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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(6)  479-570  (2005)

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2005

 

CONTENTS

Papers

 

Effect of caspase inhibitors on the post-thaw motility, and integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane of cryopreserved equine spermatozoa

483

Augustine T Peter, Ben Colenbrander & Barend M Gadella

 

 

 

A new method for isolation of leukocytes from the peripheral blood of amphibians
[Bufo himalayanus, (Gunther)] and study of their surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy

488

S K Das & K Sarkar

 

 

 

Lethal, oedema, haemorrhagic activity of spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn), sting extract and its neutralization by antiserum and pharmacological antagonists

493

D Muhuri, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

 

 

 

Possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory interactions of aspartame with opioids and NSAIDs

498

Sameer Sharma, N K Jain & S K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Effect of cholesterol and 7-b hydroxycholesterol on glutathione status and nitric oxide production in murine peritoneal macrophages

503

M P Bansal & Sonia Shalini

 

 

 

Extract of gum resins of Boswellia serrata L. inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide production in rat macrophages along with hypolipidemic property

509

Ravi S Pandey, Birendra K Singh & Yamini B Tripathi

 

 

 

Desmodium gangeticum: A potent anti-ulcer agent

517

Poonam Dharmani, Pushpesh Kumar Mishra, Rakesh Maurya, Vinay Singh Chauhan & Gautam Palit

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

 

 

 

Hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus Linn. in high fat diet fed rats

522

A Kottai Muthu, S Sethupathy, R Manavalan & P K Karar

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

 

 

 

Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against subacute

CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats

526

K Pradeep, C Victor Raj Mohan, K Gobi Anand & S Karthikeyan

 

 

 

Prevention of chromate induced oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid

531

Roli Budhwar & Sushil Kumar

 

 

Comparative diagnostic potentiality of ELISA and Dot –ELISA in prepatent diagnosis of experimental Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle

536

S Ghosh, Preeti Rawat, S C Gupta & B P Singh

 

 

 

Alcaligenes faecalis kw-A biofilm for denitrification of nitrate-rich effluent

542

T S Jadhav, N J Faldu, P Patel, S N Narolkar & A S Nerurkar

 

 

 

Detection of genetic polymorphism in the populations of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)

548

K A M Karthikeyan, I Vijayakumar, P Murali, P Suresh & S Janarthanan

 

 

 

In vitro response of encapsulated somatic embryos of Lagerstroemia indica L.

552

M H Niranjan & M S Sudarshana

 

 

Biochemical studies of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

555

M Jeyaseelan & M V Rao

 

[IPC Code: Int Cl.7 A01H]

 

 

 

In vitro clonal multiplication of an apple rootstock by culture of shoot apices and axillary buds

561

N Kaushal, M Modgil, M Thakur & D R Sharma

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H]

 

 

 

Notes

 

Effect of Mesua ferrea Linn. flower extract on Salmonella

566

R Mazumder, Sujata G Dastidar, S P Basu & Avijit Mazumder

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

 

 

 

Information for Authors

569

   
Author Index
 

 
Keyword Index
 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 483-487

 

Effect of caspase inhibitors on the post-thaw motility, and integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane of cryopreserved equine spermatozoa

Augustine T Peter, Ben Colenbrander & Barend M Gadella

 

The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that addition of anticaspase cocktails (inhibiting caspases and thus blocking apoptosis) to the extenders increases the post-thaw viability of equine spermatozoa. The addition of caspase inhibitors failed to improve the acrosome and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa, suggesting that in equine sperm cryopreservation protocols, the addition of these caspase inhibitors to cryopreservation medium may not be beneficial in protecting the sperm from the stress of cryopreservation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 488-492

 

A new method for isolation of leukocytes from the peripheral blood of amphibians [Bufo himalayanus, (Gunther)] and study of their surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy

S K Das & K Sarkar

 

Using percoll as the density gradient, a new single step method to isolate leukocytes from the peripheral blood of amphibians (B. himalayanus) has been described. Isolated leukocytes were photographed under the scanning electron microscope and an attempt has been made to characterize the leukocyte population on the basis of surface morphology. Apart from regular blood cell types, B. himalayanus have slender, elongated and slightly curved leukocyte type cells in their peripheral blood. Such slender elongated cells were absent in the blood of a related species B. stomaticus and hence could not be categorized under the known blood cell types.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 493-497

 

Lethal, oedema, haemorrhagic activity of spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract and its neutralization by antiserum and pharmacological antagonists

