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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  42(3)  231-336  (2004)

VOLUME 42

NUMBER 3

MARCH  2004

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles

 

 

Transglutaminases, thioredoxins and protein disulphide isomerase: Diverse enzymes with a common goal of cross-linking proteins in lower organisms

Ramakrishna U Rao & Kapil Mehta

 

235

 

 

Plant immunization

I L Kothari & Miral Patel

244

 

 

Papers

 

Overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and associated pathobiological factors in invasive primary breast cancer

Amitabha Ray, Bhuvnesh Kumar Sharma, Sudershan Kaur, Shashi Sharma & Joginder Kumar Sharma

 

253

 

 

Comparative immunogenecity of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus antigens in FMD-haemorrhagic septicaemia combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone in buffalo calves

Rajesh Chhabra, R Sharma & N N Kakker

 

259

 

 

 

Oxidative and non-oxidative activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by histone H1

G Vani, C N Deepa & C S Shyamala Devi

265

 

 

Isolation and partial structural evaluation of a cardiotoxic factor from Indian common murrel (Channa striatus L.) skin extract

S Karmakar, Tulika Das, A Ghosh, S C Dasgupta, A K Biswas & A Gomes

 

271

 

 

a-Lipoic acid ameliorates altered colonic contractility and intestinal transit in STZ-diabetic rats

M Satish Kumar & K V Harish Prashanth

279

 

 

 

Effects of steroid hormones on total brain Na+-K+ ATPase activity in Oreochromis mossambicus

Francis Sunny & Oommen V Oommen

283

 

 

 

Metallothionein in male reproductive organs of adrenalectomized and hydrocortisone-treated Wistar rats

Neena Nair & R S Bedwal

 

288

 

 

In vitro effects of organophosphate pesticides on rat erythrocytes

Mohan Singh, Rajat Sandhir & Ravi Kiran

292

 

 

Effect of supplementary feeding of vitamin K1 on difethialone treated Indian gerbil, Tatera indica Hardwicke in laboratory

Vipin Chaudhary, R S Tripathi & F S Poonia

 

297

 

 

Haemolysins of Salmonella, their role in pathogenesis and subtyping of Salmonella serovars

B R Singh, V P Singh, Meenu Agarwal, Gautam Sharma & Mudit Chandra 

303

 

 

 

Optimum growth requirements of nitrifying consortia developed from treated sewage

Kavitha Ramachandran & I S Bright Singh

314

 

 

Notes

 

Cancer preventive potential of Momordica charantia L. against benzo(a)pyrene induced fore-stomach tumourigenesis in murine model system

Gagan Deep, Trisha Dasgupta, A R Rao & R K Kale

 

319

 

 

Disposition of uric acid upon administration of ofloxacin alone and in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs

A K Hemanth Kumar & Prema Gurumurthy

 

323

 

 

Evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of leaf extract of Tapinanthus sessilifolius (P. Beauv) van Tiegh

Florence D Tarfa, Obiageri O Obodozie, Emmanuel Mshelia, Kolo Ibrahim & Temple V J

 

326

 

 

Nicotine induced alterations on reproductive organs of female rats under protein deficient condition

K Mandal, S Dasgupta & B D Chattopadhyay

 

330

 

 

Conference Report

 

Report on the 3rd international symposium on natural drugs at Naples, Italy, October 2-4, 2003

C K K Nair

333

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index
       
         
Keyword Index
       

 

Review Articles

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 235-243

 

Transglutaminases, thioredoxins and protein disulphide isomerase: Diverse enzymes with a common goal of cross-linking proteins in lower organisms

Ramakrishna U Rao & Kapil Mehta

 

Prokaryotes and various eukaryotes have remarkable ability to survive under adverse physiologic conditions and protect themselves from environmental stresses. An important mechanism by which they accomplish this is by synthesizing rigid and biochemically inert structures around them. In general, these structures are highly stable and resistant to mechanical and chemical insults. Biochemically, they are composed of complex carbohydrates, such as chitin and heavily crosslinked scaffold of proteins to form complex structures, such as sheath, cuticle, and epicuticle. Transglutaminases (TGases) are a family of enzymes that share catalytic function with thioredoxin and protein disulphide isomerases (PDI) and catalyze protein crosslink reaction by establishing e-(g-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds. The isopeptide bonds thus formed are of great physiologic significance because once formed, they cannot be hydorlysed by any known enzymes of the eukaryote system and exhibit high resistance to reducing agents, detergents, and chaotropic agents. Therefore, it is likely that protective structures viz., sheath, cuticle, epicuticle, and viral core proteins synthesized by microorganisms involve active participation of TGases. In this review, we briefly describe the current knowledge of non-mammalian TGases and their possible role in growth, development, and survival of small organisms. Special reference is made to filarial nematode and bacterial TGases since they are the most well-characterized and studied enzymes among non-mammalian TGases.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp.244-252

