Total visitors: 4,146  since 23-12-04

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(1) 1-110 (2005)

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2005

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles

 

Small but mighty RNA-mediated interference in plants

7

Debasis Pattanayak, Sandhya Agarwal, Sumathi S Swarup, K Chakrabarti, Prakash S Naik & S M Paul Khurana

 

 

 

Apoptosis: A mitochondrial perspective on cell death

25

Neerad C Mishra & Shailendra Kumar

 

 

 

Papers

 

Adrenocorticotropic hormone production in breast cancer

35

Nitesh Kumar Poddar, Renuka Saha, Suresh Hedau & Amitabha Ray

 

 

 

Immunoprotective potential of polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate in Klebsiella pneumoniae induced lobar pneumonia in rats

40

S Chhibber, Mamta Rani & Vanashree Yadav

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61 P]

 

 

 

Chronobiological and chronopharmacological studies of ketoprofen and its solid dispersion form using adjuvant arthritis model in rats

46

Atul K Solankar & Aarti G Jagtap

 

 

 

Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperalgesia in formalin test

53

Satyanarayana S V Padi & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Antimutagenic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity of quercetin

61

Thiraviam Geetha, Vibha Malhotra, Kanwaljit Chopra & Indu Pal Kaur

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61 P]

 

 

 

Effect of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. against CCI4 induced liver dysfunction in rat

68

Sunita Shailajan, Naresh Chandra, R T Sane & Sasikumar Menon

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61 P]

 

 

 

Beneficial effects of a polar fraction of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) oil in rats fed with two different high fat diets

76 

K T Augusti, Julie Chackery, Julie Jacob, Sinu Kuriakose, Sharlet George & Sunitha S Nair

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7 A61 P]

 

 

 

Biodiversity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) rhizosphere pseudomonads

84

N Rameshkumar, V Thirumalai Arasu & P Gunasekaran

 

 

In vitro cloning and homestead cultivation of primitive Musa cultivars

90

S Mukunthakumar & S Seeni

 

[IPC Code:Int. Cl7 A01 H/00]

 

 

 

Lysosomal stability in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) on exposure to surfactants

 

P C Bindu, Babu Philip & R Vinu Chandran

96

 

 

Note

 

Nitric oxide: A common antipathogenic factor of plants

100

Rupa Acharya, Madan Mukhia, Surjit Sen & Krishnendu Acharya

 

 

 

Announcements

104

International Conference on Promotion and Development of Botanicals with International Coordination: Exploring Quality, Safety, Efficacy and Regulations

 

Dr I C Chopra Memorial Award for the Year 2004

 

 

 

Information for Authors

105

 

IPC Code

The International Patent Classification, which is commonly referred to as IPC: Int. Cl., is based on an international multi-lateral treaty administered by World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (WIPO; website: www.wipo.int). It is a hierarchical classification system, comprising sections, classes, subclasses and groups (main groups and subgroups), used to classify and retrieve patent documents (patent applications, specifications of granted patents, utility models, etc.). It also serves as an instrument for orderly arrangement of patent documents, a basis for selective dissemination of information and a basis for investigating the state of the art in given fields of technology. IPC is administered to provide a common system of classification accepted worldwide under Strasbourg Agreement (1975). It is regularly updated to include changes and advances in technology and commercial practices. New edition is published every five years. The current (seventh) edition (Int. Cl.7) has entered into force with effect from 1 January 2000 and is valid up to December 2005. The authentic version (English and French) of the 6th and 7th editions of the IPC are available on WIPO website, permitting the user to browse the text of the classification in order to find the relevant IPC symbol. The next, eighth, edition of the IPC will enter into force on January 1, 2006.

 

In order to cater the needs of IPC classification, the research journals brought out by NISCAIR have initiated to assign IPC codes to each article (wherever possible) for retrieval of information with the expectations that this will create more awareness and interests on these articles among the readers and will help NISCAIR to achieve its mandate of dissemination of science and technology information more emphatically.

 

The Classification is indispensable for the retrieval of patent documents in the search for “prior art”. Such retrieval is needed by patent-issuing authorities, potential inventors, research and development units, and others concerned with the application or development of technology.

