers obtained from desheathed frog sciatic nerve. Suction electrodes were used for stimulating and recording purposes. In Ca2+ -free amphibian Ringer, two distinct peaks (Peak-I and Peak-II) were observed. The threshold, conduction velocity (CV), amplitude and duration of Peak-I were 0.32 ± 0.02 V, 56 ± 3.0 m/sec, 2.1 ± 0.2 mV and 0.75 ± 0.1 ms, respectively. The Peak-II exhibited ten times greater threshold, eight times slower CV, three times lower amplitude and four times greater duration as compared to Peak-I. Addition of 2 mM Ca2+ in the bathing medium did not alter CAP parameters of Peak-I excepting 25% reduction in CV. But, in Peak-II there was 70-75% reduction in area and amplitude. The concentration-attenuation relation of Peak-II to various concentrations of Ca2+ was nonlinear and 50% depression occurred at 0.35 mM of Ca2+. Washing with Ca2+-free solution with or without Mg2+ (2 mM)/verapamil (10 mM) could not reverse the Ca2+- induced changes in Peak-II. Washing with Ca2+ -free solution containing EDTA restored 70% of the response. The results indicate that Ca2+ differentially influence fast and slow conducting fibers as the activity of slow conducting fibers is greatly suppressed by external calcium.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 48-52

 

 

Effect of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. leaf gel and pulp extracts on kidney in type-II diabetic rat models

Sehnaz Bolkent, Nuriye Akev, Nurten Özsoy, Meliha Şengezer-Inceli,

Ayse Can, Alper Okyar and Refiye Yanardag

 

Received 21 January 2003; revised 9 August 2003

Significant degenerative changes were observed in the kidney tissue of untreated neonatal streptozotocin (n0STZ)-induced type-II diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were diminished in the kidney tissue of diabetic animals given glibenclamide and Aloe leaf gel and pulp extracts. Kidney lipid peroxidation levels were increased in diabetic rats compared to healthy rats; these levels were higher in rats treated with glibenclamide than in those which received Aloe extracts. Serum urea and creatinine levels were higher in diabetic rats in comparison to healthy rats. The administration of Aloe gel extract and glibenclamide decreased serum urea and creatinine levels in comparison to diabetic controls. Only A. vera leaf gel extract showed improvement both in histological and biochemical parameters suggesting a protective effect of A. vera on mild damage caused by type-II diabetes on kidney tissue.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 53-57

 

 

Influence of coconut kernel protein on
lipid metabolism in alcohol fed rats

S Mini & T Rajamohan

  

Male albino rats were given ethanol (3.76 g/kg body weight/day) to induce hyperlipidemia. The rats showed increased concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in the serum and tissues. Inclusion of coconut protein and L- arginine into ethanol fed rats produced lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index in the serum. Concentration of tissue cholesterol and triglycerides was also lower in these groups. Administration of coconut protein and L-arginine in the ethanol fed rats caused decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver and increased activity of lipoprotein lipase in the heart. The activities of malic enzyme and glucose- 6- phosphate dehydrogenase were also lower in these groups. Feeding coconut protein and L- arginine in ethanol treated rats showed increased concentration of hepatic bile acids and fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids. All these effects were comparable in rats fed coconut protein and those fed L-arginine. These observations indicate that the major factor responsible for the hypolipidemic effect of coconut protein is due to the high content of L-arginine.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 58-62

 

Evaluation of dietary essentiality of vitamins
for Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

Ashwin Rai & H R V Reddy

 

