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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  42(7) 645-742  (2004)

VOLUME 42

NUMBER 7

JULY 2004

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Review Article

 

Inhibitors of topoisomerases as anticancer drugs: Problems and prospects

B S Dwarakanath, Divya Khaitan & Rohit Mathur

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K]

649

 

 

Papers

 

Anti-HIV and cytotoxic ruthenium(II) complexes containing flavones: Biochemical
evaluation in mice

L Mishra, A K Singh, S K Trigun, S K Singh & S M Pandey 

[IPC Code: A61K 33/00]


   660

 

 

Effect of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition on events associated with inflammatory bowel disease in rats

Vijay Pal Singh, Chandrashekhar S Patil & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

667

 

 

Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of Normacid, a herbomineral formulation

P A Bafna & R Bavarian

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

674

 

 

Effect of trace elements on surface hydrophobicity and adherence of Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells

Vishwas Saralaya K, Gopalkrishna Bhat, Asha Kamath & P G Shivananda

 

681

 

 

Effect of lupeol isolated from Crataeva nurvala Buch. – Ham. stem bark extract against free radical induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Annie Shirwaikar, Manjunath Setty M, Praveen Bommu & Krishnanand B

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  A61P]

 

686

 

 

Effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on tobramycin induced nephrotoxicity

Sheema, M Kaleem & Bilqees Bano

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61K]

691

 

 

Evaluation of protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Chelidonium majus, during azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

Surjyo Jyoti Biswas & Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

 [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]


698

 

 

Isolation and identification of marine chitinolytic bacteria and their potential in antifungal biocontrol

Vipul Gohel, Tejas Chaudhary, Pranav Vyas & H S Chhatpar

 [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/00]


715

 

Biochemical changes in Glomus fasciculatum colonized roots of Lycopersicon esculentum in presence of Meloidogyne incognita

M Nagesh & P Parvatha Reddy


    721

 

 

Plant defense induced in in vitro propagated banana (Musa paradisiaca) plantlets by Fusarium derived elicitors

Miral Patel, I L Kothari & J S S Mohan

 [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H1/00]


728

 

 

Notes

 

Toxicological studies of pesticides on cytoplasmic streaming in Nitella

Sudhir Kumar Pandey & Tasneem Fatma

732

 

 

Protective effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale Rose on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

S K Verma, M Singh, P Jain & A Bordia

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  A61P]

736

 

 

Book Reviews

 

Communication for Biomedical Scientists

B C Sharma 

739

 

 

Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants, Volume 1—(Abe-Alle);
Volume 2—(Alli-Ard), Volume 3—(Are-Azi)

M K Singhal

740

 

 

Author Index

 

Keyword Index

 

 

Erratum

Caffeine in tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze] : In situ lowering by Bacillus licheniformis (Weigmann) Chester, by S Ramarethinam & N Rajalakshmi, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 575-580.

 

The caption for Figure 2 may be read as “HPLC separation* of theobromine, theophylline and caffeine isolated from normal tea leaves (----) and leaves sprayed with cultures of Bacillus licheniformis (—). *The methylxanthines were separated at different dilutions and the individual runs have been superimposed to show the separation of all three compounds in a single figure. The X-axis depicting Run time in minutes has been kept common for all the three compounds. The scale on Y1 axis is for theophylline and theobromine, while the scale on Y2 axis is for caffeine”.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 649-659

 

 

Review Article

 

Inhibitors of topoisomerases as anticancer drugs: Problems and prospects

B S Dwarakanath, Divya Khaitan & Rohit Mathur

  

DNA topoisomerases, which solve topological problems associated with various DNA transactions, are the targets of many therapeutic agents. Various topoisomerase inhibitors especially, topo-poisons, camptothecin (topo-I) and etoposide (topo-II) are some of the drugs that are used in the current treatment protocols, particularly for the treatment of leukemia (AML, ALL etc). However, tumor resistance, normal and non-specific tissue cytotoxicity are the limitations for successful development of these drugs as one of the primary therapeutic agents for the treatment of tumors in vitro. This brief review presents the current understanding about cytotoxicity development and outlines various approaches to overcome the limitations for enhancing the efficacy of topo-poison based anticancer drugs.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 660-666

