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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(4)  297-384  (2005)

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2005

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Degradation of xenobiotics compounds by lignin-degrading white-rot fungi: Enzymology and mechanisms involved

301

 V Christian, R Shrivastava, D Shukla, H A Modi & B R M Vyas

 

 

 

Papers

 

Role of topoisomerases in cytotoxicity induced by DNA ligand Hoechst-33342 and UV-C in a glioma cell line

313

Shailja Singh, B S Dwarakanath & T Lazar Mathew

 

 

 

Sodium nitroprusside relaxes goat coronary artery through activation of calcium-dependent K+ channels

324

Dilip K Deka, Vellanki Ravi Prakash & Santosh K Mishra 

 

[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61B]

 

 

 

Midgut antibodies reduce the reproductive capacity of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

330

S K Gakhar, Amita Suneja & T Adak

 

 

 

Evidence for presence of female produced pheromone components in male scent brush extract of castor semi-looper moth Achaea janata L.

335

K N Jyothi, A L Prasuna & A R Prasad

 

 

 

Production of heptaene antifungal antibiotic by Streptomyces purpeofuscus CM 1261

342

Praveen Kumar Jain & P C Jain

 

[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61K; C12N] 

 

 

 

Potential antifilarial activity of fruit extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. against Setaria cervi in vitro

346

Vandna Mishra, Nizam U Khan & K C Singhal

 

[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P] 

 

 

 

Antihepatotoxic effect of  b-carotene on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats

351

G Kumar, G Sharmila Banu, V Kannan & M Rajasekara Pandian

 

[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

 

 

 

Renoprotective effect of grape seeds extract in ethylene glycol induced nephrotoxic mice

356

M Mohanasundari, M Sabesan & S Sethupathy

 

 [IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P] 

 

 

Regulation of trehalose metabolism by Adox and AdoMet in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

360

Soma Bhattacharyya, Paramita Chaudhuri, Arghya Basu, Subhabrata Sengupta & Anil Kumar Ghosh 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of a green tissue-specific promoter from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

369

S K Panguluri, J Sridhar, B Jagadish, P C Sharma & P A Kumar

 

 

 

In vitro studies of Bacopa monnieri — An important medicinal plant with reference to its biochemical variations

373

H P Mohapatra & S P Rath

 

 

 

Regeneration of plantlets from in vitro raised leaf explants of Cleisostoma racimeferum Lindl

377

Temjensangba & Chitta Ranjan Deb

 

 [IPC Code: Int Cl7 A01H]  

 

 

 

Comparative evaluation of whole blood D-Dimer test to plasma D-Dimer test for diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation

382

P K Gupta, M Gupta, T Chatterjee & R Saxena

 

Author Index
 

Keyword Index

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, April 2005, pp 301-312

 

Review Article

 

Degradation of xenobiotic compounds by lignin-degrading white-rot fungi: Enzymology and mechanisms involved

V Christian, R Shrivastava, D Shukla, H A Modi & B R M Vyas

 

White-rot fungi (WRF) are ubiquitous in nature with their natural ability to compete and survive. WRF are the only organisms known to have the ability to degrade and mineralize recalcitrant plant polymer lignin. Their potential to degrade second most abundant carbon reserve material lignin on the earth make them important link in global carbon cycle. WRF degrade lignin by its unique ligninolytic enzymatic machinery including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, H2O2-generating enzymes, etc. The ligninolytic enzymes system is non-specific, extracellular and free radical based that allows them to degrade structurally diverse range of xenobiotic compounds. Lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase carry out direct and indirect oxidation as well as reduction of xenobiotic compounds. Indirect reactions involved redox mediators such as veratryl alcohol and Mn2+. Reduction reactions are carried out by carboxyl, superoxide and semiquinone radicals, etc. Methylation is used as detoxification mechanism by WRF. Highly oxidized chemicals are reduced by transmembrane redox potential. Degradation of a number of environmental pollutants by ligninolytic system of white rot fungi is described in the present review.