The effect of exclusion of individual water-soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, cyanocobalamin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, niacin, biotin, choline, inositol, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (vit. A, D, K and E) in semi-purified diets on growth and survival of juvenile shrimp, P. monodon was studied in the laboratory for 8 weeks. Diets lacking riboflavin and vitamin K did not affect growth and survival of shrimp. However, deletion of inositol and choline resulted in poor growth. Maximum growth was observed in the control diet (C1) which was supplemented with all vitamins. Diet deficient in ascorbic acid, biotin, folic acid, niacin, thiamine and a-tocopherol resulted in poor appetite and poorer feed conversion efficiency. All treatments except the control (C1) resulted in histological changes in the digestive gland cells. Detachment or destruction of the epithelial cells was observed in all treatments lacking individual vitamins but more severely in the treatment without a vitamin supplement followed by inositol, choline and ascorbic acid deficient diets.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 63-67

 

Partial suppressive effect of melatonin on indomethacin-induced renal injury in rat

Faried A E Hemieda, Mohammad A El-Missiry, Mohey E Badawy & Ahmad A Goda

 

Intramuscular injection of a single high dose of indomethacin (20 mg/kg) in fasted rats produced renal injury. The results showed increases in the level of lipid peroxidation and cholesterol, and activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the kidney. Also, the renal contents of both reduced glutathione and activity of total adenosine triphosphatase were decreased by the toxicant. In serum, indomethacin increased activity of lactate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase, and levels of creatinine and inorganic phosphorus. Paradoxically, administration of melatonin (0.75 mg/rat/day) alone for 7 days decreased significantly the activity of lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase, and increased, but not significantly, the level of reduced glutathione in the kidney. Also, serum level of creatinine tended to decrease, but not significantly. Pretreatment with melatonin prevented the increase by subsequently administered indomethacin in the renal activity of lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase. However, this pretreatment regimen partially suppressed the adverse changes in the remaining analyzed cytotoxic parameters induced by indomethacin in both serum and kidney. These results indicate that oral administration of melatonin at a low dose level exerted moderate antioxidant action, thereby it protected against some of the renal detrimental effects produced by indomethacin.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 68-73

 

Standardization of the method for estimation of ethambutol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluid

Prema Gurumurthy, T N Gayathri, S Bhagavathy, P Venkatesan

 

A simple column chromatographic method for determination of ethambutol (EMB) in pharmaceutical preparations containing EMB in combination with other anti-TB drugs is presented. The method involved extraction of EMB into an organic solvent, followed by basification and column chromatographic separation on Amberlite CG 50 (100-200 mesh) and elution with suitable eluants and estimation at a wavelength of 270 nm. The assay was linear from 25 to 400 µg/ml. The relative standard deviations of intra and inter day assays were lower than 5%. Ethambutol was recovered from human urine quantitatively and stable for a period of atleast one week in urine stored at-20°C.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 74-80

  

Effect of precocene on development of
ovarian follicles in flesh fly, Sarcophaga ruficornis F.

Krishna Kumar  & Irfan Ahmad Khan

 

Administration of precocene II (6,7-dimethoxy-2, 2-dimethyl chromene) to freshly emerged virgin female flies of S. ruficornis adversely affected the development and differentiation of ovarian follicles leading to a number of morphological abnormalities. Precocene treatment resulted into suppression of development of egg chamber, differentiation of follicular epithelium, degeneration of nurse cells, growth of oocyte and uptake of yolk granules by oocytes. The results suggest that precocene induced effects are due to deficiency of juvenile hormone.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 81-85

 

Effect of potassium channel modulators on toxicity of Cleistanthus collinus

Vinu M Jose, K N Anand, L Jeyaseelan, Kalpana Ernest & Alice Kuruvilla

 

