Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

Total visitors: 1,590  since 19-07-05

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 7

July 2005

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(7) 571-666 (2005)

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

Review Article

 

Genetics of sexual behaviour in Drosophila

575

  Seema Sisodia & B N Singh

 

 

 

Papers

 

Response of S 180 murine tumor to bleomycin in combination with radiation and hyperthermia using micronucleus assay: A multimodality approach for therapeutic augmentation

596

  B S Satish Rao & P Uma Devi

 

 

 

Influence of low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin-E and omega-3 fatty acid on blood lipid profile of wistar rats

601

      S K Taneja & Aruna Rakha

 

 

 

Phospholipid metabolism and protein kinase C mediated protein phosphorylation in dietary protein deficiency in rat lung

606

      Surendra K Bansal, Rachna Kathayat, Manoj Tyagi, Krishna K Taneja &  Seemi F Basir

 

 

 

Comparative gastrointestinal toxicity of selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors

614

      N Shafiq, S Malhotra, P Pandhi & R Nada

 

 

 

Involvement of central serotonergic systems in dextromethorphan-induced behavioural syndrome in rats

 

620

      R V Gaikwad, R K Gaonkar, S A Jadhav, V M Thorat, J H Jadhav & J J Balsara

 

 

 

Novel haemolysins of Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Gallinarum

626

      Ravi Kant Agrawal, B R Singh, N Babu & Mudit Chandra

 

 

 

Occurrence of sopE gene and its phenotypic expression among different serovars of Salmonella enterica isolated from man and animals


631

      H Rahman, W D Hardt, H V Murugkar & D K Bhattacharyya

 

 

 

Effect of aqueous extract from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig isolated heart

635

      Mohammad Naser Shafei, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady & Heydar Parsaee

 

 

 

Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice

640

      Kamal Kishore & Manjeet Singh

 

 

Development of an amperometric hypoxanthine biosensor for determination of hypoxanthine in fish and meat tissue


646

     Anjan Kumar Basu, Parimal Chattopadhyay, Utpal Roy Choudhury & Runu Chakraborty

 

 

 

White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy

 

654

      S S Mishra & M S Shekhar

 

 

 

Notes

 

Analgesic activity of methanol extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. leaves

662

      Subrata K Mandal, R Boominathan, B Parimaladevi, Saikat Dewanjee &Subhash C Mandal

 

 

 

Making artificial honey using yeast cells from salivary glands of honey bees

664

      K Kathiresan & K Srinivasan

 

 

 

Announcement

 

National workshop on clinical research and regulatory affairs – An update

574

 

Author Index                                                                               

Keyword Index                                                                                                    

 

 

 

 

—————————————————

 

 

Announcement

 

National Workshop on
Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs—An Update

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal

 

19 September-1 October 2005

 

   The national workshop will be organized by the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance on ‘Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs - An Update’ at Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576 104. The objective of the workshop is to upgrade the knowledge and to provide practical training in clinical research and regulatory affairs. It will focus on pre-clinical research and patents, regulatory and ethical requirements, design of clinical research, safety monitoring and periodic safety update review, bioavailability and bioequivalence studies, toxicological aspects, regulatory requirements in drug discovery and manufacture process, and patents. For further details, please contact The Principal, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, 576 104, India. Tel: 91-820-2571201, Extn. 22482/22403, Fax: 91-820-2571998, E-mail: cpe.mcops@manipal.edu

 

 

 

Author Index

Agrawal Ravi Kant

626

 

 

Babu N

626

Balsara J J

620

Bansal Surendra K

606

Basir Seemi

606

Basu Anjan Kumar

646

Bhattacharyya D K

631

Boominathan R

662

Boskabady Mohammad Hossein

635

 

 

Chakraborty Runu

646

Chandra Mudit

626

Chattopadhyay Parimal

646

Choudhury Utpal Roy

646

 

 

Devi P Uma

596

Dewanjee Saikat

662

 

 

Gaikwad R V

620

Gaonkar R K

620

 

 

Hardt W D

631

 

 

Jadhav J H

620

Jadhav S A

620

 

 

Kathayat Rachna

606

Kathiresan K

664

Kishore Kamal

640

 

 

Malhotra S

614

Mandal Subhash C

662

Mandal Subrata K

662

Mishra S S

654

Murugkar H V

631

 

 

Nada R

614

 

 

Pandhi P

614

Parimaladevi B

662

Parsaee Heydar

635

 

