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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(2) 111-202 (2005)

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2005

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Molecular components and mechanism of adrenergic signal transduction in mammalian
pineal gland: Regulation of melatonin synthesis

115

B B P Gupta, R Spessert & L Vollrath

 

 

 

Papers

 

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of liposomal/niosomal delivery systems for antifungal drug clotrimazole

150

Meiying Ning, Zhongwei Gu, Huaizhong Pan, Heming Yu & Kai Xiao

 

 

 

Effects of deltamethrin on granule cell migration during postnatal development of rat cerebellum

158

 

Nisha Patro & I K Patro  

 

 

 

Protective efficacy of maternal antibodies induced by Salmonella toxoid (vaccine)

163

T K Barman, V D Sharma & Subodh Kumar  

 

 

 

Inhibitory effect of sildenafil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle: Role of NO-cGMP transduction pathway

167 

Chandrashekhar S Patil, Vijay Pal Singh, Naveen K Jain & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Experimental therapeutic intervention with ascorbic acid in ethanol induced testicular injuries in rats

172 

M Maneesh, H Jayalakshmi, Sanjiba Dutta, Amit Chakrabarti & D M Vasudevan  

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

 

Effect of vitamin E supplementation on diabetes induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes in rats

177

Madhu C Garg, Dharam P Chaudhary & Devi D Bansal

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61]

 

 

 

Antiulcerogenic effect of Justicia prostrata Gamble

181

E Sanmugapriya, P Shanmugasundaram & S Venkataraman 

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

 

 

 

Effect of alliums on total lipid in plasma and tissues of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to age and sex

187

V Girish Kumar, K P Surendranathan, D R Gayathri Devi & M R Sandhya Belwadi

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

 

 

Early and transient induction of nitric oxide (NO) in infectious bursal disease virus infections is T-cell dependent: A study in cyclosporin-A treated chicken-model

192

Bhawna Poonia & Shiv Charan  

 

 

 

Isolation of poly (A+) mRNA for downstream reactions from some medicinal and

 

aromatic plants

197

Ashutosh K Shukla, Ajit K Shasany & Suman P S Khanuja

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Biotechnology: Expanding Horizons

202

P Ananda Kumar 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prizes in Science and Technology for 2005

114

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 115-149

 

 Review Article

 Molecular components and mechanism of adrenergic signal transduction in mammalian pineal gland: Regulation of melatonin synthesis

B B P Gupta and R Spessert & L Vollrath

 

Rhythmic neural outputs from the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which programme the rhythmic release of norepinephrine (NE) from intrapineal nerve fibers, regulate circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis. Increased secretion of NE with the onset of darkness during the first half of night stimulates melatonin synthesis by several folds. NE binds to both a1- and b-adrenergic receptors present on the pinealocyte membrane and initiates adrenergic signal transduction via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) generating pathways. The NE-induced adrenergic signal transduction switches ‘on’ melatonin synthesis during the early hours of night by stimulating expression of the rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis, N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) via cAMP–protein kinase A (PKA)–cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)–cAMP response element (CRE) pathway as well as by increasing AA-NAT activity via cAMP-PKA–14-3-3 protein pathway. Simultaneously, adrenergically-induced expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) negatively regulates aa-nat gene expression and controls the amplitude of melatonin rhythm. In the second half of night, increased release of acetylcholine from central pinealopetal projections, inhibition of NE secretion by SCN, withdrawal of adrenergic inputs and reversal of events that took place in the first half lead to switching ‘off’ of melatonin synthesis. Adrenergic signal transduction via cGMP–protein kinase G (PKG) –mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) – ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) pathway also seems to be fully functional, but its role in modulation of melatonin synthesis remains unexplored. This article gives a critical review of information available on various components of the adrenergic signal transduction cascades involved in the regulation of melatonin synthesis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 150-157

 Papers

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of liposomal/niosomal delivery systems for antifungal drug clotrimazole

