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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN: 0019-5189  

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  42(6)  545-644  (2004)

VOLUME 42

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Molecular basis of X-linked non-specific mental retardation

Udai Bhan Pandey & Balraj Mittal

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61]

 

 

549

 

 

Papers

 

Immune haemolymph proteins in response to bacterial infection and identification of a putative bacteria binding protein in malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

R K Dixit & S K Gakhar



 

558

 

 

Lung specific stealth liposomes as antitubercular drug carriers in guinea pigs

Rajesh Pandey, Sadhna Sharma & G K Khuller 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61K 47/00]

 

 

 

562

 

 

Modulatory effect of diclofenac on antispasmodic effect of pitofenone in cholinergic spasm

Shrinivas K Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar S Patil, Naveen K Jain & Amarjit Singh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : A61]

 

 

 

 

567

 

 

 

Comparative effectiveness of CaNa3DTPA and tiron along with a-tocopherol against beryllium-induced biochemical alterations in rats

R Mathur, Satendra Kumar Nirala & Asha Mathur



570

 

 

Caffeine in tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze]: In situ lowering by

Bacillus licheniformis (Weigmann) Chester

S Ramarethinam & N Rajalakshmi

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 : A01N63/00; C12N 9/56]

 


 

 

575

 

 

Influence of antiangiogenic fraction from Diogenes avarus (Heller) on fertility

and implantation in mice

Sujala Pathare, D A Bhivgade & Madhavi Indap

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 : A61 K]



 

581

 

 

 

Antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects of alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica WALL

D Kavitha, P N Shilpa & S Niranjali Devaraj

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61K]


 

589

 

 

 

Effect of amaranth leaves on dimethylhydrazine-induced changes in multicomponent  antioxidant system of rat liver

K R Anilakumar, Farhath Khanum, K R Sudarshanakrishna & K Santhanam

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61 K]

 


 

 

595

 

 

Antioxidant effect of curcumin in selenium induced cataract of Wistar rats

S Padmaja & T N Raju

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61 K]


 

601

 

 

Relationship of fluorescence and thermal emission from isolated thylakoids

under light stress conditions 

Dejan Markovic

 


604

 

 

Nodulation competitiveness between contrasting phage phenotypes of pigeonpea rhizobial strains 

Ashok Mishra, B Dhar & R M Singh 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 C12 Q 1/04]


 

611

 

 

 

Effect of auxins on berberine synthesis in cell suspension culture of Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr A critically endangered medicinal liana of Western Ghats

S Narasimhan & G M Nair

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A 01 H]



 

 

616

 

 

Adrenocortical involvement during diverse stress in soft-shelled turtle

Lissemys p. punctata Bonnaterre

Prajna Paramita Ray, Santasri Chaudhuri-Sengupta & B R Maiti

 


620

 

 

Notes

 

Seminoma in hybrid catfish [Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus) ♀ Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) ♂]

P K Sahoo, S K Sahoo, S S Giri, T Swain & A K Sahu

 

626

 

 

Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on the heart rate, rhythm and force of contraction in frog: A dose-dependent study

Raj Kumar Yadav & Nar Singh Verma 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61K 31/00, C07C 321/00]

 

 

628

 

 

Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in Moringa oleifera induced potentiation of pentobarbitone hypnosis in albino rats

Kausik Ray, Rimi Hazra, Pratip Kr Debnath & Debjani Guha

 

 

632

 

 

In vitro degradation of cell-wall and digestibility of cereal straws treated with

anaerobic ruminal fungi

B Mani Kumar, A K Puniya, Kishan Singh & J P Sehgal

 


636

 

 

In vitro mass multiplication of Ophiorrhiza mungo Linn.