D Muhuri, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

 

An attempt has been made in this communication to develop antiserum in rabbit against Scatophagus. argus sting extract. Antiserum did not neutralized the sting extract induced proinflammatory and haemorrhagic activity but successfully neutralized lethality upto 2LD50. Cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW 755C pretreatment significantly reduced sting extract induced proinflammatory activity. The haemorrhagic activity of sting extract was significantly inhibited by temperature, UV-exposure, EDTA, cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW 755C pretreatment. The results conclude that the local effects of S.argus venom is likely to be mediated through release of mediators and may be encountered by pharmacological antagonists better than the antiserum.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 498-502

 

Possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory interactions of aspartame with opioids and NSAIDs

Sameer Sharma, N K Jain & S K Kulkarni

 

The purpose of the present study was to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aspartame, an artificial sweetner and its combination with various opioids and NSAIDs for a possible synergistic response. The oral administration of aspartame (2-16mg/kg, po) significantly increased the pain threshold against acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Co-administration of aspartame (2mg/kg, po) with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po) and naproxen (5 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhes as compared to effects per se of individual drugs. Similarly when morphine (1 mg/kg, po) or pentazocine (1 mg/kg, po) was co-administered with aspartame it reduced the number of writhes as compared to their effects per se. Aspartame (4,8,16 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased carrageenan-induced increase in paw volume and also reversed the hyperalgesic effects in rats in combination with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po).The study indicated that aspartame exerted analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on its own and  have a synergistic analgesic response with conventional analgesics of opioid and non-opioid type, respectively.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 503-508

 

Effect of cholesterol and 7-b hydroxycholesterol on glutathione status and nitric oxide production in murine peritoneal macrophages

M P Bansal & Sonia Shalini

 

Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol (7b-hydroxycholesterol,7b-OH) on the nitric oxide (NO) production and the redox ratio by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Dose-dependent decrease in NO levels was seen with both cholesterol and 7β-OH at different incubation intervals (6,12,18,24 hr) and concentrations (2.5,5,7.5mg/ml). On comparison, a significant decrease in the NO was observed at 24 hr interval in 7b-OH exposed cells with all respective concentrations of cholesterol. Incubation with 7b-OH also resulted in significant increase in levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), while cholesterol showed no effect on GSSG levels. Moreover, GSH levels were lowered only at highest concentration (7.5mg/ml), and at longer incubation intervals (18,24 hr) with cholesterol exposure. This altered the redox status in both cholesterol/7b-OH treated macrophages. Increased redox ratio and decreased NO levels indicated increased oxidative stress and decreased vasodilation by 7b-OH compared to cholesterol.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp.509-516

 

Extract of gum resins of Boswellia serrata L. inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide production in rat macrophages along with hypolipidemic property

Ravi S Pandey, Birendra K Singh & Yamini B Tripathi

 

Boswellia serrata, Linn F (Burseraceae) is commonly used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurvedic) as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-arthritic and anti-proliferative agent. This study was planned to investigate the water-soluble fraction of the oleoresin gum of Boswellia serrata (BS extract) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In the previous condition, rats were fed on atherogenic diet (2.5% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid, 15.7 % saturated fat) along with the BS extract for 90 days. Blood was collected for lipid profile and toxicological safety parameters. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured to see the LPS induced NO production. Under in vivo experiment, BS extract significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (38-48 %), increased serum high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, 22-30%). Under in vitro experiments with thioglycolate activated macrophages, it inhibited LPS induced (NO) production with IC 50 value at 662 ng /ml. Further, this fraction, in the dose of 15 mg/100 g body wt for 90 days, did not show any increase in serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood urea, in normal control animals. However, it significantly reversed the raised SGPT and blood urea in the atherogenic diet-fed animals. Transverse section of liver and kidney also supported its protective effect. Thus it may be concluded that water extract of Boswellia serrata possesses strong hypocholesterolemic property along with increase in serum HDL. It inhibits the LPS induced NO production by the activated rat peritoneal macrophages and show hepato-protective and reno-protective property.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 517-521

 

Desmodium gangeticum: A potent anti-ulcer agent

Poonam Dharmani, Pushpesh Kumar Mishra, Rakesh Maurya, Vinay Singh Chauhan & Gautam Palit

 