 

Rahman H

631

Rakha Aruna

601

Rao B S Satish

596

 

 

Shafei Mohammad Naser

635

Shafiq N

614

Shekhar M S

654

Singh B N

575

Singh B R

626

Singh Manjeet

640

Sisodia Seema

575

Srinivasan K

664

 

 

Taneja Krishna K

606

Taneja S K

601

Thorat V M

620

Tyagi Manoj

606

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetic acid-induced writhing test

662

Amnesia

640

Amperometric biosensor

646

Analgesic activity

662

Apis cerana

664

Aqueous extract

635

Artificial honey

664

 

 

Bacosides

640

Bleomycin

596

Blood

601

Brahmi

640

Buspirone

620

 

 

Calcium channel blocker

635

Celecoxib

614

p-Chlorophenylalanine

620

COX-2

614

 

 

Dextromethorphan

620

 

 

Electron microscopy

654

Eupatorium adenophonum

662

 

 

Fish

646

Fluoxetine

620

 

 

Gastric-ulcer

614

Guinea pig

635

 

 

Haemolysins

626

Honey bees

664

5-HTergie

620

Hyperthermia

596

Hypoxanthine

646

 

 

Immobilized XO

646

Indomethacin

614

Ischemia-reperfusion

614

Isolated heart

635

 

 

Lipid profile

601

Low cholesterol eggs

601

Lung

606

 

 

Memory

640

Mice

640

Micronuclei

596

Multimodality treatment

596

 

 

Nigella sativa

635

Nimesulide

614

NSAIDs

614

 

 

Omega-3 fatty acids

601

PCR

631, 654

Phospholipids

606

1-Propranolol

620

Protein kinase C

606

Protein malnutrition

606

Protein phosphorylation

606

 

 

Radiation

596

Rat

620

 

 

Salmonella

631

Salmonella enterica

626

Serovar Gallinarum

626

Sexual behaviour

575

Shrimp

654

Signal transduction

606

SopE

631

 

 

Tail flick test

662

Tail immersion test

662

Type III secretion

631

 

 

Vitamin-E

601

 

 

Water maze

640

White spot disease

654

WSSV

654

 

 

Yeast cells

664

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 575-595

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Genetics of sexual behaviour in Drosophila

Seema Sisodia & B N Singh

 

The analysis of genetics of behaviour within and between species provides important clues about the forces shaping the evolution of behavioural genes. In Drosophila, a number of key processes such as emergence from the pupal case, locomotor activity, feeding, olfaction and aspects of mating behaviour are under circadian regulation. Genes controlling sexual behaviour are likely to control species specific differences in courtship that are involved in reproductive isolation of closely related species. Courtship in Drosophila is characterized by a series of stereotyped behaviours that lead to copulation and more than 30 genes have been identified through mutations that affect one or more of these elements. Although curiosity about behavioural differences between the sexes undoubtedly predates recorded history, little efforts have been made to uncover the molecular basis of male and female courtship. The brain and nervous system functions that underlie sex-specific behaviour are of obvious importance to all animals including humans. To understand behaviour related to sex it is important to distinguish those aspects that are controlled genetically. The isolation and analysis of Drosophila mutants with altered sexual orientation lead to the identification of novel branches in the sex-determination cascade, which govern the sexually dimorphic development of the nervous system.

 

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 596-600

 

 

Response of S180 murine tumor to bleomycin in combination with radiation and hyperthermia using micronucleus assay: A multimodality approach for therapeutic augmentation

B S Satish Rao & P Uma Devi

 

Received 15 June 2004; revised 24 March 2005

Response of a transplantable tumor, S180, grown intradermally in inbred Balb/c mice, was assessed by using micronucleus assay after treating the solid tumors with bleomycin (BLM), radiation (RT) and hyperthermia (HT) vis-a-vis multimodality approach. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) though did not vary greatly during the one week of observation in untreated tumors, it significantly increased in the drug and RT groups at 24 hr post-treatment. However, MN frequency was non-significant in the HT group from the control. A drug dose dependent linear increase in the frequency of MN induction was evident in 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg body weight BLM alone treated groups. Combination of radiation with BLM or HT further increased the MN counts in the bimodality groups. But, MN induction at 24 hr post-treatment in the tri-modality group (BLM+RT+HT) was non-significant from that of the bimodality treatments. However, the tumors treated with trimodality treatment presented severe tumor necrosis, indicating increased cell loss, and resulting in  immediate tumor regression. In all the bi-modality groups MN counts though declined 3 or 5 days post-treatment, the values remained significantly higher than the control, on day 7 post-treatment. Micronucleus assay could be used as a predictive parameter for the assessment of post-irradiation tumor regression response. However, the tumor response assessment with MN assay alone may not be sufficient and the role of other parameters, such as apoptosis and necrosis, in immediate tumor regression, especially radiosensitive/thermosensitive tumors can not be ignored while taking multimodality approach into consideration for cancer therapy.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 601-605