 

The seventh edition of the IPC consists of 8 sections, designated by one of the capital letters ‘A’ through ‘H’, 120 classes, 628 subclasses and approximately 69,000 groups. The groups are either main groups or subgroups. Main group symbols consist of the subclass symbol followed by one- to three- digit numbers, the oblique stroke and the number 00, e.g., A01B1/00. Subgroups form subdivisions under the main groups. Each subgroup symbol includes the subclass symbol followed by the one- to three- digit numbers of its main group, the oblique stroke and a number of at least two digits other than 00, e.g., A01B1.02.

 

For further details please visit the website: www.wipo.int/classifications.

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 7-24

 

Review Articles

  

Small but mighty RNA-mediated interference in plants

Debasis Pattanayak, Sandhya Agarwal, Sumathi S, Swarup K Chakrabarti, Prakash S Naik & S M Paul Khurana

 

RNA silencing is a conserved phenomenon of regulation of gene expression by small RNAs derived from cleavage of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The present review deals with three overlapping modes of small RNA-mediated silencing particularly in plants. In case of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), Dicer, an endonuclease, cleaves dsRNA to produce ~21nt-long small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which guide RISC, another nuclease complex, to destroy specific target mRNAs based on sequence complementarity with the siRNA. Another class of siRNAs of 25nt-long is also produced from dsRNA by Dicer, different from that generates 21nt-long siRNA. These longer siRNAs are probably involved in systemic silencing during PTGS and guide methylation of both DNA and histone, and induce heterochromatinization and consequent transcriptional repression of the targeted gene. Both siRNA-mediated PTGS and epigenetic modification of the genome are considered as defense mechanisms to protect against invading viruses, transposons or aberrantly expressing transgenes. Regulation of expression of endogenous genes is mediated by another class of 21nt-long small RNAs called microRNAs (miRNA). Genes encoding the miRNAs are present either in the intergenic regions, introns or coding regions of the plant genome. Cleavage of a stem-loop precursor transcript called pre-miRNA, by another class of Dicer generates miRNAs, which in association with nuclease complex similar to RISC, if not identical, either degrade target mRNA or cause translational repression. The applications of RNA silencing in functional genomics and crop improvement are discussed.

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 25-34

 

Apoptosis: A mitochondrial perspective on cell death

Neerad C Mishra & Shailendra Kumar

 

Mitochondria play an important role in both the life and death of cells. The past 7-8 years have seen an intense surge in research devoted toward understanding the critical role of mitochondria in the regulation of cell death. Mitochondria have, next to their function in respiration, an important role in apoptotic signaling pathway. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death important in the development and tissue homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis can be initiated by a wide array of stimuli, including multiple signaling pathways that, for the most part, converge at the mitochondria. Although classically considered the powerhouses of the cell, it is now understood that mitochondria are also “gatekeepers” that ultimately determine the fate of the cell. Malfunctioning at any level of the cell is eventually translated in the release of apoptogenic factors from the mitochondrial intermembrane space resulting in the organized demise of the cell. These mitochondrial factors may contribute to both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent processes in apoptotic cell death. In addition, several Bcl-2 family members and other upstream proteins also contribute to and regulate the apoptosis. In this review, we attempt to summarize our current view of the mechanism that leads to the influx and efflux of many proteins from/to mitochondria during apoptosis.

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 35-39

 

Papers

 

Adrenocorticotropic hormone production in breast cancer

Nitesh Kumar Poddar, Renuka Saha, Suresh Hedau & Amitabha Ray

 

Presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was investigated in tissues from 150 cases of primary breast cancer. ACTH peptides were detected in 16.7% cases and ACTH expression was higher in post-menopausal cancers. A significant association was noticed between the presence of ACTH and the positive estrogen receptor (ER) status of tumors. The study indicated a probable role of these ectopic ACTH peptides in steroid hormone related pathology of breast cancer.

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 40-45

 

Immunoprotective potential of polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid conjugate in Klebsiella pneumoniae induced lobar pneumonia in rats

S Chhibber, Mamta Rani & Vanashree Yadav

 

The polysaccharide (ps) derived from K. pneumoniae NCTC 5055 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was covalently linked to tetanus toxoid by using carbodimide with adipic acid dihydrazide as a spacer molecule. The conjugate was found to be non-toxic and non-pyrogenic at 100 mg dose level. At a similar dose, the conjugate did not elicit any local skin reaction on intradermal preparatory injection in rabbits. The conjugate was immunoprotective as was evident from the decrease in relative colonization of bacteria in lungs of immunized rats as compared to the control animals. Immunization with the conjugate resulted in alveolar macrophage activation in terms of their ability to phagocytose bacteria in vitro.