Meiying Ning, Zhongwei Gu, Huaizhong Pan, Heming Yu & Kai Xiao

Clotrimazole, an imidazole derivative antifungal agent is widely used for the treatment of mycotic infections of the genitourinary tract. In order to develop alternative formulation for the vaginal administration of clotrimazole to provide sustained and controlled release of appropriate drug for local vaginal therapy, liposomes/niosomes were evaluated as delivery vehicles. To optimize the preparation of liposomes/niosomes with regards to size and entrapment efficiency, multilamellar liposomes/niosomes containing drug were prepared by lipid hydration method. The ability of the systems to deliver clotrimazole into and through the mucosa was evaluated in vitro using rabbit vaginal mucosa with vertical Franz diffusion cells. The in vitro permeation data showed that the liposomes/niosomes system increased the clotrimazole total penetration through the vaginal mucosa by 1.6, 1.5-fold, the accumulation of clotrimazole into the mucosa was increased by 3.1, 2.3-fold, respectively, as compared with control during 24 hr. These results suggest that the studied liposomes/niosomes systems may be appropriate vesicles for the vaginal mucosa delivery of clotrimazole for local vaginal therapy.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 158-162

 Effects of deltamethrin on granule cell migration during postnatal development of rat cerebellum

 Nisha Patro & I K Patro 

Deltamethrin (DLT; 0.7mg/kg/body wt/day, ip, dissolved in propylene glycol) administration during postnatal days 9-13 in Albino rat pups, resulted in a delayed appearance of radial glial fibers, that guide the migration of granule cells. Moreover, the radial glial fibers in the DLT-treated pups were disorganized, hypertrophied and heavily stained. Thus, it is being proposed that although after exposure to DLT the neuronal proliferation occurs at normal rate, the neuronal migration along the stumpy and crumpled radial fibers hamper the journey of the healthy neurons to their proper destination.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 163-166

 Protective efficacy of maternal antibodies induced by Salmonella toxoid (vaccine)

T K Barman, V D Sharma & Subodh Kumar

An attempt was made to evaluate the protective efficacy of maternal antibodies in chicks against salmonellosis. Layer chicks ageing 21 days were individually vaccinated with 100 mg of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Weltevreden (BM 1643) toxoid adjuvanted with vitamin E subcutaneously. After 90 days of the primary vaccination the birds were given booster dose of the vaccine. The saline extract of the yolk of eggs laid by the vaccinated birds yielded agglutination and ELISA titres ranging from 43.2 ± 5.33 to 75.2 ± 6.26 and 4.987´103 ± 0.54 to 5.89´103 ± 0.56, respectively. Sera of chicks hatched from eggs laid by the vaccinated layers were also subjected to agglutination and ELISA. Agglutination and ELISA titres on the 5th day- post hatching (dph) were 21.6 ± 1.75 and 4.025 ´ 102 ± 0.59, while on the 10th dph titers were 13.6 ± 1.65 and 1.21´102 ± 0.60, respectively. It was also observed that only one out of 6 chicks died when challenged with 2 ´ 109 CFU of S. serovar Gallirarum at the age of 7 days showing 83.33 % protection. Thus it can be concluded that passive immunity confided by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Weltevreden (BM 1643) toxoid can protect chicks against salmonellosis during their early days of life.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 167-171

 Inhibitory effect of sildenafil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle: Role of NO-cGMP transduction pathway

Chandrashekhar S Patil, Vijay Pal Singh, Naveen K Jaina & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 Nitric oxide (NO) is an important neurotransmitter in the gut and has been demonstrated to be a key physiological mediator of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. In the present study the effect of PDE 5 inhibitor sildenafil on the gastrointestinal function (gastric emptying and intestinal transit) has been demonstrated in mice. Sildenafil (0.5-2 mg/kg, po) did not alter the percent gastric emptying however, in higher doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg, po) it inhibited the gastric emptying. On acute administration (0.5-5 mg/kg, po) it did not alter the intestinal transit but in higher doses (10 and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) delayed the intestinal transit. Further, the inhibitory effect of sildenafil was significantly blocked by L-NAME (10 mg/kg, ip), a non-selective NOS inhibitor and methylene blue (1 mg/kg, ip), a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. These findings suggest the participation of NO-cGMP transduction pathway in the inhibitory effect of sildenafil (higher doses) on the gastrointestinal smooth muscles and its potential application in patients with nutcracker oesophagus, hypertensive lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), achalsia and diabetic gastroparesis or colitis where there is a loss of nNOS.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 172-176