 

 

 

Paper

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 313-323

 

Role of topoisomerases in cytotoxicity induced by DNA ligand Hoechst-33342 and UV-C in a glioma cell line

Shailja Singh, B S Dwarakanath & T Lazar Mathew

 

DNA ligand Hoechst-33342 significantly enhances UV induced cytotoxicity in human glioma cell lines (BMG-1 & U-87) with supra additive increase in cell death, cytogenetic damage, cell cycle delay, apoptosis and inhibition of PLDR. Cytotoxicity of Hoechst-33342 arises due to its interference in the breakage-rejoining reaction of DNA topoisomerases by stabilization of cleavable complexes. Since topoisomerases have also been implicated in the generation of potentially lethal DNA breaks by interaction with various types of DNA damage including UV induced DNA lesions, we investigated in present studies the role of functional topoisomerases in the synergistic cytotoxicity of Hoechst-33342 and UV in a human glioma cell line (BMG-1). Topoisomerase I activity analyzed by the plasmid relaxation assay, was significantly enhanced upon UV irradiation, implying a possible role of this enzyme in the processing of UV induced lesions. However, this increase in the activity was reduced by >50% in cells incubated with Hoechst-33342 for 1 hr prior to irradiation. Imuno-flowcytometric analysis of the chromatin bound topoisomerases I and II levels (cleavable complex) using topoisomerases I and II anti-antibodies showed a good correlation between the induction of apoptosis by Hoechst-33342 and UV and enhancement in the level of topoisomerase II mediated cleavable complexes. Induction of apoptosis was associated with a decline in the level of Bcl2. Taken together, these studies show that supra additive cytotoxic effects of UV-C and Hoechst-33342 in BMG-1 cells are consequences of enhanced stabilization of topo II mediated cleavable complexes and alterations in specific signal transduction pathways of apoptosis, besides the inhibition of topoisomerase mediated repair processes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 324-329

 

Sodium nitroprusside relaxes goat coronary artery through activation of calcium-dependent K+ channels

Dilip K Deka, Vellanki Ravi Prakash & Santosh K Mishra

 

In the present investigation we have examined the hypothesis that calcium-dependent K+ channels (KCa) are involved in the sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced vasodilatation of goat coronary artery. SNP (10-9 – 3 x 10-6 M), added cumulatively, relaxed K+ (30 mM)-contracted coronary artery ring segments in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 1.32 ´ 10-7 M (95% CL, 0.93 – 1.86 ´ 10-7 M; n = 21). KCa blocker, tetraethyl ammonium (1 mM) caused a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve of SNP with a corresponding increase in EC50 (1.62 ´ 10-6 M; 95% CL, 0.44-6.02 ´ 10-6 M, n = 4) of nitro vasodilator. Lowering of extra cellular Ca2+ in the physiological saline solution to ¼ of normal selectively attenuated the vasorelaxant response of SNP, thereby causing an increase in its EC50 (2.4 ´ 10-6 M; 95% CL, 1.23 – 4.68 x 10-6 M, n = 4). Exposure of the tissues to high K+ (80 mM) solution, a protocol adopted to reduce the K+ gradient across the cell membrane, markedly inhibited the coronary artery relaxations induced by SNP (EC50, 2.54 ´ 10-6 M; 95% CL, 1.31 – 4.91 ´ 10-6 M, n = 4), when compared with tissues contracted with low K+ (30 mM) solution (EC50, 7.9 ´ 10-8; 95% CL, 4.4 x 10-8 – 1.44 ´ 10-7 M, n = 6). The results suggested that a major component of SNP-induced relaxation of goat coronary artery was mediated by KCa channels.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 330-334

 

Midgut antibodies reduce the reproductive capacity of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

S K Gakhar & Amita Suneja and T Adak

 

Rabbits immunized with polypeptides of midgut of glucose fed A.stephensi resulted in high titer of antibodies (104-106) as detected by ELISA. Effect of antisera on fecundity, hatchability and engorgement was investigated. Fecundity was reduced drastically (62.4%). Eight polypeptides were recognized by the antisera raised against midgut tissues viz., 92, 85, 55, 52, 45, 38, 29 and 13 kDa. Cross reactivity of these antibodies with different tissues of A.stephensi as well as different species of Anopheles was also analyzed. The results indicated that anti-mosquito midgut antibodies had the potential to disrupt the reproductive physiology of mosquitoes in view of the present study, there is a need for further investigation with target antigens.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 335-341

 

Evidence for presence of female produced pheromone components in male scent brush extract of castor semi-looper moth Achaea janata L.