Binoy Jose & K Satheeshkumar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7  A01H 4/00]

 

639

 

 

Author Index

Keyword Index

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 549-557

 

 

Review Article

 

Molecular basis of X-linked non-specific mental retardation

Udai Bhan Pandey & Balraj Mittal

 

Mental retardation (MR) is a common disorder, affecting 13% of the total population. This condition results from failure to develop cognitive abilities and intelligence level appropriate for the age group. Mental retardation is basically a clinically as well as etiologically heterogeneous type of condition and both genetic and non-genetic factors have been found to be involved. There are more than 1000 entries in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database under the name of mental retardation. In recent years 15 genes for X linked non-specific mental retardation have been identified which provide important clues regarding molecular and cellular processes involved in signal transduction cascade in central nervous system. Recent advancements in identification and characterization of X-linked non-specific mental retardation genes have been discussed in this review. Understanding of the molecular pathways of disease causing genes would be helpful in developing effective therapeutic approaches for mental retardation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 558-561

 

 

Papers

 
Immune haemolymph proteins in response to bacterial infection and identification of a putative bacteria binding protein in malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

R K Dixit & S K Gakhar

 

Induction of haemolymph proteins in mosquito A. stephensi due to wounding or bacterial infection (E. coli) was analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Wounding response of pupa revealed subsequent induction of two polypeptides (21 and 74 kDa). Two other polypeptides (44 and 57 kDa) were induced commonly in both pupa and adult female haemolymph upon bacterial infection. In vitro binding assay revealed identification of 44 kDa, a putative bacterial binding protein, a more relevant protein for further elucidation of molecular mechanism involved in host parasite interactions.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 562-566

 

Lung specific stealth liposomes as antitubercular drug carriers in guinea pigs

Rajesh Pandey, Sadhna Sharma & G K Khuller

 

The problem of patient non-compliance in the management of tuberculosis (TB) can be overcome by reducing the dosing frequency of antitubercular drugs (ATD) employing drug carriers. This study reports on the intravenous (iv) administration of lung specific stealth liposomes encapsulating ATD (rifampicin and isoniazid in combination) to guinea pigs and the detailed pharmacokinetic/chemotherapeutic studies. Following a single iv administration of liposomal drugs, the latter were found to exhibit sustained therapeutic levels in plasma for 96-168 hr with half-lives of 24-70 hr, mean residence time (MRT) of 35-81 hr and organ drug levels up to day 7. The relative bioavailability (as compared to oral free drugs) was increased by 5.4-8.9 folds, whereas the absolute bioavailability (as compared to iv free drugs) was increased by 2.9-4.2 folds. Weekly therapy with liposomal ATD for 6 weeks produced equivalent clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from organs as did daily therapy with oral free drugs. Hence, intravenous liposomal ATD offer the therapeutic advantage of reducing the dosing frequency and improving the patient compliance in the management of TB.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 567-569

  

Modulatory effect of diclofenac on antispasmodic effect of pitofenone in cholinergic spasm

Shrinivas K Kulkarni & Chandrashekhar S Patil  and Naveen K Jain & Amarjit Singh

 

Biliary, ureteric and intestinal colic are extremely common clinical conditions associated with smooth muscle spasm. In the present study, antispasmodic activity was carried out against acetylcholine (10-640 ng/ml)-induced contractions on guinea pig ileum. Acetylcholine (10-640 ng/ml) induced concentration-dependent contraction of smooth muscle. Diclofenac, in varying concentration (9.4 x 10-5 mol/l and 14.1 x 10-5 mol/l) shifted the concentration response curve of acetylcholine to the right without suppressing the maximal response. However, in higher concentration diclofenac (18.9 x 10-5 mol/l) blocked the response in an unsurmountable fashion. Further, analgin (11.09 x 10-5, 16.63 x 10-5 and 22.18 x 10-5 mol/l) in equimolar concentrations did not alter the concentration response curve of acetylcholine, but in higher concentration analgin (44.36 x 10-5 mol/l) also blocked the response in an unsurmountable fashion. Pitofenone (2.5 x 10-6 mol/l) also, shifted the concentration response curve of acetylcholine to right in a parallel fashion with no change in maximal response. The present study confirms the potent antispasmodic activity of diclofenac-pitofenone combination in comparison to analgin-pitofenone in molar equivalent concentration (in comparison to diclofenac) against acetylcholine-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 570-574

  

Comparative effectiveness of CaNa3DTPA and
tiron along with a-tocopherol against beryllium-induced
biochemical alterations in rats

R Mathur, Satendra Kumar Nirala & Asha Mathur

 