 

Plant immunization

I L Kothari & Miral Patel

 

Plant immunization is the process of activating natural defense system present in plant induced by biotic or abiotic factors. Plants are pre-treated with inducing agents stimulate plant defense responses that form chemical or physical barriers that are used against the pathogen invasion. Inducers used usually give the signals to rouse the plant defense genes ultimately resulting into induced systemic resistance. In many plant-pathogen interactions, R-Avr gene interactions results in localized acquired resistance or hypersensitive response and at distal ends of plant, a broad spectrum resistance is induced known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Various biotic or abiotic factors induce systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Some of the biotic or abiotic determinants induce systemic resistance in plants through salicylic acid (SA) dependent SAR pathway, others require jasmonic acid (JA) or ethylene. Host plant remains in induced condition for a period of time, and upon challenge inoculation, resistance responses are accelerated and enhanced. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is effective under field conditions and offers a natural mechanism for biological control of plant disease.

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 253-258

 
Overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and associated pathobiological factors in invasive primary breast cancer

Amitabha Ray, Bhuvnesh Kumar Sharma, Sudershan Kaur, Shashi Sharma & Joginder Kumar Sharma

 

Received 20 June 2003; revised 28 November 2003

Breast cancer tissues from 271 cases were analyzed immunologically for c-erbB-2 oncoprotein (HER-2/neu), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and estrogen receptor (ER). Overexpression of both c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and EGF-R showed an inverse association with ER and a direct association with metastatic involvement of lymph node and high histological grade. The frequency of c-erbB-2 and EGF-R overexpression was significantly higher among postmenopausal cases in comparison with premenopausal cases. Further, only in postmenopausal patients, c-erbB-2 oncoprotein (c2=6.4, P < 0.05) and EGF-R (c2=6.4, p<0.05) as well as their concomitant expression (c2=11.5, p<0.01) revealed a statistically significant association with ER.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 259-264

  

Comparative immunogenecity of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus antigens in FMD-haemorrhagic septicaemia combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone in buffalo calves

Rajesh Chhabra, R Sharma & N K Kakker

 

Humoral immune response was evaluated by monitoring the serum antibody titres and virus specific IgM titres against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus antigens in serum samples obtained from different groups of calves inoculated with combined vaccine or FMD vaccine alone, on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days post-vaccination (DPV). The cellular immune response was monitored by MTT based lymphoproliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Higher liquid phase blocking (LPB) ELISA antibody titres were observed in calves receiving combined vaccine as compared to calves immunized with FMD vaccine alone with the peak titres in both the groups obtained on 21 days post-vaccination. However, the virus specific IgM titres were significantly higher in group of calves inoculated with combined vaccine than FMD vaccine alone. The lymphoproliferative responses against FMDV types O, A22 and Asia 1 in the groups receiving combined vaccine and FMD vaccine alone started increasing gradually after day 14 and reached peak levels on 28 DPV followed by a gradual decline subsequently. The group receiving combined vaccine showed higher proliferative responses on in vitro stimulation with FMD virus type O, whereas, with FMD virus type Asia 1, the responses were significantly higher on 14 and 21 DPV as compared to the group immunized with FMD vaccine alone. However, in the group receiving combined vaccine, the responses on in vitro stimulation

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 265-270

 

Oxidative and non-oxidative activation of
murine peritoneal macrophages by histone H1

G Vani, C N Deepa & C S Shyamala Devi

 