K N Jyothi, A L Prasuna & A R Prasad

 

Hexane extract of male terminalia (along with scent brushes) of castor semi-looper moth, Achaea janata L, elicited significant olfactory responses in both male and female insects by electroantennogram recording technique. However, male extract in the wind tunnel evoked noticeable behaviour responses in the female insects only. Orientation response of the males to the male extract was not evident in wind tunnel experiments. Two electrophysiologically-active compounds were identified from the male extract. Based on GC retention times and mass spectrometry the two compounds were confirmed as (Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienal and (Z, Z, Z)-3, 6, 9-heneicosatriene. These two compounds are also constituents of female produced four-component blend of A. janata.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 342-345

 

Production of heptaene antifungal antibiotic by Streptomyces purpeofuscus CM 1261

Praveen Kumar Jain & P C Jain

 

A strain of Streptomyces purpeofuscus CM 1261 isolated from a sample of compost collected locally was found to possess strong antagonistic activity against 4 human pathogenic fungi i.e., Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton sp. The active antifungal compound produced by it was found to be a heptaene group of polyene antifungal antibiotic.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 346-350

 

Potential antifilarial activity of fruit extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. against Setaria cervi in vitro

Vandna Mishra, Nizam U Khan & K C Singhal

 

Effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the fruits of F. racemosa Linn., on the spontaneous movements of both the whole worm and nerve muscle preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro was studied. Alcoholic as well as aqueous extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and nerve muscle preparation of Setaria cervi characterized by increase in amplitude and tone of contractions. Initial stimulatory effect was not observed with aqueous extract on whole worm preparation, while effect of alcoholic extract on whole worm and nerve muscle preparation was characterized by an increase in amplitude and tone of contractions followed by paralysis. The concentrations required to inhibit the movement of the whole worm and nerve muscle preparation for alcoholic extract of fruits of F. racemosa were 250 and 50 mg/ml, respectively, whereas aqueous extract caused inhibition of the whole worm and nerve muscle preparation at 350 and 150 mg/ml, respectively, suggesting a cuticular barrier. Both alcoholic and aqueous extracts caused death of microfilariae in vitro. LC50 and LC90 were 21 and 35 ng/ml, respectively for alcoholic, which were 27 and 42 ng/ml for aqueous extracts.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 351-355

 

Antihepatotoxic effect of b-carotene on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats

G Kumar, G Sharmila Banu, V Kannan & M Rajasekara Pandian

 

Enzyme levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased following paracetamol induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with the β-carotene (BC). This supplementation reversed the trend inducing a significant decrease in bilirubin and urea levels. Paracetamol administration significantly reduced hepatic glycogen, glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GSH-R). Pretreatment of rats with BC significantly increased the enzyme activities. The results suggest hepatoprotective activity of BC.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 356-359

 

Renoprotective effect of grape seeds extract in ethylene glycol induced nephrotoxic mice

M Mohanasundari, M Sabesan & S Sethupathy

 

Grape seed extract treatment in ethylene glycol (EG) induced nephrotoxic mice improved antioxidant status and significantly decreased urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lipid peroxidation. The extract rendered antioxidant protection against oxidative stress induced by EG and may help in protecting renal tissue against EG toxicity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 360-368

 

Regulation of trehalose metabolism by Adox and AdoMet in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Soma Bhattacharyya, Paramita Chaudhuri, Arghya Basu, Subhabrata Sengupta & Anil Kumar Ghosh

 