The therapeutic efficacy of chelating agents CaNa3DTPA (calcium trisodium diethylene triamine penta acetic acid) and Tiron (sodium-4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonate) with and without antioxidant, a-Tocopherol was evaluated in the treatment of beryllium-induced toxicity in female albino rats. The animals were exposed to beryllium (as beryllium nitrate) at a dose of 1mg/kg (ip) once a day for 28 consecutive days followed by chelation therapy by CaNa3DTPA (0.1 mM/kg, ip) and Tiron (471 mg/kg, ip) with and without a-Tocopherol (25 mg/kg, orally) for 5 consecutive days after toxicant administration. Tissue biochemistry revealed severe alterations in liver and kidney. A significant fall in total protein and glycogen contents, alkaline phosphatase, adenosine tri-phosphatase and succinic dehydrogenase level was noticed. On the contrary, an elevation in acid phosphatase was recorded. The significant rise in hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased level of hepatic reduced glutathione showed toxicity due to beryllium. CaNa3DTPA with a-Tocopherol showed moderate therapeutic efficacy while Tiron in combination with a-Tocopherol exerted statistically more beneficial effects to reverse biochemical alterations in different variables altered due to beryllium intoxication.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 575-580

 

Caffeine in tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze] :
In situ lowering by Bacillus licheniformis
(Weigmann) Chester

S Ramarethinam & N Rajalakshmi

 

Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) contain 5-6% caffeine that is responsible for the stimulating effect of the beverage. As the tolerance to caffeine varies among individuals, low caffeine tea would be an ideal alternative. While assessing the potential of a few selected bacteria-Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis and B. firmus, to multiply on nutrient medium supplemented with glucose (5%) and tea leaf extract (2%), it was observed that only B. licheniformis could proliferate on this medium. Hence, B. licheniformis was used for further studies. Tea plants were sprayed with a suspension of B. licheniformis at a dilution of 5 108 CFU/ml containing 0.1% Tween 80 as surfactant. In situ lowering of caffeine from tea leaves was evident without affecting the quality of the other tea components. Further, there was no change in the morphological and physiological characteristics as well. It is suggested that spraying of B. licheniformis may be useful in yielding decaffeinated tea with good flavour and aroma.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 581-588

 

Influence of antiangiogenic fraction from Diogenes avarus (Heller) on fertility and implantation in mice

Sujala Pathare, D A Bhivgade & Madhavi Indap

 

The methanol extract isolated from hermit crab, D. avarus degenerated ovarion and uterine tissues in cyclic and pregnant mice, treated before and after the implantation. Immunohistochemical staining using CD31 and Factor VIII specific to endothelial cells showed reduction in microvessel density. The hormonal assay showed decrease in the progesterone secretion in all experimental mice.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 589-594

 

Antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects of alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica WALL

D Kavitha, P N Shilpa & S Niranjali Devaraj

 

The alkaloids from the ethanolic extract of H. antidysenterica seeds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in vitro, and their antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats, in vivo. The plasmid DNA, whole cell lysate and outer membrane protein profile of a clinical isolate of EPEC was determined in presence of alkaloids of H.antidysenterica. The disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods were used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. The alkaloids showed strong antibacterial activity against EPEC strains. In castor oil-induced diarrhoea, alkaloids reduced the diarrhoea with decrease in the number of wet faeces in pretreated rats at a dose of 200-800 mg/kg. The loss of plasmid DNA and suppression of high molecular weight proteins were observed on alkaloids treatment. Taking into account the multiple antibiotic resistance of EPEC, the results suggest usefulness of alkaloids of H.antidysenterica seeds as antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal agents.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 595-600

 

Effect of amaranth leaves on dimethylhydrazine-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant
system of rat liver

K R Anilakumar, Farhath Khanum, K R Sudarshanakrishna & K Santhanam

 

Effect of prefeeding dehydrated amaranth (A. gangeticus) leaves at 10 and 20% levels on a chemical toxicant, dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced free radical stress in rat liver was evaluated. DMH-induced rise in hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), was diminished by AL. AL intake resulted in a significant increase in hepatic glutathione (GSH). The feeding of AL at 10%level increased the hepatic glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity, while that at 20% level increased the hepatic glutathione reductase (GSSGR) as well, in addition to G-6-PDH. Amaranth leaves at 10 and 20% levels of feeding diminished the hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. DMH influenced adversely the hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. Simultaneous administration of DMH and feeding of AL enhanced the DMH-induced decrease in hepatic GSH-Px. DMH enhanced formation of micronuclei was reverted significantly by AL intake. Hence, it was concluded that the consumption of AL at 20% level reduced DMH-induced impaired antioxidant status in rat liver.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 601-603