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 46-52

 

Chronobiological and chronopharmacological studies of ketoprofen and its solid dispersion form using adjuvant arthritis model in rats

Atul K Solankar & Aarti G Jagtap

 

Chronobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was studied using a standard adjuvant arthritis animal model. Chronopharmacology of ketoprofen, and its solid dispersion forms was also studied. Temporal variations in the degree of articular inflammation (paw volume) and progression of articular destruction were studied by injecting Freund’s Complete Adjuvant (FCA) at 0800 and 2000 hrs. Temporal variations in anti-inflammatory effects and ulcerogenic effect were also studied by administration of plain ketoprofen (20 mg/kg) and its solid dispersion with hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin (equivalent to 20 mg/kg of ketoprofen) at the same time points (0800 and 2000 hrs) twice weekly for 22 days. Solid dispersion of ketoprofen was found to be more effective in inhibiting progression of RA. The incidence and severity of ulcers was found to be less with the solid dispersion. The protective effect of ketoprofen and its solid dispersion was significantly higher when these were administered at 0800 hrs. The incidence of ulceration was more in 2000 hrs group. Thus, it was observed that in the adjuvant induced arthritis model, inflammation and articular damage was significantly greater in the rest period of diurnally active rats than in the activity phase. KPF and its solid dispersion showed better protection from inflammation in the morning than in the evening.

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 53-60

 

Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperalgesia in formalin test

satyanarayana S V padi & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperalgesia and the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in acute and chronic nociceptive assays have been well established. However, the role of COX isoforms in LPS-induced hyperalgesia in the formalin test is not clear. Thus, the present study was undertaken to characterize the time course of formalin-induced nociceptive response in LPS-pretreated mice and to investigate possible effects of COX inhibitors to address the potential role of COX isoforms in LPS-induced hyperalgesia in the formalin test. All the animals showed typical biphasic response to formalin challenge. At 0 hr (immediately) and 4 hr after LPS pretreatment, animals did not show any alteration in formalin-induced tonic pain. However, 12 and 16 hr after LPS pretreatment, there was a significant increase in the late phase of formalin-induced nocifensive response as compared to control mice. Treatment with intravenously administered ketorolac (a nonselective COX inhibitor) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the late phase of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviour in saline and LPS-pretreated mice. In contrast, parecoxib (prodrug of valdecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor) or dexamethasone (COX-2 transcription inhibitor), when administered intravenously or intraperitoneally, respectively, did not show antinociceptive effect in the formalin test in saline-pretreated mice. However, both the agents significantly and dose-dependently decreased the late phase nociceptive behaviour of the formalin test in LPS-pretreated mice to the level of the animals that received saline pretreatment. These results suggest that induction of COX-2 by proinflammatory mediators and subsequent release of prostaglandins could be responsible for LPS enhancement of formalin-induced nocifensive behaviour and supports an important role of COX-2 in LPS-induced hyperalgesia in the formalin test.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 61-75

  

Antimutagenic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity of quercetin

Thiraviam Geetha, Vibha Malhotra, Kanwaljit Chopra & Indu Pal Kaur

 

The present study has been performed to evaluate the antimutagenic activity of quercetin, ascorbic acid and their combination against an oxidative mutagen. An effort was also made to correlate this activity to the in vitro antioxidant activity of these agents. Antimutagenicity testing was done in Ames Salmonella Assay system using Salmonella typhimurium TA102 against t-butylhydroperoxide as an oxidative mutagen. In vitro antioxidant scavenging activity was tested for DPPH free radical, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in their specific test systems. Quercetin (0.5-8 nmole/plate) and ascorbic acid (0.1-100 µmole/plate) showed significant effect. Quercetin (4 and 8 nmole/plate) when combined with ascorbic acid (500 nmole/plate) showed an increase in the antimutagenic activity. In vitro antioxidant activity of quercetin was better than ascorbic acid in all the test systems used. The study indicated that the antimutagenic activity of quercetin was not solely accountable by its antioxidant nature. However, in vitro free radical scavenging activity of quercetin correlated well with the antimutagenic activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 68-75

 

Effect of Asteracantha longifolia Nees. against CCl4 induced liver dysfunction in rat

Sunita Shailajan, Naresh Chandra, R T Sane & Sasikumar Menon

 