 

 

Influence of low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin–E and omega-3 fatty acid
on blood lipid profile of wistar rats

S K Taneja & Aruna Rakha

 

Received 16 August 2004; revised 5 April 2005

In the recent past, low cholesterol eggs enriched with vitamin-E and omega-3 fatty acid have been developed and are marketed under different brands claiming them as heart friendly. The influence of these eggs (smart eggs) on lipid profile of rats was evaluated in comparison to that of the standard eggs. Data of 4 week dietary treatment revealed that total plasma cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol increased only 22% in rats fed on diet containing 4 smart eggs per kg of semi-synthetic diet in contrast to the increase of more than 100 % when fed on diet containing standard eggs. The results suggest that it is not the low cholesterol content alone but also vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids present in smart eggs that act synergically to prevent a substantial change in blood lipid profile and impose no serious risk to the health of the consumers.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 606-613

 

 

Phospholipid metabolism and protein kinase C mediated protein phosphorylation in dietary protein deficiency in rat lung

Surendra K Bansal, Rachna Kathayat, Manoj Tyagi, Krishna K Taneja & Seemi F Basir

Received 4 November 2004; revised 9 February 2005

Nutritional deprivation of proteins decreases the protein kinase C (PKC) activity in rat lung. The activity of (PKC) is influenced by lipid metabolism. Changes in PKC activity may influence phosphorylation of its substrate proteins in the tissues. Therefore, alterations in phospholipid metabolism and PKC mediated protein phosphorylation in dietary protein deficiency in rat lung were envisaged. The study was conducted on rats fed on three different types of diet viz., casein (20% protein), deficient (4% protein, rice flour as source of protein) and supplemented (deficient diet supplemented with L-lysine and DL-threoning). Feeding of protein deficient diet caused reduction in incorporation of [3H] myo-inositol in the total phosphoinositides in lungs and an increase in total inositol phosphate pool. There was a significant reduction in the contents and turnover rate of phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl inositol monophosphate. Supplementation of diet with L-lysine and DL-threonine had a reversing effect on total pool of phosphoinositides and, the metabolism of phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate and phosphatidyl inositol. In phosphatidyl choline metabolism, the dietary protein deficiency led to a decrease in incorporation of [14C-methyl] choline-chloride in total phospholipids. In contrast, its incorporation increased in phosphatidyl choline pool. The contents of phosphatidyl choline and residue, incorporation of [14C-methyl] choline-chloride in them and their turnover rate also increased. Supplementation of diet had a reversal effect on most of these parameters. Phosphorylation of proteins of 84, 47, 35 and 16 kDa was identified to be mediated by PKC. In dietary protein deficiency, phosphorylation of all these proteins, except that of 47 kDa, increased. Supplementation of diet reversed the pattern except that of 84 kDa. The findings suggest that changes in phospholipid metabolism in dietary protein deficiency may effect the activity of PKC thereby influencing the phosphorylation of its substrate proteins and hence associated functions that may lead to pathophysiology of lung.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 614-619

 

 

Comparative gastrointestinal toxicity of selective cyclooxygenase
(COX-2) inhibitors

 

N Shafiq, S Malhotra & P Pandhi

 

and

R Nada

 

Received 5 August 2004; revised 4 April 2005

Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors were developed with the hope that they will cause fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects. Ability of selective as well as nonselective COX inhibitors to alter ischemia-reperfusion induced damage of gastric mucosa and hapten-induced colitis in rats has been compared. Celecoxib (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg-1) was significantly more potent at aggravating ischemia-reperfusion injury as compared to nimesulide. Similarly, celecoxib was found to maximally potentiate TNBS-induced colitis, followed by nimesulide and indomethacin. Celecoxib at its highest dose produced maximum deep histological injury. This paradoxic ulcer and colitis aggravating effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors may be explained by suppression of protective prostaglandins generated as a consequence of COX-2 induction in inflammatory states.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 620-625