 

Anti-HIV and cytotoxic ruthenium(II) complexes containing flavones: Biochemical evaluation in mice

 L Mishra, A K Singh, S K Trigun, S K Singh & S M Pandey

 

Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes containing 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives as coligands were screened for anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities against eleven tumor cell lines. In order to check the effect of flavones containing Ru(II) complexes in vivo on a mammal, a representative complex Ru(L)2(DMSO)2.5H2O (LH-3-Hdroxy-4¢-benzyloxyflavone; M5) was orally administered to adult male mice. Its effects on protein content and LDH were studied in different tissues of the animal. The compound got absorbed and retained in the blood between 1-3 hr after feeding. As compared to the normal and DMSO control sets, tissue specific significant reversible changes in the protein content as well as in LDH activity were observed between 1-4 hr of treatment. However, on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, except some tissue specific transitory alterations, expression patterns of five LDH isozymes were unchanged after feeding the compound. The present results suggested that in addition to its potent cytotoxic and anti-HIV effects on cell lines in vitro, M5 inhibited LDH activity, but reversibly with a little effect on biosynthetic status of the enzyme in mice.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 667-673

 

Effect of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition on events associated with inflammatorybowel disease in rats

Vijay Pal Singh, Chandrashekhar S Patil & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Leukotrienes play a part in inflammatory response. The unique role of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in the production of leukotrienes makes it a likely therapeutic target for inflammatory conditions like asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of zileuton, an orally active selective 5-LOX inhibitor against the events associated with dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in a rat model of IBD. The animals were administered simultaneously zileuton (100mg/kg) or sulphasalazine (100mg/kg) orally for 7 days.  On day eight, rats were sacrificed, and distal colon isolated to determine myeloperoxidase activity, in vivo superoxide dismutase activity, prostaglandin E2 levels and histological examination. Both zileuton and sulphasalazine significantly prevented the development of inflammatory events associated with colitis. The effect of zileuton was more pronounced towards reducing myeloperoxidase activity and increasing PGE2 levels in distal colon. The results show that chemotactic leukotrienes are responsible for inflammatory surge in damaged colon and, zileuton, significantly improved healing by inhibition of neutrophil recruitment and indirectly through increase in prostaglandins at the site of inflammation. It is suggested that inhibitors of 5-LOX enzyme may have useful therapeutic role in the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 674-680

 

Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of Normacid,
a herbomineral formulation

 P A Bafna & R Balaraman

 

Effect of various doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, po) of Normacid was studied on gastric secretion and gastric ulcers in pylorus-ligation and on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. The reduction in ulcer index in both the models along with the reduction in total acidity and an increase in the pH of gastric fluid in pylorus-ligated rats proved the anti-ulcer activity of Normacid. The increase in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and membrane bound enzymes like Ca2+ATPase, Mg2+ATPase and Na+K+ATPase and decrease in lipid peroxidation in both the models showed the antioxidant activity of the formulation. Thus it can be concluded that the anti-ulcer activity shown by Normacid may be due to the modulation of defensive factors by improvenent in gastric cytoprotection and partly due to antioxidant property.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 681-685

 

Effect of trace elements on surface hydrophobicity and adherence of Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells

Vishwas Saralaya K, Gopalkrishna Bhat†, Asha Kamath & P G Shivananda

 

Trace elements have significant effect on the physiology of bacteria. Variation in the concentration of trace elements may affect the expression of virulence by microorganisms. The effect of trace elements on hydrophobicity and adherence of E.coli to uroepithelial cells was studied. Increasing concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ and Zn2+ significantly decreased the surface hydrophobicity. Toxic trace elements like Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ did not alter surface hydrophobicity. With regards to adherence of E.coli to uroepithelial cells, only Mg2+ had significant effect. Toxic trace elements decreased the rate of cell adherence. The pathogenic strains of E.coli showed higher surface hydrophobicity and better cell adherence compared to the nonpathogenic strains. There was good correlation between surface hydrophobicity and cell adherence at higher concentrations (0.1 to 0.2mM) of Fe2+ and Zn2+. The results indicated that trace elements can significantly affect surface hydrophobicity and adherence of E.coli to uroepithelial cells. Such effect may have a significant impact on the initial stages of bacterial infection.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 686-690