 

 Antioxidant effect of curcumin in selenium induced cataract of Wistar rats

S Padmaja & T N Raju

 

Wistar rat pups treated with curcumin, a natural constituent of Curcuma longa before being administered with selenium showed no opacities in the lens. The lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase enzyme levels in the lenses of curcumin and selenium co-treated animals were significantly less when compared to selenium treated animals. The superoxidase dismutase and catalase enzyme activities of curcumin and selenium co-treated animal lenses showed an enhancement. Curcumin co-treatment seems to prevent oxidative damage and found to delay the development of cataract.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 604-610

 

Relationship of fluorescence and thermal emission from isolated thylakoids under light stress conditions

Dejan Markovic

 

Simultaneous measurements of fluorescence and thermal emission have been made by a combined fluorescence and photoacoustic techniques on isolated thylakoids pretreated by a prolonged illumination of saturating light. The traces of the signals are used to calculate four characteristic parameters, energy storage, half-saturation intensity, number of photons to close reaction center, and a constant for quasi-equlibria between (re)oxidized and reduced quinone acceptors. These parameters are used to study the response of photosynthetic apparatus functioning under photoinhibition stress. The defense mechanism seems to possess an efficient cooperativity of reaction centers under stress conditions.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 611-615

 

Nodulation competitiveness between contrasting phage phenotypes of pigeonpea rhizobial strains

Ashok Mishra, B Dhar & R M Singh

 

Competitiveness between (I) lysogenic vs. phage-indicator strains, (II) phage-resistant vs phage-sensitive strains, and (III) large plaque vs. small plaque developing strains was examined under laboratory and field conditions in order to study the involvement of these crucial phage sensitivity patterns in the competition for nodule occupancy of pigeonpea rhizobia. The phage-indicator strain (A039) exhibited higher competitiveness over the lysogenic strain (A025 Smr); the phage sensitive strain (IHP-195) over the phage resistant strain (IHP 195 SmrVr); and the large plaque developing strain (A059) over the small plaque developing strain (IHP195 Smr) in association with pigeonpea cv. bahar both under laboratory and field conditions. Dual inoculation of A025 Smr + A039 and A059 + IHP195 Smr (mixed in equal proportion just before treatment) improved the nodule occupancy by inoculant strains against native rhizobia and resulted into higher plant dry weight and yield as compared to their application as single inoculum. The phage-resistant mutant IHP195 SmrVr showed reduced competitiveness against native rhizobia, compared to its parental strain. The dual inoculation of parental strain and phage-resistant mutant gave the same result as the inoculation of parental strain alone.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 616-619

 

Effect of auxins on berberine synthesis in cell suspension culture of Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr  A critically endangered medicinal liana of Western Ghats

S Narasimhan & G M Nair

 

Cell suspension culture of critically endangered Coscinium fenestratum was established from young leaf segments on WPM supplemented with auxins. Effect of 2,4-D, IAA, IBA and NAA was examined on cell growth and berberine production. Berberine was synthesized and released continuously into the liquid medium. Presence of 2,4-D stimulated cell growth, but was not inhibitory on berberine synthesis. On the contrary, NAA stimulated berberine biosynthesis, but was not favourable for cell growth. Among the auxins tested, highest yield of berberine (5.79 mg/30 ml; 4.14 times to that of control) was obtained with 4 mg/l of NAA, while the best cell growth (214.43 mg dry wt., 1.96 times to that of control) was observed in the presence of 2 mg/l of 2,4-D. IAA and IBA were not favourable for cell growth and berberine synthesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 620-625

 

Adrenocortical involvement during diverse stress in soft-shelled turtle Lissemys p. punctata Bonnoterre

Prajna Paramita Ray, Santasri Chaudhuri-Sengupta & B R Maiti

 