Significant recovery after treatment with the whole plant slurry of A.longifolia Nees. was observed in plasma AST, ALT and cholesterol levels in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats. This was amply supported by electron micrographs, which indicated normalization of cytoarchitecture of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The results suggest that the slurry of the plant is useful as a liver tonic.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 76-83

 

Beneficial effects of a polar fraction of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) oil in rats fed with two different high fat diets*

K T Augusti, Julie Chackery, Julie Jacob, Sinu Kuriakose, Sharlet George & Sunitha S Nair

 

Feeding a diet containing 20% of sesame oil (SO) or coconut oil (CNO) along with 2% cholesterol to rats for two months showed differences in their serum and tissue lipid profile and certain enzyme activities. Hyperlipidemia and related oxidative effects were more pronounced in coconut oil fed rats than those fed sesame oil. Feeding a combination of the oils (10% CNO +10% so) lowered significantly the hyperlipidemia and certain other deleterious effects of CNO. Feeding a polar fraction of garlic oil (PFGO) prepared in the same way as for ajoene and administered at a dosage of 100 mg/kg along with each of the above oil containing diets counteracted significantly the hyperlipidemic, oxidant and also most of the other deleterious effects of the oils like raised lipid levels in serum and tissues, raised serum levels of AST and tissue levels of HMGCoA reductase and the lowered serum and tissue levels of glutathione reductase. The results support the claims that ajoene, the major polar compound of garlic oil, has very good biological action, which warrants further study.

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 84-89

 

Biodiversity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) rhizosphere pseudomonads

N Rameshkumar, V Thirumalai Arasu & P Gunasekaran

 

Fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from the rhizosphere of rice and sugarcane and examined for their biodiversity. All fifty strains of the fluorescent pseudomonads produced indole acetic acid. Among these pseudomonads, halves of sugarcane rhizosphere isolates and one isolate from the rice rhizosphere exhibited phosphate solubilization activity. On the contrary, majority of the rice rhizosphere pseudomonads, and one isolate from sugarcane rhizosphere exhibited antifungal activity. These fluorescent pseudomonads were further classified based on their growth and biochemical characteristics. Those isolates that had same biochemical characteristics were distinguished by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). These biochemical and molecular biological methods clearly differentiated fluorescent Pseudomonads of rice and sugarcane rhizosphere.

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 90-95

  

In vitro cloning and homestead cultivation of primitive Musa cultivars

S Mukunthakumar & S Seeni

 

Two primitive diploid Musa cultivars, Matti and Chemmatti from the extreme southern part of the Western Ghats were multiplied by in vitro culture of sucker-derived shoot apices. Decontaminated corm explants (1 cm ´ 1 cm) having shoot apex (~ 0.3 cm) cultured for 1 month in Murashige and Skoog basal agar medium was cut vertically into eight segments and each segment having a part of shoot meristem was cultured in presence of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and combinations of BAP and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyricacid (IBA) to produce multiple shoots. After 12 weeks of culture, maximum number of shoots (32) in both the cultivars were produced in approximate 60% of the explants in presence of BAP and IAA each at 1.5 mg/l-1 (Matti) and 40% of the explants in 2.5 mg/l-1 of BAP and 1.5 mg/l-1 of IAA (Chemmatti). Buds were formed from the base of the subcultured shoots and somewhat more number (34) of shoots were obtained in Matti than in Chemmatti (31) after 8 weeks. Difference in the concentration of cytokinin required for shoot initiation and multiplication, persistence of exudation through the subculture and red colouration of the early formed sheathing leaf bases in the shoots in Chemmatti indicated possible genotypic differences between the two cultivars. Multiple shoot proliferation achieved through five subcultures of the isolated shoots without any decline. Transfer of shoots (4-5 cm) into MS basal medium favoured rooting in 4 weeks and rooted plants (9 cm) were hardened and established (80-95%). Mericlones of Matti cultivated in homesteads produced bunches of uniform characters in 13 months.

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 96-99

 

Lysosomal stability in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters) on  exposure to surfactants

P C Bindu, Babu Philip & R Vinu Chandran.