 

Effect of lupeol isolated from Crataeva nurvala
Buch.- Ham. stem bark extract against free radical induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Annie Shirwaikar, Manjunath Setty M & Praveen Bommu and Krishnanand B

 

Lupeol, isolated from Crataeva nurvala stem bark in doses 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight, po, for 10 days, decreased the concentration of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione and catalase activities in cisplatin (5 mg/kg body weight, ip) induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The increased glutathione and catalase activities are indicative of antioxidant properties of lupeol.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 691-697

 

Effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on
tobramycin induced nephrotoxicity

Sheema, M Kaleem & Bilqees Bano

 

Post fish oil(n-3 fatty acids) treatment (5mg/kg/day for 12 days) was effective in bringing the reversal of tobramycin (160mg/kg/day,ip for 12 days) induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats as was evident by normal urea, creatinine, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate levels in the serum of the treatment group compared with group receiving tobramycin only. The return of normal levels of alkaline and acid phosphatase in kidney homogenates of post fish oil treatment group also indicated the beneficial effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids(fish oil) more than n-6 fatty acids(olive oil).The results suggest that oral supplements of dietary n-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for nearly two weeks after tobramycin exposure is more beneficial than n-6 fatty acids (olive oil) as it results in reversal of nephrotoxicity induced by tobramycin.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 698-714

 

Evaluation of protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Chelidonium majus, during azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

Surjyo Jyoti Biswas & Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

 

Several cytogenetical and enzymatic protocols were used to test if two microdoses of Chelidonium majus, namely Chelidonium-30 (Ch-30) and Chelidonium-200 (Ch-200), used as homeopathic drugs, showed anti-tumor activity and also favorably modulated genotoxic damages produced by an azo dye in mice at several intervals of fixation. Different sets of healthy mice were fed: (i) hepatocarcinogen, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB, initiator) + phenobarbital (PB, promoter), (ii) only p-DAB, (iii) only PB, and (iv) neither p-DAB nor PB (normal control). Mice fed with p-DAB + PB were divided into different sets that were also fed either Ch-30 (v) or Ch-200 (vi) or diluted alcohol (vii), the “vehicle” of the microdoses of Chelidonium. All mice of group (i), a few of group (ii) and group (vii) and none of groups (iii) and (iv) developed tumors in liver at the longer intervals of fixation. The frequencies of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleated erythrocytes (MN), mitotic index (MI) and sperm head abnormality (SHA) were much higher in groups (i) and (vii) mice than in groups (ii), (iii) and (iv) mice at all fixation intervals. However, in mice of both groups (v) and (vi), the frequencies of CA, MN, SHA were strikingly less than those of groups (i) and (vii), and moderately less than those of groups (ii) and (iii). Both Ch-30 and Ch-200 also modulated favourably some toxicity marker enzymes like acid and alkaline phosphatases, peroxidases, glutamate oxalo-acetate and glutamate pyruvate transaminases in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of the carcinogen fed mice. The microdoses of Chelidonium having no visible ill effects of their own, may be strong candidates for use in delaying/protecting liver cancer.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 715-720

 

Isolation and identification of marine chitinolytic bacteria and their potential in antifungal biocontrol

Vipul Gohel, Tejas Chaudhary, Pranav Vyas & H S Chhatpar

 

Chitinolytic marine bacterial strains (30) were isolated from the sea dumps at Bhavnagar, India. They were screened as chitinase producers on the basis of zone of clearance on chitin agar plates incorporated with calcofluor white M2R for the better resolution. Out of these, three strains namely, Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea dispersa and Enterobacter amnigenus showed high chitinase production. They were also found to produce proteases and therefore have a good potential for use as antifungal biocontrol agents for the control of fungal plant pathogens. These strains could degrade and utilize the mycelia of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich and Fusarium sp. In vitro, these strains could inhibit the growth of Fusarium sp. and M. phaseolina. The culture filtrate inhibiting hyphal elongation was observed microscopically.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 721-727