Adrenocortical responses to diverse stressful situations (dehydration, formaldehyde treatment and salt loading) were studied in the adult female soft-shelled turtle, Lissemys p. punctata. Dehydration, formaldehyde treatment (formalin, 1% : 0.1 ml/100 g body weight daily) or salt loading (NaCl, 1% : 0.1 ml/100 g body weight daily) treatments consecutively for 7 days caused hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells with their nuclear diameter increased, and depletions of adrenal cholesterol and ascorbic acid concentrations followed by decreased acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities in turtles. Corticosterone levels were elevated in both the adrenal gland and serum of turtles after dehydration and formalin stress, but the hormone level ramined unaltered after salt loading in turtles. The results suggest active involvement of adrenal cortex in stress for homeostasis in Lissemys turtles.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 626-627

 

 

Notes

Seminoma in hybrid catfish [Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus)
Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)♂]

P K Sahoo, S K Sahoo, S S Giri, T Swain & A K Sahu

 

Spontaneous testicular tumors, seminoma, were noticed in four male hybrid catfish (C. batrachus ♀ C. gariepinus ♂) after the age of two years. The hybrids showed massive abdominal swelling with catchectic body and free lobulated, encapsulated tumors (> 325 g) within the serosanguinous fluid-filled peritoneal cavities. The tumor cells were large and polyhedral with prominent centrally located nuclei. Other vital organs appeared normal. It seems to be the first report of seminoma in hybrid catfish and possibly of genetic cause.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 628-631

 

Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract
on the heart rate, rhythm and force of contraction in frog:
A dose-dependent study

Raj Kumar Yadav & Nar Singh Verma

 

Garlic juice (dose equivalent to 3.3 g to 33 g garlic) mainly caused bradycardia in frog Rana tigerina. The disturbance in ventricular rhythm was observed prior to than that of atria. Rhythm was specially disturbed at higher doses causing bizarre pattern. Force of contraction of the heart also decreased with higher dose of the garlic extract. The results suggest that garlic extract has some beneficial effect on heart rate modulating the rate, rhythm and force of contraction positively but very high doses may exert non-desirable effects as well.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 632-635

 

 

Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in Moringa oleifera induced potentiation of pentobarbitone hypnosis in albino rats

Kausik Ray, Rimi Hazra, Pratip Kr Debnath & Debjani Guha

 

The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in pentobarbitone (PB) sleeping time, gross behaviour, electrical activity of the brain and serum 5-HT level was studied in Holtzman strain adult albino rats following treatment with M. oleifera (MO). MO (350mg/kg) caused inhibition of awareness, touch response, motor activity, righting reflex, and grip strength. It significantly increased the PB sleeping time , serum 5-HT level (P<0.001) and a-wave activity. These observations indicate that the aqueous extract of MO potentiated PB induced sleeping time and increased the a-wave activity through 5-HT.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 636-638

 

 

In vitro degradation of cell-wall and digestibility of cereal straws treated with anaerobic ruminal fungi

B Mani Kumar, A K Puniya, Kishan Singh & J P Sehgal

 

Ruminal fungal isolates (Orpinomyces sp.; C-14, Piromyces sp.; C-15, Orpinomyces sp.; B-13 and Anaeromyces sp.; B-6), were evaluated under anoxic conditions for their effect on in vitro dry matter digestibility, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin using rice and wheat straw as substrate. There was no significant effect of the fungal isolates on the disappearance of the substrates along with rumen liquor when compared to control. The doses of 106 cfu/ ml of the isolate were found to have maximum degradation of straws in comparison to the doses of 103 cfu/ml.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, June 2004, pp. 639-642

 

 

In vitro mass multiplication of Ophiorrhiza mungo Linn.

Binoy Jose & K Satheeshkumar

  

A protocol for in vitro mass multiplication of plants through seedling (shoot) cultures was established for Ophiorrhiza mungo. Maximum number of adventitious shoots per shoot culture (10.4 1.72) was initiated on MS solid medium supplemented with BAP (2.22 μM) after 3 weeks. Shoots were further multiplied (12.8 2.8) through subculture of intact shoots and reculture of nodal segments of aseptic shoots (6.50.94) in MS solid medium containing BAP (0.89 μM). Shoot elongation (1.27 0.12 cm) was achieved in the medium containing GA3 (1.44 μM) in two weeks. Rooting was favoured in basal agar medium supplemented with IBA (12.3 μM) plus NAA (1.07 μM). The plants were successfully established (100%) in the pots containing sand and top soil (1:1) mixture in a period of two weeks.