The present study was designed to investigate anti-ulcerogenic property of ethanolic extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) against cold restraint (CRU, 2 hr cold restraint stress), aspirin (ASP, 150 mg/kg orally), alcohol (AL, absolute alcohol 1ml/200gm) and pyloric ligation (PL, 4 hr pylorus ligation) induced gastric ulcer models in Sprague Dawley rats, and histamine (HST, 0.25 mg/kg) induced duodenal ulcer in guinea pigs. We found that DG at a dose of 200mg/kg, (orally), markedly decreased the incidence of ulcers in all the above models. DG showed significant protection against CRU (68.37%), AL (88.87%), ASP (38.2%), PL (40.63%) and HST (63.15%) induced ulcer models, whereas standard drug omeprazole (OMZ) showed protection index of 83.86, 56.35, 70.31 and 84.21 %, respectively in CRU, ASP, PL and HST models. Sucralfate as standard drug showed 92.64% protection in AL model. DG significantly reduced acid secretion 41.61%, whereas OMZ produced 43.13% reduction. Treatment with DG showed increase in mucin secretion by 56.17%, whereas OMZ showed 12.45% increase. Anti-ulcer effect of DG may be due to its cytoprotective effect along with antisecretory activity and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 522-525

 

Hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus Linn. in high fat diet fed rats

A Kottai Muthu, S Sethupathy, R Manavalan & P K Karar

 

High fat diet fed rats showed significant increased levels of plasma and tissue total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, plasma LDL cholesterol and decreased level of plasma HDL cholesterol. Methanolic extract of D. biflorus administration to high fat diet fed rats showed near to normal levels of the above lipids in plasma and tissues. Higher dose of the extract (400 mg/kg body weight) showed comparable results with standard drug atorvastatin. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of D. biflorus possesses hypolipidemic activity in high fat diet fed rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 526-530

 

Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract against subacute CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats

K Pradeep, C Victor Raj Mohan, K Gobi Anand & S Karthikeyan

 

CCl4 alone treatment (0.1ml of liquid paraffin/100g body weight, ip) for 7 days followed by 0.1ml of CCl4 (in liquid parafiin/100g body weight, ip) from day 8 till day 14, caused a 16 fold increase in lipid peroxidation and a 50% reduction in catalase and glutathione reductase in liver tissue of rats accompanied by an increase in the activities of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and g - glutamyl transpeptidase in serum as compared to liquid paraffin treated control. Pretreatment of ethanolic leaf extract of C. fistula (500mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days) followed by CCl4 treatment (0.1ml/100g body weight from day 8 till day 14) completely reversed back lipid peroxidation and the activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the liver tissue towards normalcy. This treatment also reversed the elevated levels of the enzymes in the serum. Ethanolic leaf extract alone treatment did not produce any change in all the parameters studied. The results suggest antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of C. fistula during its pretreatment against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 531-535

 

Prevention of chromate induced oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid*

Roli Budhwar & Sushil Kumar

 

The parenteral administration of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) protected against chromate induced oxidative stress in mouse liver. A shift in Cr induced pro-oxidant state to antioxidant-state by LA was noteworthy. The degree of protection was significant and similar in different LA administration regimens (prior-, co- and post- parenteral Cr exposure) explored. An improved status of the tissue antioxidants by LA appeared to be the mechanism of mitigation. The results are of chemopreventive value and suggest a possible alternative to ascorbic acid for abrogation of Cr toxicity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 536-541

Comparative diagnostic potentiality of ELISA and Dot –ELISA in prepatent diagnosis of experimental Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle

S Ghosh, Preeti Rawat, S C Gupta & B P Singh

 

A glycoprotein (27 kDa) was isolated from crude somatic antigen of Fasciola gigantica by two steps affinity chromatography and was used in early detection of experimental fasciolosis in cattle by indirect ELISA and in dot-ELISA formats. Although, anti-27 kDa antibodies could be detected after 3 weeks post infection (WPI) by dot – ELISA which was one week later than indirect ELISA. The test, dot-ELISA, was more convenient in field application. By the test (dot-ELISA) the infection could be equally detected in animals infected with 100, 200 and 300 metacercariae of F. gigantica with high sensitivity. Further, the antigen (27 kDa) was not found to react with goat sera infected with Paramphistomum epiclitum, which are giving strong reaction to homologous immature and mature fluke antigens of P. epiclitum.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 542-547

 

Alcaligenes faecalis kw-A biofilm for denitrification of nitrate-rich effluent

T S Jadhav, N J Faldu, P Patel, S N Narolkar & A S Nerurkar

 