The present study aimed at assessing the role of histone H1 in activating macrophages. Histone H1, injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight as multiple regimens weekly, significantly increased the number of peritoneal macrophages post 21 days of injection. The oxidative and non-oxidative activation of peritoneal macrophages by histone H1 was assessed. For the assessment of oxidative activation the levels of superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical were assessed. The oxidative activation was evident from release of significantly high levels of superoxide and nitric oxide radicals liberated by macrophages of animals treated with histone H1 (P < 0.001) than in untreated animals. In addition, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase indicated protective effect of histone H1, to keep away the macrophages from noxious effects of superoxide. The catalase activity was decreased significantly in macrophages of histone H1 treated animals. The levels of reduced glutathione were significantly (P < 0.001) lowered in treated animals, whereas the levels of lipid peroxides generated were non-significant. The non-oxidative activation was assessed from the activities of lysosomal enzymes released and also from cytolysis of NO-insensitive L929 cells. The activities of lysosomal enzymes-acid phosphatase and -glucuronidase released were significantly high in treated animals than in untreated animals (P < 0.001). Histone H1 stimulated the cytolysis of macrophages in L929 cells than in untreated animals. These results suggest that histone H1 stimulates macrophages by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms, which favor its future therapeutic prospects.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 271-278

  

Isolation and partial structural evaluation of a cardiotoxic factor from Indian common murrel (Channa striatus L.)
skin extract

S Karmakar, Tulika Das, A Ghosh, S C Dasgupta, A K Biswas & A Gomes

  

It was earlier reported from this laboratory that, Channa striatus, L a common edible fish, whose skin extract (CSSE) was pharmacologicaclly potent and contains several bioactive compounds. In the present communication a cardiotoxic factor was isolated and purified by thin layer chromatography followed by silica gel and neutral alumina column chromatography. Spectroscopic studies (UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, FAB-MS) indicated that the lethal cardiotoxic factor (CSS-CTF II) was an aromatic alkaloid compound with -NH, >C=C< and -OH functional groups. The molecular weight was found to be 413 dalton. LD50 of CSS-CTF II was found to be 42.5 mg/kg (i.v) in Swiss albino male mice. Pharmacological studies showed that CSS-CTF II possesses hypotensive and cardiotoxic activities and produced death through apnoea in experimental animals but had no effect on nerve muscle preparations. The haematological and biochemical data also indicated the toxic nature of CSS-CTF II, through significant fall in haemoglobin, total RBC, WBC, platelet count and increased cardiac marker enzyme CPK and CPK-MB value in experimental animals. The present investigation thus established the toxic nature of CSS-CTF II isolated from edible fish C. striatus skin extract. Further work is needed to identify CSS-CTF IIs mechanism of action and its antagonism for therapeutic purpose.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 279-282

 

a-Lipoic acid ameliorates altered colonic contractility and intestinal transit in STZ-diabetic rats

M Satish Kumar & K V Harish Prashanth

 

a-Lipoic acid treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks after 6 weeks of untreated diabetes) of streptozotocin diabetic rats partially but significantly reversed both reduced contractile response of distal colon to acetylcholine and delayed transit of charcoal meal in small intestine compared to diabetic control. These effects of a-Lipoic acid were associated with complete reversal of diabetes induced increased plasma lipid peroxidation level. a-Lipoic acid had no effect on any of the parameters measured in non-diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate contribution of oxidative stress in the development of physiological changes of gut in diabetes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 283-287

 

Effects of steroid hormones on total brain Na+-K+ ATPase activity in Oreochromis mossambicus

Francis Sunny and Oommen V Oommen

 

The effects of administration of cortisol, corticosterone, testosterone, progesterone and a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES) on total brain Na+- K+- ATPase were investigated in tilapia, O. mossambicus. Exogenous administration of 0.125 and 0.25g/ g body weight of glucocorticoids and 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5g/ g body weight of Des for 5 days significantly stimulated Na+- K+ ATPase activity by 14-41% in the brain, while 0.5g/ g body weight of glucocorticoids did not evoke any response on the activity of the enzyme. Progesterone (0.125 and 0.25g/ g body weight) administration significantly decreased the enzyme activity by 21-36% and high dose (0.5g/ g body weight) was ineffective. Testosterone exhibited a biphasic effect on Na+-K+ ATPase activity a low dose stimulated by 14% while middle and high doses inhibited it by 19-24%. The results seem to be the first report on the effect of steroids on brain ATPase activity in a teleost. When 0.25g/ g body weight of actinomycin D or puromycin was administered prior to the treatment of similar doses of hormones, the inhibitors significantly inhibited the effect of the hormones by 24-52 %. This clearly shows that the effect of the hormones was sensitive to the action of inhibitors suggesting a possible genomic mode of action under long term treatment. The results suggest that cortisol, corticosterone and Des may possibly stimulate the co-transport of glucose and excitation of membrane potential while progesterone and testosterone inhibit them in the brain of O. mossambicus by regulating the activity of Na+-K+ ATPase.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 288-291