The study was conducted to determine the effects of boiled extract of Cleistanthus collinus on rats by observing ECG changes and electrolyte levels in serum and urine. Influence of minoxidil and glibenclamide on Cleistanthus collinus induced toxicity was determined. ED50 for arrhythmia, changes in contractility and heart rate were recorded using the isolated frog heart. Cleistanthus at low doses caused transient tachycardia and increase in contractility and at high dose caused arrhythmia and cardiac arrest in rat. LD50 was found to be 1690 mg/kg. Minoxidil potentiated cardiac toxicity, whereas glibenclamide did not produce any significant change. High concentration of potassium in Cleistanthus extract hindered comparison of its levels. There was excretion of sodium even in the presence of hyponatraemia. Cleistanthus at low dose caused transient tachycardia and increase in contractility and at high dose caused arrhythmia and cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart. ED50 for arrhythmia was found to be 1406 mg/kg. Acute toxicity was mainly due to depressive cardiac activity of Cleistanthus. It also caused renal failure. Potassium channel modulators did not have important role in acute cardiac toxicity treatment. Probably in chronic toxicity, electrolyte level changes are involved and potassium channel modulators might have a role.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 86-90

 

Effect of nitric oxide on H+-efflux in presence of various nutrients in Candida albicans

Md Mahfuzul Haque, Nikhat Manzoor, M Ejaz Hussain & Luqman A Khan

 

In the present study tentative link has been established between H+-efflux and effect of NO in presence of various nutrients (glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, xylose, proline, glutamic acid and lysine) in C. albicans using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a potent source of NO. It was observed that there was a decreasing trend in pH with time, in control, while SNP treated cells showed an initial decline in pH for 10-15 min, followed by an increase in pH up to 30 min. In presence of glucose there was an enhancement in H+-efflux by 9-fold whereas proline, glutamic acid and lysine showed enhancement by 3, 6 and 1.5-fold respectively. Similar trends in increase in pH after 15 min in SNP treated cells of Candida was observed in presence of all nutrients used. It was demonstrated for the first time that H+-ATPase of C. albicans was affected by NO.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 91-95

 

Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

Pushpa Pawar, Mary Joseph, Vijay Tungikar & Swati Joshi

 

Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species , Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 96-105

  

Chemical nature, ligand denticity and quantification of fungal siderophores

Arefa Baakza, B P Dave &  H C Dube

 

Thirtyfive siderophore producing fungi were categorized for their hydroxamate, catecholate or carboxylate nature by chemical and bioassays. Out of 35 fungi, 30 were hydroxamates and 5 showed carboxylate nature. However, none of the fungi produced catecholate type of siderophores. Eighteen out of 29 fungi were trihydroxamate and the rest 11 fungi were dihydroxamates. Twentythree fungi were hexadentate and 6 were tetradentate in nature. Quantification of siderophores using standard compounds deferrioxamine mesylate and rhizoferrin revealed that Phanerochaete chrysosporium produced maximum among the hydroxamate producing fungi and Mycotypha africana resulted maximum among the carboxylate producing fungi.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 96-110

  

Production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in roots of tissue culture raised and acclimatized plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., an endangered shrub endemic to Southern India and evaluation of its performance vis-a-vis plants from natural habitat

P Giridhar, T Rajasekaran, S Nagarajan & G A Ravishankar

 

Axillary buds obtained from field grown plants of D. hamiltonii were used to initiate multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS) supplemented with 2 mg L-1 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Profuse rooting was achieved when the actively growing shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Regenerated plants were grown successfully in the plains, in contrast to wild growth in high altitudes and rocky crevices of hilly regions. Roots of different sizes from one-year-old tissue culture raised field grown plants had the same profile of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde as that of wild plants. A maximum of 0.14% and 0.12 % 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was produced in roots of one year old tissue culture derived plants and greenhouse grown plants respectively.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 111-114

 

Culture filtrate of Lasiodiplodia theobromae restricts the development of natural resistance in Brassica nigra plants

Vasudev R Thakkar, R B Subramanian & I L Kothari

 

Culture filtrate of Lasiodiplodia theobromae increased respiration rate, phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, and levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and salicylic acid in B. nigra plants. Salicylic acid (SA) level increased for 1 hr of interaction and reduced later. Development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) was found restricted in plants infected with L. theobromae due to deficiency of SA, which is a major signal for development of SAR. Exogenously supplied SA did develop resistance and plant death was delayed. It was hypothesized that deficiency of SA could be due to jasmonic acid produced by fungus that inhibits SA biosynthesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 115-116