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

Anilakumar K R

595

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

567

Ramarethinam S

575

 

 

Ray Kausik

632

Bhivgade D A

581

Maiti B R

620

Ray Prajna Paramita

620

 

 

Mani Kumar B

636

Debnath Pratip Kr

632

Markovic Dejan

604

Sahoo P K

626

Devaraj S Niranjali

589

Mathur Asha

570

Sahoo S K

626

Dhar B

611

Mathur R

570

Sahu A K

626

Dixit R K

558

Mishra Ashok

611

Santasri Chaudhuri-Sengupta

620

 

 

Mittal Balraj

549

Santhanam K

595

Gakhar S K

558

 

 

Satheeshkumar K

639

Giri S S

626

Nair G M

616

Sehgal J P

636

Guha Debjani

632

Narasimhan S

616

Sharma Sadhna

562

 

 

Nirala Satendra Kumar

570

Shilpa P N

589

Hazra Rimi

632

 

 

Singh Amarjit

567

 

 

Padmaja S

601

Singh Kishan

636

Indap Madhavi

581

Pandey Rajesh

562

Singh R M

611

 

 

Pandey Udai Bhan

549

Sudarshanakrishna K R

595

Jain Naveen K

567

Pathare Sujala

581

Swain T

626

Jose Binoy

639

Patil Chandrashekhar S

567

 

 

 

 

Puniya A K

636

Verma Nar Singh

628

Kavitha D

589

 

 

 

 

Khanum Farhath

595

Rajalakshmi N

575

Yadav Raj Kumar

628

Khuller G K

562

Raju T N

601

 

 

KEYWORD INDEX

 

Adrenal cortex

620

Clarias gariepinus

626

Malaria

558

Alkaloids

589

Corticosterone

620

Moringa oleifera

632

Amaranth leaf

595

Coscinium fenestratum

616

Mouse

581

Anaerobic ruminal fungi

636

Curcumin

601

Multicomponent antioxidant system

595

Analgesics

567

   

Multiple shoots

639

Anopheles stephensi

558

Diogenes avarus

581

 

 

Antiangiogenic fraction

581

 

 

Neurodevelopment disorders

549

Antidiarrhoeal

589

EEG

632

Neuronal signaling defects

549

Antioxidant

595, 601

Energy storage

604

   

Antispasmodic effect

567

EPEC

589

Ophiorrhiza mungo

639

Ascorbic acid

620

 

 

 

 

Auxins

616

Fluorescence

604

PB sleeping time

632

 

 

FMR-2

549

Phage phenotypes

611

Bacillus licheniformis

575

Force of contraction

628

Pharmacokinetics

562

Bacteria binding protein 

558

 

 

Phosphatases

620

Bacterial infection

558

Garlic extract

628

Photoacoustics

604

Berberine synthesis

616

Guinea pig ileum

567

Photoinhibition

604

Beryllium

570

 

 

Pigeonpea-rhizobia

611

 

 

Haemolymph protein

558

 

 

Caffeine-free tea

575

Heart rate

628

Rat

595

Calyx cup

639

Heart rhythm

628

Rifampicin

562

Camellia sinensis

575

Histology

620

 

 

Camptothecin

639

Holarrhena antidysenterica

589

Selenium toxicity

601

CaNa3DTPA

570

Hybrid catfish

626

Seminoma

626

Catalase

601

 

 

Serotonin

632

Cataract

601

Idiopathic mental retardation 

549

Stress

620

Cell suspension culture

616

Implantation

581

Superoxide dismutase

601

Cell-wall

636

Isoniazid

562

 

 

Cereal straw

636

 

 

Thermal emission

604

Chelation

570

Lipid peroxidation

601

Tiron

570

Chemotherapy

562

Liposomes

562

-Tocopherol

570

Cholesterol

620

Liver

595

Turtle

620

Clarias batrachus

626

   

 

 

       

Xanthine oxidase

601