 

 

Involvement of central serotonergic systems in dextromethorphan-induced behavioural syndrome in rats

R V Gaikwad, R K Gaonkar, S A Jadhav, V M Thorat, J H Jadhav & J J Balsara

 

Received 6 December 2004; revised 29 March 2005

Dextromethorphan, a noncompetitive blocker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor, at 45, 60 and 75 mg/kg, ip doses induced a behavioural syndrome characterised by reciprocal forepaw treading, lateral head-weaving, hind-limb abduction and flat body posture. Such type of behavioural syndrome is induced by 8-hydroxy-2- (di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) by directly stimulating the central postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) receptors of the 5-HT1A type. Pretreatment with buspirone (5, 10 mg/kg, ip) and l-propranolol (10, 20 mg/kg, ip) antagonised the behavioural syndrome induced by 8-OH-DPAT and dextromethorphan. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg/day ´ 4 days) antagonised the behavioural syndrome induced by dextromethorphan and dexfenfluramine but had no significant effect on 8-OH-DPAT induced behavioural syndrome. This indicates that dextromethorphan induces the behavioural syndrome by releasing 5-HT from serotonergic neurons with resultant activation of the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors by the released 5-HT. Pretreatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, ip) significantly potentiated the behavioural syndrome induced by dextromethorphan and 5-hydroxytryptophan but significantly antagonised dexfenfluramine induced behavioural syndrome. This indicates that dextromethorphan releases 5-HT by a mechanism which differs from that of dexfenfluramine. Dextromethorphan may be releasing 5-HT by blocking the NMDA receptors and thereby counteracting the inhibitory influence of l-glutamate on 5-HT release.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 626-630

 

 

Novel haemolysins of Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Gallinarum

Ravi Kant Agrawal, B R Singh, N Babu & Mudit Chandra

 

Received 29 November 2004; revised 29 March 2005

Haemolysins of Salmonella are important due to their probable role in pathogenesis of systemic salmonellosis and use in sub-serovar level typing. The present study was undertaken to determine haemolytic potential of Salmonella Gallinarum strains through phenotypic and genotypic methods. Amplification of haemolysin gene (clyA) and cytolysin gene (slyA) was attempted in order to determine their role in haemolysin production. Study on 94 strains of S. Gallinarum revealed the production of two types of haemolysis viz., beneath the colony haemolysis (BCH) or contact haemolysis and clear zone haemolysis (CZH). Haemolysis was observed on blood agar prepared with blood of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, rabbit, guinea pig, fowl, and human blood group A, B, AB and O. Although, haemolysis was also observed on blood agar prepared with whole blood, clarity of zone was more evident on blood agar made from washed erythrocytes. Clear zone haemolysis was best observed on blood agar prepared with washed erythrocytes of goat and a total of 12% (11 of 94) S. Gallinarum strains under study produced CZH on it. The clyA gene could not be detected in any of the 94 strains under study, while slyA gene could be amplified uniformly irrespective of haemolytic potential (CZH) and haemolytic pattern (BCH) of the strains. The study suggested that the two types of haemolysis (CZH and BCH) observed among S. Gallinarum strains may not be due to either slyA or clyA gene products and thus there may be some other gene responsible for haemolytic trait in Gallinarum serovar. Different haemolytic patterns of strains under study indicated multiplicity of haemolysins in S. Gallinarum.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 631-634

 

 

Occurrence of sopE gene and its phenotypic expression among different serovars of Salmonella enterica isolated from man and animals

H Rahman, W D Hardt, H V Murugkar & D K Bhattacharyya

 

Received 15 September 2004; revised 23 March 2005

Salmonella pathogenesis is a complex phenomenon and a Type III secretion system plays a central role in the development of Salmonella-induced enteritis. One such Type III secretion protein is Salmonella outer protein E (SopE). Prevalence of sopE gene and its phenotypic expression (SopE protein) among different serovars of Salmonella enterica isolated from man and animals were investigated. Of 305 strains of S. enterica belonging to 11 serovars tested for the presence of sopE, 130 strains belonging to three serovars viz., Enteritidis, Gallinarum and Virchow were found to carry sopE gene irrespective of their source of isolation when tested by PCR amplification technique using its specific primers. Of these 130 strains, 112 strains were found to express SopE protein phenotypically as detected by Dot-ELISA using SopE antibody. Among the different serovars tested only serovars Gallinarum, Enteritidis and Virchow expressed SopE protein phenotypically in vitro. Role of SopE protein in pathogenesis of salmonellosis has been discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 635-639