 

Notes

 

Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of Suvarnamalini vasant,â a generic Ayurvedic herbomineral formulation

 Vishwas Sangle, Medha Darp & Shailesh Nadkarni

 

Suvarnamalini vasant-a generic Ayurvedic herbomineral preparation was studied for its immunomodulatory activity by 1) evaluating it's effect on phagocytic function of polymorpho­nuclear white blood cells of rats and 2) it's effect in E.coli-induced peritonitis in albino mice. Pretreatment of rats with Suvarnamalini vasant improved the phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear white blood cells and also protected mice against E.coli-induced peritonitis. The results indicate the potential of Suvarnamalini vasant as an immunomodulator.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 117-120

 

Sex differences in oxidative stress induced by
benzene in rats

Yeshvandra Verma & S V S Rana

 

Role of sex differences on oxidative stress induced by benzene has been studied in liver, kidney and lungs of rat. It was observed that benzene administration enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and lungs of rat, nevertheless, significant variations were recorded in male and female rats. Decrease of GSH and CYTP4502E1 was higher in female rats than male rats except lungs. The results suggest that oxidative stress induced by benzene is higher in female rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, pp. 121-123

 

In vivo enhancement of nucleopolyhedrovirus of oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata using spindles from Helicoverpa armigera entomopoxvirus

M Chakraborty, K Narayanan & M K Sivaprakash

 

When the third instar larvae of M. separata were exposed to eight varying concentrations of polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB’s) of nucleopolyhedrovirus of M. separata (MsNPV) ranging from 2.6 ´ 101 to 2.6 ´ 108 POB’s/ml, the percent mortality and incubation period ranged from 16-100% and 14 to 9 days respectively. On the other hand when the same third instar larvae of M. separata were exposed to only five varying concentration of POB’s of MsNPV ranging from 2.6 ´ 102 to 2.6 ´ 106, POB’s/ml along with a constant dose of entomopox viral spindles from Helicoverpa armigera, the per cent mortality ranged from 63 to 100% with reduction in incubation period from 7 to 4 days respectively. The enhancement index (log10) of the virus was 2.76 or reduction of more than 500 times in LC50. The ability and the mechanism of the spindles from H. armigera entomopoxvirus to enhance the infectivity of MsNPV has been discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, January 2004, p. 124

 

 

Obituary

 

 

Professor Salil Kumar Bhattacharaya [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India], a member of the Editorial Board of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, expired on 22 October, 2003 at Kolkata. He was actively associated with the journal both as an author and a referee in the field of pharmacology.

 

Dr Bhattacharya served the Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, for more than three decades and established the section of Neuropharmacology at the Institute during 1984. He was a distinguish academician and guided more than 20 MD and Ph D students. His breakthrough contribution in pharmacology includes basic and advanced research in the field of neuropharmacology and drug development, both from modern and indigenous sources. He has more than 350 research papers and several books in pharmacology to his credit. Professor Bhattacharya was recipient of many prestigious awards, notably Commonwealth Medical Fellowship, Shakuntala Amirchand Award and INSA Fellowship for his contribution in pharmacology. He was General Secretary and President of Indian Pharmacology Society. He has left behind his wife, children, students, colleagues and friends.