 Experimental therapeutic intervention with ascorbic acid in ethanol induced testicular injuries in rats

M Maneesh, H Jayalakshmi, Sanjiba Dutta, Amit Chakrabarti, & D M Vasudevan

Ascorbic acid treatment significantly increased the activities of testicular D5, 3b-HSD and 17b-HSD. Moreover, the treatment was also associated with significant decrease in oxidative stress in the testis. Ethanol induced oxidative stress and decreased steroidogenesis can be reversed by treatment with ascorbic acid.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 177-180

 Effect of vitamin E supplementation on diabetes induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes in rats

Madhu C Garg, Dharam P Chaudhary & Devi D Bansal*

Diabetes induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body wt, ip) in the rats substantially increased the plasma glucose and malondialdehyde levels along with corresponding decrease in the antioxidants levels. Supplementation of vitamin E (200 mg/kg body wt., ip) for 5 weeks resulted in non-significant decrease in the blood glucose levels but plasma malondialdehyde levels were reduced to below normal levels. Plasma vitamin E, vitamin C, uric acid and red blood cell glutathione levels were also restored to near normal levels on vitamin E supplementation to diabetic rats as compared to control (diabetic) rats. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx EC 1.11.1.9), and glutathione reductase (GR EC 1.6.4.2) were also concomitantly restored to near normal levels by vitamin E supplementation to diabetic rats. The results clearly demonstrated that vitamin E supplementation augments the antioxidant defense mechanism in diabetes and provides evidence that vitamin E may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 181-186

 Antiulcerogenic effect of Justicia prostrata Gamble

E Sanmugapriya, P Shanmugasundaram & S Venkataraman

Antiulcerogenic effect of the alcoholic (ALJP) and aqueous (AQJP) extracts of the whole plant of Justicia prostrata was studied in aspirin + pylorus ligated rat models and analysed for gastric volume, ulcer index, free and total acidity. Biochemical parameters like total proteins, total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid were also estimated. Both extracts (ALJP and AQJP) significantly reduced both the gastric volume and the acidity of gastric juice. It also significantly promoted gastric mucus secretion by increasing total carbohydrates and decreasing the protein concentration in aspirin+ pylorus ligated rats. The results suggest that both the extracts (ALJP and AQJP) possess antiulcer activity, whereas AQJP is more effective when compared with ALJP in aspirin+pylorus ligated rat models. The results were compared with the standard drug Rantidine, a H2 receptor antagonist.

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 187-191

 Effect of alliums on total lipid in plasma and tissues of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to age and sex

V Girish Kumar, K P Surendranathan, D R Gayathri Devi & M R Sandhya Belwadi

Dietary onion and garlic caused an increase in the level of liver and plasma total lipids in Coturnix coturnix japonica.This increase could be due to the effect of an increased feed intake, bile production, digestion and absorption that in turn caused an increased utilisation of dietary fat, increased transfer of dietary lipids to the liver and/or due to increased lipogenesis as such. However, there was no increase in the muscle lipid content. This effect in the muscle could be due to inhibitory effect of onion or garlic on lipoprotein lipase activity. Further, the changes in the tissue total lipid level in the control group due to change in age and sex were also observed.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 192-196

 Early and transient induction of nitric oxide (NO) in infectious bursal disease virus infection is T-cell dependent: A study in cyclosporin-A treated chicken-model