 

Metallothionein in male reproductive organs of adrenalectomized and hydrocortisone-treated Wistar rats

Neena Nair & R S Bedwal

 

Adrenalectomy resulted in an increase in metallothionein (MT) levels in testes, caput and cauda epididymis and prostate of rats but not in seminal vesicles where its levels decreased significantly. Inspite of administration of hydrocortisone, MT in testes, prostate (1.2 mg), caput (0.3 mg days 2, 8; 0.6 mg and 1.2 mg) and seminal vesicles (0.3 mg day 2, 4; 0.6 mg and 1.2 mg) remained increased. Thus adrenal insufficiency/hydrocortisone has no direct influence on MT levels. However, the increased levels of MT can be related to its ability to protect the cells from free radical damage caused by atrophy of reproductive tissues in adrenalectomised rats. Exogenously administered hydrocortisone to ADX rats resulted in return to ADX state as hydrocortisone metabolizes (half-life < 12 hr) and hence MT levels remained increased. The observations could provide a clue for the physiological functioning of the male reproductive tissue in a state of adrenal deprivation and hormonal supplementation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 292-296

 

In vitro effects of organophosphate pesticides
on rat erythrocytes

Mohan Singh, Rajat Sandhir & Ravi Kiran

 

In vitro effects of various organophosphate pesticides (dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, ethion and monocrotophos) were studied on hemolysis, K+ leakage and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes. All the four pesticides increased hemolysis and K+ leakage from erythrocytes, that was concentration and time dependent. On the contrary, there was decrease in lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membrane. Effect of pesticides on lipid peroxidation could be due to pesticide itself abstracting protons or interacting with free radicals rather than polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), thereby protecting the latter against peroxidation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 297-302

 

Effect of supplementary feeding of vitamin K1 on difethialone treated Indian gerbil, Tatera indica Hardwicke in laboratory

Vipin Chaudhary & R S Tripathi and F S Poonia

 

Two dosages (1 and 2 mg/kg) of vitamin K1 supplementation for 5 and 15 days were given to Indian gerbil T. indica fed on difethialone bait (0.0025%) for one day. The results indicated that the lower dosage could not reverse the anticoagulation process, however the period of mortality was considerably increased from 3-9 days (in control) to 5-14 days (5 days supplementation regime). Subsequently when the vitamin K1 dosage was doubled and given for 15 days, there was 100% reversal of anticoagulation process and all the test gerbils became normal within a month of poisoning with difethialone bait.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 303-313

 

Haemolysins of Salmonella, their role in pathogenesis
and subtyping of Salmonella serovars

B R Singh, V P Singh, Meenu Agarwal, Gautam Sharma & Mudit Chandra

 

Haemolysin patterns of 175 strains of different Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars isolated from different animal sources and places were determined using 11 different blood agar media made with either non-washed horse/sheep erythrocytes or with washed erythrocytes of cattle, sheep, horse, goat, rabbit, guinea pig, and human A, O and B blood groups. Study on 47 strains belonging to 10 serovars of Salmonella from buffalo meat (buffen), 42 strains of 11 serovars from goat meat (chevon); 16 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B and 25 of S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B var Java from fish, meat, meat products and clinical cases; 45 isolates of S. Abortusequi from aborted mares (18), fetal contents (21), aborted donkey mares (2) and 4 reference strains, revealed that all host restricted Salmonella namely, S. enterica serovar Gallinarum, S. enterica serovar Anatum, S enterica serovar Abortusequi and S. enterica serovar Paratyphi B could be divided into different haemolysin types based on their inability to produce haemolysis on one or more types of blood agar, while strains of all zoonotic Salmonella serovars induced haemolysis on all the 9 types of blood agar made of washed erythrocytes. None of 175 Salmonella could produce hemolytic colonies on blood agar made of non-washed horse/ sheep erythrocytes. Haemolysin type I (lysing all types of washed erythrocytes) was the commonest one among all serovars except S. Abortusequi, none of which lysed horse erythrocytes. Salmonella enterica serovar Abortusequi having hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes were more invasive but had lesser ability to survive in sheep mononuclear cells than non-hemolytic strains. Multiplicity of haemolysins appeared significant epidemiological tool.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 314-318