Alcaligenes faecalis kw-A selected for possessing good denitrification efficiency was used for biofilm development. The biofilm could be developed on a glass surface within 12 hr when 5%, 1´ 108 cells/ml was used as inoculum. The microcolonies were seen in 6 hr and glycocalyx in 9 hr stage. At 24 hr the biofilm was developed fully and hence was visualised as dense mass. The biofilm protein content showed 48.5% increase in shake flask than in static condition. The exopoplymer is produced in larger amounts in biofilm as compared to the suspended cells. Also, its amount was more by 43% in the biofilm produced in shake flask condition than in static condition. The biofilm could remove 95% nitrate from nitrate-rich effluent in a bench-scale process in 36 hr. The attached growth technique demonstrated here can be utilised to study the effect of favourable as well as adverse conditions on the denitrification efficiency of a culture. The ultimate application of a denitrifying biofilm would be in attached growth or biofilm reactor.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 548-551

 

Detection of genetic polymorphism in the populations of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)

K A M Karthikeyan, I Vijayakumar, P Murali, P Suresh & S Janarthanan

 

In the present study six different populations of L. orbonalis were collected and subjected to analysis of genetic variability in terms of carboxylesterase isozyme pattern and DNA polymorphism using RAPD-PCR. Pattern of carboxylesterase revealed a similar isozyme cluster in the populations namely, sivaganga (population-3), dindigal (population-4), virudhunagar (population-5) and coimbatore (population-6). Similarly, the populations of L. orbonalis recorded 3 distinct randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers in all populations grouped above. This pattern of genetic variability in the populations was also supported by the analysis of the similarity indices and UPGMA dendrogram.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 552-554

 

In vitro response of encapsulated somatic embryos of Lagerstroemia indica L.

M H Niranjan & M S Sudarshana

 

A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds was developed in L. indica. Somatic embryos were harvested from leaf derived embryogenic callus on Murashige and Skoog’s basal medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D, 0.5 mg/l), 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP, 1 mg/l) and ascorbic acid (AA, 50 mg/l). The embryos were encapsulated in alginate beads and dehydrated. Germination ability of the artificial seeds were investigated. The frequency of regeneration from the encapsulated embryos was significantly affected by (i) the concentration of alginate (ii) the duration of storage, and (iii) the effect of different types of media. A 2% sodium alginate concentration on MS salts resulted in significantly higher germination frequencies than at other concentrations. L. indica showed maximum germination on MS medium (93.84%) after 6 weeks of culture. The germinated synthetic seeds with well developed roots and shoots were transferred successfully to green house. This is the first report on artificial seeds in Lagerstroemia indica.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 555-560

 

Biochemical studies of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.

M Jeyaseelan & M V Rao

 

Some physiological and biochemical changes were measured between embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus obtained from Cardiospermum halicacabum. Combination of auxin with cytokinin was more favourable for high amount of callus formation. 2,4-D played a key role in triggering somatic embryo formation. Embryogenic callus had more total carbohydrate and starch contents, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, phenols and ascorbic acid. Non-embryogenic callus exhibited high chlorophyll content, total soluble sugar, protein, ammonia and enzymes like peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Thus, the present study indicated that the process of somatic embryogenesis was characterized by some biochemical and physiological changes induced by plant growth regulators.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 561-565

 

In vitro clonal multiplication of an apple rootstock by culture of shoot apices and axillary buds

N Kaushal, M Modgil, M Thakur & D R Sharma

 

In vitro clonal multiplication of apple rootstock MM 111 using axillary buds and shoot apices were carried out. Vegetative axillary buds of the size of 0.2-2.0 cm and shoot apices measuring 4 mm in length were initiated to shoot proliferation on MS medium supplemented with BA (0.5-1.0 mgl-1), GA3(0.5 mgl-1), with or without IBA(0.05-0.1 mgl-1). Small size explants showed less phenol exudation and less contamination. Following establishment phase, the small shoots emerged from explants were subcultured on MS medium supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of growth regulators. BA (1.0 mgl-1) and GA3 (0.5 mgl-1) combination showed highest multiplication rate (1:5), and also produced longer shoots. Two step rooting was done by transferring microcuttings to auxin free solid medium after root initiation in dark on ˝ strength MS liquid medium containing IBA (0.5 mgl-1). Rooted plantlets were transferred to peat containing paper cups and resulting plants of MM 111 acclimated successfully for transfer to field.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, June 2005, pp. 566-568

 