Bhawna Poonia & Shiv Charan

The level of nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatants of mitogen (PHA) stimulated lymphocyte cultures from infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus infected T-cell suppressed and immune competent chickens was monitored. The immune competent chickens when infected with IBD virus showed 4-6 folds increased levels of NO as compared to uninfected chickens. The levels of NO in T-cell suppressed chickens were comparable to uninfected control chickens, in spite of markedly increased hemorrhage suggesting that the muscular hemorrhage observed in IBD in not solely and directly related with NO production. The immune suppressed chickens that did not induce NO production after IBD virus infection showed more severe lesions and supported enhanced virus replication. Taken together it may be suggested that NO production after IBD virus infection, may exert antiviral effect since the immune-suppressed chickens that failed to induce NO showed more severe disease and higher magnitude of virus replication, but does not seem to correlate with the hemorrhagic lesions which in fact may be as a result of the net outcome of various host-factors and the determinants responsible for virus virulence and virus clearance.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, February 2005, pp. 197-201

 Isolation of poly (A)+ mRNA for downstream reactions from some medicinal and aromatic plants

Ashutosh K Shukla, Ajit K Shasany & Suman P S Khanuja

In the present protocol for extraction of RNA, hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) and insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone were used followed by LiCl precipitation, CsCl ultracentrifugation and finally poly (A)+ mRNA was isolated with the help of oligo(dT)-cellulose columns. The isolated poly (A)+ mRNA was found to be suitable for cDNA-AFLP and suppression subtractive hybridization applications. It is a modified and consolidated protocol based on previously described methods for isolated steps and works better for medicinal and aromatic plants. High yield of poly (A)+ mRNA coupled with its amenability for downstream reactions like RT-PCR, northern blotting and cDNA synthesis for library construction is a key feature of the present protocol.

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

Anand Kumar P

202

Ning Meiying

150

 

 

 

 

Bansal Devi D

177

Pan Huaizhong

150

Barman T K

163

Patil Chandrashekhar S

167

Belwadi M R Sandhya

187

Patro I K  

158

 

 

Patro Nisha 

158

Chakrabarti Amit

172

Poonia Bhawna

192

Chaudhary Dharam P

177

 

 

 

 

Sanmugapriya E

181

Dutta Sanjiba

172

Shanmugasundaram P

181

 

 

Sharma V D

163

Garg Madhu C

177

Shasany Ajit K

197

Gayathri Devi D R

187

Shiv Charan  

192

Girish Kumar V

187

Shukla Ashutosh K

197

Gu Zhongwei

150

Singh Vijay Pal

167

Gupta B B P

115

Spessert R

115

 

 

Surendranathan K P

187

Jain Naveen K

167

 

 

Jayalakshmi H

172

Vasudevan D M  

172

 

 

Venkataraman S 

181

Khanuja Suman P S

197

Vollrath L

115

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

167

 

 

Kumar Subodh

163

Xiao Kai

150

 

 

 

 

Maneesh M

172

Yu Heming

150

 

 

   

 

 

 

KEYWORD INDEX

 

AA-NAT

115

Lipid peroxidation

177

Age

187

Liposomes

150

Alliums

187

 

 

Antiulcerogenic activity

181

MAPK

115

Aromatic plant

197

Medicinal plant

197

Ascorbic acid

172

Melatonin

115

Aspirin+pyrolic ligation

181

 

 

Astrocytes

158

Niosomes

150

Atherosclerosis

177

Nitric oxide

192

 

 

 

 

Catharanthus roseus

197

Non-adrenergic non-cholinergic transmission

167

Cerebellar development

158

 

 

Clotrimazole

150

Oxidative stress

172,

CREB

115

 

177

 

 

 

 

Deltamethrin

158

Pineal

115

Diabetes mellitus

177

Poly(A)+ mRNA

197

 

 

Poultry birds

163

Ethanol

172

 

 

 

 

Radial glial fibres

158

Fra-2

115

RNA isolation

197

 

 

 

 

Gastric emptying

167

Salmonella

163

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

158

Sex

187

Granule cell migration

158

Signal transduction

115

 

 

Sildenafil

167

ICER

115

Steroids

172

Immunity

192

 

 

Infectious bursal disease virus

192

T-cell suppression

192

Intestinal motility

167

Testes

172

 

 

Total lipid

187

Japanese quails

187

Toxoid vaccine

163

Justicia prostrata

181

 

 

 

 

Vaginal drug delivery

150

Vitamin E

177