  

Optimum growth requirements of nitrifying consortia developed from treated sewage

Kavitha Ramachandran & I S Bright Singh

 

The optimum growth requirements of two nitrifying consortia developed from treated sewage by enrichment technique were determined by a series of experiments. There was total inhibition of nitrification at above 2.75 g l-1 NH4+- N and 2.5g l-1 NO2- - N and the ammonia oxidizing consortium preferred a pH at 8.5 and the nitrite oxidizing consortium a pH of 7.5 as the optima for nitrification. Optimum temperatures were between 20 and 30C for both the groups. As the rate of airflow was increased from 1 to 7 l/min, the build-up of NO2- -N increased 10-fold and the consumption of NO2- -N increased by a factor of 28.8 implying that the ammonia oxidizing consortium in a bioreactor required three times more aeration than that for nitrite oxidizers for expressing their full nitrifying potential. These data directly contribute for developing a fermentation process for the mass production of nitrifiers as well as for designing bioreactors for nitrifying sewage.

 

 

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 319-322

 

Cancer preventive potential of Momordica charantia L.
against benzo(a)pyrene induced fore-stomach tumourigenesis
in murine model system

Gagan Deep, Trisha Dasgupta, A R Rao & R K Kale

 

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linnaeus) fruit extract was tested against 3,4 benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced fore-stomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Extract of M. charantia in two concentrations, 2.5 and 5% of standard mice feed was used for the short-term and long-term studies. A significant decrease in tumour burden was observed in short and long-term treatment. Also, total tumour incidence reduced to 83.33% with 2.5% dose and 90.90% with 5% dose in short term treatment, while in long term treatment tumor incidence decreased to 76.92% with 2.5% dose and 69.23% with 5% dose of M. charantia. The possible mechanism involved in the cancer chemoprevention has also been discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 323-325

 

Disposition of uric acid upon administration of ofloxacin alone and in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs

A K Hemanth Kumar & Prema Gurumurthy

 

Disposition of uric acid upon administration of ofloxacin (O) alone and in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs, rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H) and pyrazinamide (Z) was studied. Twelve male healthy volunteers were investigated on four different occasions with the four drugs alone or in combinations. A partially balanced incomplete block design was adopted and the subjects were randomly allocated to each group. Uric acid concentration in urine  samples excreted over 0-8 hr, were determined after coding the samples. There was  significant decrease in the group receiving Z when compared to other groups. Though there was a decrease in uric acid excretion in the group receiving O, it was not statistically significant. Rifampicin and H seem to increase the uric acid excretion. The incidence of arthralgia was mainly due to Z and not due to either O or other drugs in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 326-329

 

Evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of leaf extract of Tapinanthus sessilifolius (P. Beauv) van Tiegh

Florence D Tarfa, Obiageri O Obodozie, Emmanuel Msheliab, Kolo Ibrahimb & Temple V Jc

 

Leaf extracts of T. sessilifolius growing on five different host plants (Psidium guajava, Citrus lemon, Vernonia amygdalina, Persea americana and Jatropa curcas) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity of the plant. Powdered leaves of T. sessilifolius collected from each host plant was divided into two portions. One portion was used for aqueous infusion and the other portion was successively extracted with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. Infusion of aqueous extract of powdered leaves did not show antimicrobial effect even at the concentration of 1000 and 2000g/ml on test microorganisms (Staph. aureus, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). However in broth culture, methanolic and hexane extract had MIC range of 62.5-500g/ml and ethylacetate extract had 250-500 g/ml. Phytochemical screening of leaf samples of T. sessilifolius collected from different host plants showed positive test for hydrolysable tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, cardiac glycoside, reducing sugars and proteins.LD50 concentration was found to be > 1.500 mg/kg for samples from P. guajava; 489.89 mg/kg for J. curcas and C. lemon; and 692 mg/kg for V. amydalina in mice.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 330-332