 

Biochemical changes in Glomus fasciculatum colonized roots of Lycopersicon esculentum in presence of Meloidogyne incognita

 M Nagesh & P Parvatha Reddy

 

Glasshouse experiments were conducted to elicit biochemical substantiation for the observed difference in resistance to nematode infection in roots colonized by mycorrhiza, and susceptibility of the fresh flush of roots of the same plant that escaped mycorrhizal colonization. Tomato roots were assayed for their biochemical profiles with respect to total proteins, total phenols, indole acetic acid, activities of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and indole acetic acid oxidase. The roots of the same plant (one set) received Glomus fasciculatum and G. fasciculatum plus juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita separately; and half the roots of second set of plants received G. fasciculatum while the other half of roots did not receive any treatment. Roots colonized by G. fasciculatum recorded maximum contents of proteins and phenols followed by that of the roots that received G. fasciculatum plus M. incognita. However, IAA content was lowest in the roots that received mycorrhiza or mycorrhiza plus juveniles of root-knot nematode and correspondingly. Roots that received juveniles of root-knot nematode recorded maximum IAA content and per cent increase over healthy check and mycorrhiza-inoculated roots. The comparative assay on the activities of PPO, PAL and IAA oxidase enzymes in treated and healthy roots of tomato, indicated that PAL and IAA oxidase activities were maximum in G. fasciculatum colonized roots followed by the roots that received mycorrhiza plus juveniles of root-knot nematode, while the activity of PPO was minimum in these roots. The roots that received juveniles of root-knot nematode recorded minimum PAL and IAA oxidase activities and maximum PPO activity. Since the roots of same plant that received mycorrhiza and that did not receive mycorrhiza; and the plant that received nematode alone and mycorrhiza plus nematode recorded differential biochemical contents of proteins, total phenols and IAA, and differential activities of enzymes under study, it was evident that the biochemical defense response to mycorrhizal colonization against root-knot nematodes was localized and not systemic. This explained for the response of plant that differed in root galling due to nematode infection in presence of mycorrhizal colonization. The new or fresh roots which missed mycorrhizal colonization, got infected by nematodes and developed root galls.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 728-731

 

Plant defense induced in in vitro propagated banana (Musa paradisiaca) plantlets by
Fusarium derived elicitors

Miral Patel, I L Kothari & J S S Mohan

 

Perception of microbial signal molecules is part of the strategy evolved by plants to survive attacks by potential pathogens. To gain a more complete understanding of the early signaling events involved in these responses, we used fungal components of Fusarium under in vitro condition and checked the rise in signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA), and marker enzymes in defense reactions against the pathogen. SA level increased by 21 folds in elicitor treated plantlets as compared to that of control plantlets and there was marked increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), peroxidase(POX), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) along with higher total phenolic content. Present results indicated that use of fungal components had successfully induced systemic resistance in  in vitro cultured banana plantlets.

 

 

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 732-735

 

Toxicological studies of pesticides on cytoplasmic streaming in Nitella

Sudhir Kumar Pandey & Tasneem Fatma

.

In the present study, changes in velocity of cytoplasmic streaming in the giant internodal cells of Nitella for varying concentration of the pesticides, 2,4-D, dieldrin, malathion, methyl parathion and endosulfan, were measured. Marked decrease in the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming was found at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100mM. Dieldrin was the most toxic to all the pesticides investigated, followed by methyl parathion, endosulfan, malathion and 2,4-D. Threshold values for dieldrin, methylparathion, endosulfan, malathion and 2,4-D as indicated by the onset of decrease in the normal cytoplasmic streaming velocity were less than 6.25´ 10 -6, 2.5´ 10-5, 5´ 10-5, 5´ 10-5 and 1.25´ 10-5M respectively. Cessation of streaming was noticed above 1mM in dieldrin and above 10mM when exposed to methylparathion and endosulfan. Cessation of streaming was not seen up to 100mM concentration of 2,4-D and malathion.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, July 2004, pp. 736-738

 

Protective effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

S K Verma, M Singh, P Jain & A Bordia

 