Effect of a potent methylation inhibitor oxidized adenosine (Adox), and a universal methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) on trehalose metabolism was studied in two haploids of S. cerevisiae of mating types MATα, met3 (6460 -8D) and MATa, leu2, ura3, his4 (8534 -10A). Trehalose level decreased in presence of Adox in both strains. Both neutral trehalase (NT) and trehalose–6-phosphate (tre-6-p) synthase activities increased in presence of Adox in -8D strain. Decrease in trehalose level in -8D thus could not be explained in the light of increased tre-6-p synthase activity; however, it could be correlated with increased NT activity. In strain -10A, NT activity was reduced in presence of Adox while tre-6-p synthase activity increased. Enzyme activity profiles in -10A thus do not explain the reduced trehalose level on Adox treatment. Effect of AdoMet was not very prominent in either strain, though in -8D a small increase in trehalose level was seen on treatment. Intracellular AdoMet level of untreated cells of -10A was seen to be almost six times higher than that of -8D. Further, AdoMet treatment caused increase in its level compared to untreated cells, suggesting AdoMet uptake. No effect of either compound was seen on acid trehalase (AT) activity in any strain. The results suggest that there was a possible effect of demethylation on trehalose metabolism (particularly in the synthetic direction) in both strains, though effect of methylation was not very prominent, the reason for which is not very clear.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 369-372

 

Isolation and characterization of a green tissue-specific promoter from pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]

S K Panguluri, J Sridhar, B Jagadish, P C Sharma  & P A Kumar

 

Expression of rbcS genes encoding small subunit of rubisco, most abundant protein in green tissue, is regulated by at least three parameters—tissue type, light conditions and stage of development. One of the green tissue-specific promoters of rbcS gene family was isolated from pigeonpea by PCR. Expression of uidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in the transgenic tobacco plants under the control of pigeonpea rbcS promoter, clearly showed that this promoter was as strong as pea rbcS3A promoter characterized earlier. Study of the sequence similarity with pea rbcS3A promoter, especially the region (boxes I and III) that is required for rbcS3A expression, showed more than 50% divergence. In contrast, pigeonpea promoter sequence isolated in the present study was more similar to that of spinach and rice rbcS promoters.

 

 

 

 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 373-376

 

In vitro studies of Bacopa monnieri¾An important medicinal plant with reference to its biochemical variations

H P Mohapatra & S P Rath

 

Micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri was achieved on MS and B5 medium supplemented with BAP and NAA using leaf explants and nodal segments. Best results were found on MS medium in both the explants with BAP (2.0 mg/l) showing higher percentage of regeneration. Besides that the biochemical parameters, like chlorophyll, carbohydrate, protein, of leaves both in vivo and in vitro have also been carried out in order to establish the sustainability of plants.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 377-381

 

 

Regeneration of plantlets from in vitro raised leaf explants of Cleisostoma  racimeferum Lindl

Temjensangba & Chitta Ranjan Deb

 

Protocorm like bodies (PLBs), callus and shoot buds developed in culture from in vitro raised foliar explants of Cleisostoma racimeferum. Among the different basal media, better result was obtained on MS medium containing sucrose (3%) and BA (2 mM) with ~80% frequency after 40 days of culture. Young leaves (15 week old) produced better PLBs. Whole leaf placed vertically upside-up orientation can regenerate PLBs and shoot buds (80%). PLBs and shoot buds formed on entire surface of the leaves. Cultures on BA and NAA (2 and 2 mM respectively in combination) stimulated callus mediated regeneration (68%). The rooted plantlets regenerated within 8-10 week from PLBs and shoot buds on MS medium containing IAA and kinetin (2 mM each in combination). BA containing medium triggered multiple shoot bud formation, while NAA alone or in combination with other growth regulators was inhibitory. Incorporation of activated charcoal (0.01%) in the medium stimulated formation of repetitive PLBs and multiple shoot buds. Rooted plants were ready for harvest after 20-22 week of initiation of culture. About 65% of the potted plants survived after 3 months in the poly house.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, April 2005, pp. 382-384

 

Comparative evaluation of whole blood D-Dimer test to plasma D - Dimer test for diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation

P K Gupta, M Gupta, T Chatterjee & R Saxena

 