 

Nicotine induced alterations on reproductive organs of
female rats under protein deficient condition

K Mandal & S Dasgupta and B D Chattopadhyay*

 

 

 

Nicotine causes decrement in body weight, reduction in ovarian and uterine weight, irregularity in estrous cycle and histological damage in ovary and uterus in rats maintained on normal (18% casein) and protein restricted diet (5% casein). The degree of nicotine toxicity increases in protein inadequacy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 42, March 2004, pp. 333-334

 

 

Conference Report

 

Report on the 3rd international symposium
on natural drugs at Naples, Italy, October 2-4, 2003

C K K Nair

 

 

 
 
Author Index

 

Agarwal Meenu

303

Karmakar S

271

Ray Amitabha

253

Bedwal R S

288

Kaur Sudershan

253

Sandhir Rajat

292

Biswas A K

271

Kiran Ravi

292

Sharma Bhuvnesh Kumar

253

Chandra Mudit

303

Kothari I L

244

Sharma Gautam

303

Chattopadhyay B D

330

Kumar A K Hemanth

323

Sharma Joginder Kumar

253

Chaudhary Vipin

297

Kumar M Satish

279

Sharma R

259

Chhabra Rajesh

259

Mandal K

330

Sharma Shashi

253

Das Tulika

271

Mehta Kapil

235

Shyamala Devi C S

265

Dasgupta S

330

Mshelia Emmanuel

326

Singh B R

303

Dasgupta S C

271

Nair C K K

333

Singh I S Bright

314

Dasgupta Trisha

319

Nair Neena

288

Singh Mohan

292

Deep Gagan

319

Obodozie Obiageri O

326

Singh V P

303

Deepa C N

265

Oommen V Oommen

283

Sunny Francis

283

Ghosh A

271

Patel Miral

244

Tarfa Florence D

326

Gomes A

271

Poonia F S

297

Temple V J

326

Gurumurthy Prema

323

Prashanth K V Harish

279

Tripathi R S

297

Ibrahim Kolo

326

Ramachandran Kavitha

314

Vani G

265

Kakker N K

259

Rao A R

319

 

 

Kale R K

319

Rao Ramakrishna U

235

 

 

 
 
 
Keyword Index

 

Adrenalectomy

288

FMD+HS combined vaccine

259

Ofloxacin

323

Anticoagulant

297

Foot and Mouth Disease

259

Oncoprotein

253

Antimicrobial property`

326

Fore-stomach

319

Organ weight

330

Anti-tuberculosis drug

323

Genomic action

283

Organophosphate

292

Bait

297

Gerbils

297

Pathogenicity

303

Benzo(o)pyrene

319

Glutathione

265

Plain food

297

Bioreactor

314

Haemolysins

303

Plant immunization

244

Brain

283

Haemorrhagic septicaemia

259

Protein cross-linking

235

Breast cancer

253

Hemolysis

292

Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI)

235

Buffalo calves

259

Histone H1

265

Protein inadequacy

330

Caenorhabditis elegans

235

Hydrocortisone

288

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

326

Cancer prevention

319

Hypersensitive response

244

Rat

279,288

Candida albicans

326

Induced systemic resistance

244

Reproductive organ

288

c-erbB-2

253

Intestinal transit

279

Salmonella

303

Channa striatus

271

K+ leakage

292

Staphylococcus aureus

326

Colonic contractility

279

L929 cells

265

Steroid hormone

283

Common murrel

271

Leaf extract

326

STZ-diabetes

279

Cytolysis

265

Lipid peroxidation

292

Systemic acquired resistance

244

Difethialone

297

Lipoic acid (a)

279

Tapinanthus sessilifolius

326

EGF-R menopausal status

253

Lysosomal enzymes

265

Thioredoxins

235

Embryo

235

Macrophages

265

Tilapia

283

Enterolysins

303

Metallothionein

288

Transglutaminase

235

Erythrocyte

292

Momordica charantia

319

Tumourigenesis

319

Estrous cycle

330

Na+-K+ATPase

283

Uric acid disposition

323

Filaria

235

Nematode

235

Vitamin K1 supplemented food

297

Fish cardiotoxic factor

271

Nicotine

330

 

 

Fish skin extract

271

Nitrifying consortia

314