 

The three commonly used surfactants viz. anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic cetyl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and non-ionic triton X-100 were toxic even at sub lethal levels (1 ppm for 30 days) to O. mossambicus. Lysosomal stability index (LSI) was lowest in triton-exposed animals in vitro. In vivo, CTAB was the most toxic. SDS, the anionic surfactant was the least toxic. The possible role of surfactant structure, critical micellar concentration (CMC) and metabolism in influencing the toxicity is discussed and mechanism of action via membrane lipid peroxidation is suggested.

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, January 2005, pp 100-103

 

Notes

 

Nitric oxide: A common antipathogenic  factor of plants

Rupa Acharya, Madan Mukhia, Surjit Sen & Krishnendu Acharya

 

In the present study, nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (NOS/NO) status was tested in the host plants infected with fungi, bacteria and virus. In each case cytosolic nitric oxide synthase (Cyt-NOS) of diseased plants was inhibited and inhibition was competitive in nature in respect to l-arginine, the substrate for the enzymic activity. Elevation of host nitric oxide (NO) level before infection using nitric oxide (NO) donor protected disease initiation significantly. The nature of enzyme kinetics and the manner of disease protection by nitric oxide donor (NO-donor) was similar in all the three cases of infection. It was concluded that nitric oxide was a common antipathogenic factor of plants.

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

 

Acharya Krishnendu

100

Hedau Suresh

35

Padi Satyanarayana S V

53

Acharya Rupa

100

 

 

Pattanayak Debasis

7

Agarwal Sandhya

7

Jacob Julie

76

Philip Babu

96

Arasu V Thirumalai

84

Jagtap Aarti G

46

Poddar Nitesh Kumar

35

Augusti K T

76

     

 

 

 

Kaur Indu Pal

61

Rameshkumar N

84

Bindu P C

96

Khurana S M Paul

7

Rani Mamta

40

 

 

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

53

Ray Amitabha

35

Chackery Julie

76

Kumar Shailendra

25

 

 

Chakrabarti Swarup K

7

Kuriakose Sinu

76

Saha Renuka

35

Chandra Naresh

68

 

 

Sane R T

68

Chandran R Vinu

96

Malhotra Vibha

61

Seeni S

90

Chhibber S

40

Menon Sasikumar

68

Sen Surjit

100

Chopra Kanwaljit

61

Mishra Neerad C

25

Shailajan Sunita

68

 

 

Mukhia Madan

100

Solankar Atul K

46

Geetha Thiraviam

61

Mukunthakumar S

90

Sumathi S

7

George Sharlet

76

 

 

 

 

Gunasekaran P

84

Naik Prakash S

7

Yadav Vanashree

40

 

 

Nair Sunitha S

76

 

 

 

 

 

KEYWORD INDEX

 

 

Acharya Krishnendu

100

Hedau Suresh

35

Padi Satyanarayana S V

53

c-Abl

25

Finger printing

84

Native diploids

90

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

35

Fluorescent pseudomonads

84

 

 

AIF

25

Formalin test

53

Nitric oxide Synthase

100

AlbinoWistar rat

68

 

 

 

 

Ames test

61

Garlic oil

76

Oreochromis mossambicus

96

Antimutagenicity

61

Gastric ulceration

46

 

 

Antioxidant activity

61

Gene expression

7

p53

25

Apafl

25

 

 

PCR

84

Apoptosis

25

Hepatoprotectant

68

PFGO

76

Ascorbic acid

61

Homestead cultivation

90

PGPR

84

Asteracantha longifolia

68

Hyperalgesia

53

PKCd

25

 

 

Hypocholesterolemic

76

Plant defense

100

Bel-2

25

Hypolipidemic

76

Pneumonia

40

Breast cancer

35

 

 

Polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate

40

 

 

JNK

25

Pseudomonas

84

Cancer

35

 

 

 

 

Caspases

25

Ketoprofen

46

Quercetin

61

Cell death

25

Klebsiella pneumoniae

40

 

 

Chemmatti

90

 

 

RAPD

84

Cholesterol

76

Lipopolysaccharide

53

Rheumatoid arthritis

46

Chronopharmacology

46

Liver disorder

68

Rhizobacteria

84

CNO

76

Lysosomes

96

RNA mediated interference

7

Cyclooxygenase isoforms

53

 

 

 

 

Cytochrome c

25

Matti

90

Smac

25

 

 

Micropropagation

90

SO

76

DIABLO

25

Mitochondria

25

Surfactant toxicity

96

 

 

Musa

90

 

 

Estrogen receptor

35

 

 

TR3

25

 

 

 

 

Translocation

25