Effect of Mesua ferrea Linn. flower extract on Salmonella

R Mazumder, Sujata G Dastidar, S P Basu & Avijit Mazumder

 

Based on its traditional uses in folk medicine, the whole flower extract of Mesua ferrea Linn. was tested for its in vitro antimicrobial efficacy against five different strains of Salmonella spp. All the strains were found to be highly sensitive to the extract, MIC of the extract against each organism being 50 µg/ml. The extract was tested in vitro for its mode of antibacterial activity against S. Typhimurium NCTC 74 and it was found to be bactericidal in action. In vivo studies of this extract offered significant protection to Swiss albino mice at doses 2 and 4 mg/mouse when challenged with 50 median lethal dose of S. Typhimurium NCTC 74. Further, the extract caused statistically significant reduction in viable count of the strain in liver, spleen and heart blood of challenged mice.

 

 
Author Index

 

Anand K Gobi

526

Janarthanan S

548

Palit Gautam

517

 

 

Jeyaseelan M

555

Pandey Ravi S

509

Bansal M P

503

 

 

Patel P

542

Basu S P

566

Karar P K

522

Peter Augustine T

483

Budhwar Roli

531

Karthikeyan K A M

548

Pradeep K

526

 

 

Karthikeyan S

526

 

 

Chauhan Vinay Singh

517

Kaushal N

561

Rao M V

555

Colenbrander Ben

483

Kulkarni S K

498

Rawat Preeti

536

 

 

Kumar Sushil

531

 

 

Das S K

488

 

 

Sarkar K

488

Dasgupta S C

493

Manavalan R

522

Sethupathy S

522

Dastidar Sujata G

566

Maurya Rakesh

517

Shalini Sonia

503

Dharmani Poonam

517

Mazumder Avijit

566

Sharma D R

561

 

 

Mazumder R

566

Sharma Sameer

498

Faldu N J

542

Mishra Pushpesh Kumar

517

Singh B P

536

 

 

Modgil M

561

Singh Birendra K

509

Gadella Barend M

483

Mohan C Victor Raj

526

Sudarshana M S

552

Ghosh S

536

Muhuri D

493

Suresh P

548

Gomes A

493

Murali P

548

 

 

Gupta S C

536

Muthu A Kottai

522

Thakur M

561

 

 

 

 

Tripathi Yamini B

509

Jadhav T S

542

Narolkar S N

542

 

 

Jain N K

498

Nerurkar A S

542

Vijayakumar I

548

 

 

Niranjan M H

552

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Alcaligenes faecalis

542

Denitrification

542

Macrophage function

509

Amphibians

488

Desmodium gangeticum

517

Mesua ferrea

566

Anticaspases

483

Dolichos biflorus

522

Methanolic extract

522

Anti-atherosclerotic

509

Dot-ELISA

536

Murine peritoneal macrophages

503

Anti-inflammatory

509

 

 

 

 

Antioxidants

526

ELISA

536

Nitrate removal

542

Anti-ulcer

517

 

 

Nitric oxide

503, 509

Apoptosis

483

Facioda gigantica

536

NSAIDs

498

Apple rootstocks

561

Fish venom

493

 

 

Aspartame

498

Flow cytometry

483

Oedema

493

Attached growth

542

Flower extract

566

Opioids

498

Axillary bud

561

 

 

Oxidative stress

531

Ayurveda

509

Gastric ulcer

517

 

 

 

 

Glutathione

503

Percoll

488

Bacterial biofilm

542

 

 

Potassium dichromate

531

Blood

488

Haemorrhage

493

Prepatent diagnosis

536

Boswellia serrata

509

Heart vine

555

 

 

Bufo himalayanus

488

Hepatoprotective

526

RAPD-PCR

548

Butterfish

493

Hepatotoxicity

526

Rat

522

 

 

Herbal medicine

509

 

 

Carboxylesterase

548

7-b Hydroxycholesterol

503

Salmonella

566

Cardiospermum halicacabum

555

Hypolipidemic

509, 522

Sapindaceae

555

Cassia fistula L

526

 

 

Scanning microscopy

488

CCl4

526

Lagerstroemia indica

552

Scatophagus argus

493

Chemoprevention

531

Leguminosae

517

Shoot apex

561

Cholesterol

503

Leucinodes orbonalis

548

Somatic embryo

552, 555

Clonal multiplication

561

Leukocytes

488

Synergism

498

Cold storage

552

Lipoic acid

531

Synthetic seeds

552

Cryopreservation

483

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tertiary treatment

542