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Akev Nuriye

48

Haque Md Mahfuzzul

86

Okyar Alper

48

Anand K N 81

Hemieda Faried A E

63

Özsoy Nurten

48

Hussain Ejaz M

86

Baakza Arefa

96

 

 

Paranjape Smita

26

Badawy Mohey E

63

Jeyaseelan L

81

Pawar Pushpa

91

Banerjee P C

9

Jha Archana

36

 

 

Bhagavathy S

68

Jose Vinu M

81

Rai Ashwin

58

Bolkent Sehnaz

48

Joseph Mary

91

Rajamohan T

53

 

 

Joshi Swati

91

Rajasekaran T

106

Can Ayse

48

 

 

Rana S V S

117

Chakraborty M

121

Khan Irfan Ahmad

74

Ravishankar G A

106

 

 

Khan Luqman A

86

Reddy H R V

58

Darp Medha

115

Kothari I L

111

 

 

Das Gupta Shyamal

36

Kumar Krishna

74

Sangle Vishwas

115

Dave B P

96

Kuruvilla Alice

81

Şengezer-Inceli Meliha

48

Deshpande Shripad B

36,43

 

 

Sivaprakash M K

121

Dube H C

96

Mandal Maloy B

43

Subramanian R B

111

 

 

Manzoor Nikhat

86

 

 

El-Missiry Mohammad A

63

Mini S

53

Thakkar Vasudev R

111

Ernest Kalpana

81

 

 

Tungikar Vijay

91

 

 

Nadkarni Shailesh

115

 

 

Gayathri T  N

68

Nagarajan S

106

Venkatesan P

68

Giridhar P

106

Narayanan K

121

Verma Yeshvandra

117

Goda Ahmad A

63

 

 

 

 

Gurumurthy Prema

68

Yanardag Refiye

48

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

 

Acidic mine environment

9

Flesh fly

74

Mythimna separata

121

Acidophilic prokaryotes

9

Frog sciatic nerve

43

Acute toxicity

81

Nitric oxide

86

Adaptation

26

Gender difference

117

Nucleopolyhedrovirus

121

Aglycemia

36

Goat serum

26

Nutrients

86

Alcohol fed rats

53

Growth inhibition

91

 

 

Aloe vera

48

GSH

117

Oduvanthalai

81

Amberlite CG-50

68

 

 

Ovarian follicles

74

Anoxia

36

H+-ATPase

86

 

Armyworm

121

H+-efflux

86

Penaeus monodon

58

 

 

Heart rate

81

Phago­cytosis

115

Benzene

117

Helicoverpa armigera

91,121

Phanerochaete chrysosporium

96

Biomedical research

26

Herbomineral formulation

115

Precocene

74

Botanical pest control agent

91

Histology digestive gland

58

Pyrazinamide

68

Brassica nigra

111

Hydroxamate

96

 

 

 

 

Hyperlipidemia

53

Rat

63

Calcium antagonists

43

Hypoxia

36

Reactive oxygen species (ROS)

111

Calophyllum inophyllum

91

Hypoxic insults

36

Renal injury

63

Candida albicans

86

 

 

Rifampicin

68

Carboxylate

96

Immunomodulation

115

 

 

Catacholate

96

In vitro shoots

106

Salicylic acid

111

Cell culture

26

Indomethacin

63

Sarcophaga ruficornis

74

Cholesterol

53

Ischemia

36

Siderophore

96

Cleistanthus collinus

81

Isoniazid

68

Sodium nitroprusside

86

Coconut kernel protein

53

 

 

Spinal cord

36

Compound action potential

43

Jasmonic acid

111

Streptozotocin

48

Contractility

81

 

 

Survival

58

Creatinine

48

Kidney

48

Suvarnamalini

115

CYP4502E1

117

 

 

Synaptic transmission

36

 

 

L-arginine

53

Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR)

111

Decalepis hamiltonii

106

Lasiodiplodia theobromae

111

 

 

 

 

Ligand denticity

96

Tuberous roots

106

ECG

81

Lipid metabolism

53

Type-II diabetes

48

EDTA

43

Lipid peroxidation

48,117

 

 

Electrolyte

81

Urea

48

Entomopoxvirus

121

Madhuca latifolia

91

 

 

Ethambutol

68

Melatonin

63

Vitamins

58

 

 

Metal resistance

9

Fetal bovine serum

26

Mid-gut gland

58

Flavour compound

106

Mycotypha africana

96