Three rapid D – dimer test methods were compared for the diagnosis of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These were (a) SimpliRED, an autologous red cell agglutination assay. (b) DIMERTEST latex agglutination assay, containing monoclonal antibody DD – 3B6 / 226, and (c) D – DI latex agglutination assay containing mouse anti–human D-dimer monoclonal antibodies. The D – DI latex method having higher sensitivity (100%) and specificity (81%) in clinically acute DIC was postulated as the gold standard and compared with the other two methods. The results suggest that D - DI latex agglutination assay containing mouse anti–human D–Dimer monoclonal antibodies are the better assay methods amongst all the three kits analyzed. It is advisable to look for the nature of the antibody used to coat the latex particles in plasma based kits. In emergency setting RBC kits may be of some use as rapid diagnosis is advantageous.

 

 
 
Author Index

 

Adak T

330

Jain P C

342

Prasuna A L

335

 

 

Jain Praveen Kumar

342

 

 

Banu G Sharmila

351

Jyothi K N

335

Rath S P

373

Basu Arghya

360

 

 

 

 

Bhattacharyya Soma

360

Kannan V

351

Sabesan M

356

 

 

Khan Nizam U

346

Saxena R

382

Chatterjee T

382

Kumar G

351

Sengupta Subhabrata

360

Chaudhuri Paramita

360

Kumar P A

369

Sethupathy S

356

Christian V

301

 

 

Sharma P C

369

 

 

Mathew T Lazar

313

Shrivastava R

301

Deb Chitta Ranjan

377

Mishra  Santosh K

324

Shukla D

301

Deka Dilip K

324

Mishra Vandna

346

Singh Shailja

313

Dwarakanath B S

313

Modi H A

301

Singhal K C

346

 

 

Mohanasundari M

356

Sridhar J

369

Gakhar S K

330

Mohapatra H P

373

Suneja Amita

330

Ghosh  Anil Kumar

360

 

 

Gupta M

382

Pandian M Rajasekara

351

Temjensangba

377

Gupta P K

382

Panguluri S K

369

 

 

Prakash Vellanki Ravi

324

Vyas B R M

301

Jagadish B

369

Prasad  A R

335

 

 

 

 
 
Keyword Index

 

Achaea j anata

335

Gas chromatography

335

(Z,Z)-9, 12-Octadecadienal

335

Acid trehalase

360

rbcS Genes

369

Oxidized adenosine

360

Activated charcoal treatment

377

Goat coronary

324

 

 

S-adenosyl-L-methionine

360

Grape seed

356

Paracetamol

351

Anopheles stephensi

330

 

 

Polyene

342

Antibiotic

342

(Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Heneicosatriene

335

 

 

Antifilarial activity

346

Hepatic damage

351

Renoprotection

356

Antifungal activity

342

Hepatoprotection

351

Repetitive PLBs

377

Anti-mosquito

330

 

 

 

 

Apoptosis

313

Kca channels

324

Serum enzymes

351

 

 

 

 

Setaria cervi

346

Bacopa monnieri

373

Leaf culture

377

Signal transduction

313

Bax

313

Light regulation

369

Sodium nitroprusside

324

Bcl2

313

Lignin degradation

301

Streptomyces purpeofuscus

342

 

 

Ligninolytic enzymes

301

 

 

Candida albicans

342

 

 

Tissue-specific promoter

369

-Carotene

351

Malaria

330

Topoisomerase I

313

Cleavable complexes

313

Male brush

335

Topoisomerase II 

313

Cleisostoma racimeferum

377

Medicinal plant

373

Transgenic tobacco

369

 

 

Microfilaricide

346

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase

360

D – Dimer test

382

Micropropagation

373

 

 

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

382

Midgut

330

Vaccine

330

 

 

Monoclonal antibody

382

 

 

Electroantennogram

335

Mouse

356

White-rot fungi

301

Ethylene glycol

356

Multiple shoots

373

Wind tunnel

335

uidA Expression

369

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nephrotoxic

356

Xenobiotic compounds

301

Ficus. racemosa

346

Neutral trehalose

360