The effects of air dried ginger powder (0.1 g/kg body weight, po, for 75 days) were studied on experimentally induced atherosclerosis in rabbits by cholesterol feeding (0.3 g/kg body weight, po). Cholesterol feeding for 75 days lead to distinct development of atheroma in the aorta and coronary arteries of the rabbits and this was significantly inhibited by about 50% following ginger administration. There was distinct decrease in lipid peroxidation and enhancement of fibrinolytic activity in ginger treated animals. However, ginger did not lower blood lipids to any significant extent. This distinct protection from the development of atherosclerosis by ginger is probably because of its free radical scavanging, prostaglandin inhibitory and fibrinolysis enhancing properties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

Aggarwal Rakesh

739

Jain P

736

Patel Miral

728

 

 

 

 

Patil Chandrashekhar S

667

Bafna P A

674

Kaleem M

691

 

 

Balaraman R

674

Kamath Asha

681

Reddy P Parvatha

721

Bano Bilqees

691

Khaitan Divya

649

 

 

Bhatt Gopalkrishna

681

Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur Rahman

698

Sheema

691

Biswas Surjyo Jyoti

698

Kothari I L

728

Shirwaikar Annie

686

Bommu Praveen

686

Krishnanand B

686

Shivananda P G

681

Bordia A

736

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

667

Singh A K

660

 

 

 

 

Singh M

736

Chaudhary Tejas

715

Manjunath Setty M

686

Singh S K

660

Chhatpar H S

715

Mathur Rohit

649

Singh Vijay Pal

667

 

 

Mishra L

660

 

 

Dwarakanath B S

649

Mohan J S S

728

Tandon Neeraj

740

 

 

 

 

Trigun S K

660

Fatma Tasneem

732

Nagesh M

721

 

 

 

 

Naik S R

739

Verma S K

736

Gohel Vipul

715

 

 

Vishwas Saralaya K

681

Gupta A k

740

Pandey S M

660

Vyas Pranav

715

 

 

Pandey Sudhir Kumar

732

 

 

 

 

 
KEYWORD  INDEX

 

Adherence

681

Fibrinolysis

736

Nebramycin

691

Aminoglycosides

691

Fish oil

691

Nephrotoxicity

686

Anti-HIV

660

Flavones

660

Nephrotoxicity

691

Antioxidant

674, 736

Free radical

686

Nitella

732

Anti-ulcer

674

Fusarium

715, 728

 

 

Aquatic pollution

732

 

 

Olive oil

691

Atherosclerosis

736

Genotoxicity

698

 

 

 

 

Glomus fasciculatum

721

p-DAB

698

Banana plantlet

728

Glutathione

674

Pesticides

732

Biocontrol

715

 

 

Phenyl alanine ammonia lyase

 

721

Biomonitoring

732

Hepatocarcinogenesis

698

Plant defense

728

 

 

 

 

Polyphenol oxidase

721

Cajanus cajan

715

Indole acetic acid

721

Prostaglandins

736

Camptothecin

649

Inflammatory bowel disease

667

 

 

Catalase

674

 

 

Rats

686

Chelidonium majus

698

Lipid peroxidation

674

Ruthenium (II) complexes

660

Chitinase production

715

5-Lipoxygenase: (5-LOX)

667

 

 

Cleavable complex

649

Lupeol

686

Serum Lipids

736

Colitis

667

Lycopersicon esculentum

721

Superoxide dismutase

674

Crataeva nurvala

686

 

 

Surface hydrophobicity

681

Creatinine

691

Macrophomina phaseolina

715

 

 

Cytoplasmic streaming

732

Marine bacteria

715

Tobramycin

691

Cytotoxicity

660

Meloidogyne incognita

721

Tomato

721

 

 

Microdose

698

Topoisomerases

649

2-Deoxy-D-glucose

649

Musa paradisiaca

728

Toxicity marker enzyme

698

 

 

Mycorrhizal colonization

721

Trace elements

681

Elicitor

728

 

 

 

 

Escherichia coli

681

n-3 fatty acids

691

Urea

691

Etoposide

649

n-6 fatty acids

691

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zileuton

667