 

 

Effect of aqueous extract from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig isolated heart

 

Mohammad Naser Shafei, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady & Heydar Parsaee

 

Received 12 July 2004; revised 27 March 2005

A potent inhibitory effect of aqueous extract from N. sativa on calcium channel of guinea pig heart was found comparable and even greater than that of diltazem. The results may also indicate an opening effect for the plant on potassium channel of isolated heart.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 640-645

 

 

Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi),
on experimental amnesia in mice

Kamal Kishore

 

and

Manjeet Singh

 

Received 24 March 2004; revised 2 March 2005

To investigate the effect of bacosides (alcoholic extract of brahmi) on scopolamine (3 mg kg-1, ip), sodium nitrite (75 mg kg-1, ip) and BN52021 (15 mg kg-1, ip) induced experimental amnesia in mice, using Morris water maze test, all the agents were administered 30 min before the acquisition trials on each day and repeated for 4 consecutive days, and on 5th day during the retrieval trials. Bacosides on anterograde administration (before training) in mice, significantly decreased the escape latency time (ELT) during the acquisition trials for 4 consecutive days and increased the time spent (TS) in target quadrant during the retrieval trials on 5th day, and on retrograde administration (after training) bacosides were found not to affect TS significantly. Bacosides also significantly decreased the ELT and increased the TS in mice treated anterogradely with scopolamine and sodium nitrite. Bacosides did not exhibit any significant effect on TS of mice treated retrogradely with sodium nitrite. On the other hand, bacosides significantly increased the TS of mice treated retrogradely with BN52021. On the basis of the present results it can be concluded that bacosides facilitate anterograde memory and attenuate anterograde experimental amnesia induced by scopolamine and sodium nitrite possibly by improving acetylcholine level and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Beside this bacosides also reversed BN52021 induced retrograde amnesia, probably due to increase in platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis by enhancing cerebral glutamate level.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 646-653

 

 

Development of an amperometric hypoxanthine biosensor for determination of hypoxanthine in fish and meat tissue

Anjan Kumar Basu, Parimal Chattopadhyay, Utpal Roy Choudhury & Runu Chakraborty

 

Received 29 November 2004; revised 29 March 2005

A hypoxanthine (Hx) biosensor based on immobilized xanthine oxidase (XO) as the bio-component was developed and studied for the rapid analysis of fish (sweet water and marine) and goat meat samples. The biosensor was standardized for the determination of Hx in the range of 0.05 to 2 mM. Crosslinking with glutaraldehyde in presence of BSA as a spacer molecule was used for the method of immobilization. One layer of gelatin (10%) was applied over the immobilized enzyme layer to reduce the leaching out of enzyme from the membrane (cellulose acetate) matrix. The optimum pH of the immobilized system was determined to be 8.5 at 25oC instead 7.0-7.2 for free enzyme system. Km and Vmax values were determined for the immobilized system. The developed sensor was applied to determine the amount of Hx present in fish and meat over a period of time. The stability of the enzyme immobilized membrane was also tested over a period of 30 days.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 654-661

 

 

White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy

S S Mishra & M S Shekhar

Received 23 December 2003, revised 17 February 2005

Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110´320 ± 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

 

 

 

 

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 662-663

 

 

Analgesic activity of methanol extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. leaves

Subrata K Mandal, R Boominathan, B Parimaladevi, Saikat Dewanjee & Subhash C Mandal

 

Received 24 June 2004; revised 11 March 2005

The methanol extract of the leaves of E. adenophorum (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, po) showed significant analgesic activity, as compared to standard drugs diclofenac sodium and pentazocine, employing acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail immersion test and tail flick test models.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 43, July 2005 pp. 664-666

 

 

Making artificial honey using yeast cells from salivary glands of honey bees

K Kathiresan & K Srinivasan

 

Received 20 April 2004; revised 30 March 2005

The salivary glands of a honey bee, Apis cerana and the yeast cells isolated from these glands were studied for their effects on sucrose solution. This solution exhibited lowered pH and increased levels of fructose and total amino acids as the time of incubation proceeded. The solution thus made was similar to the natural honey.