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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(3)  203-296  (2005)

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Current progress in shrimp endocrinology—A review

209

A D Diwan

 

 

 

Papers

 

Seasonal effects of melatonin on ovary and plasma gonadotropin and vitellogenin levels in intact and pinealectomized catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn)


224

Juthika Ghosh & Panchanan Nath

 

 

 

Clobetasol propionate solid lipid nanoparticles cream for effective treatment of eczema: Formulation and clinical implications

 

233

Mayur Kalariya, Bijay Kumar Padhi, Mahavir Chougule & Ambikanandan Misra

 

 [IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

 

 

 

Effect of losartan and enalapril on cognitive deficit caused by Goldblatt induced hypertension

 

241

J Srinivasan, S Jayadev, D Kumaran, K F Haja Nazeer Ahamed, B Suresh & M Ramanathan

 

 

 

Effect of licofelone against NSAIDs-induced gastrointestinal ulceration and inflammation

247

Vijay Pal Singh, Chandrashekhar S Patil & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

 

In vivo effect of whole grain flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) on rat dermal wound healing

 

254

Prashant S Hegde, Anitha B & T S Chandra

 

 [IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

 

 

 

Influence of zinc on the status of hepatic trace elements and biokinetics of 65Zn in ethanol treated rats

259

D Dhawan, A Pathak, Vijayta Dani, R Pathak & A Mahmood

 

 

 

Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats

 

264

S Sivalokanathan, M Ilayaraja & M P Balasubramanian

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61P]

 

 

Effect of glurenorm on immunohistochemical changes in pancreatic b cells of rats in experimental diabetes


268

Meral Koyuturk, Ozlem Ozsoy-Sacan, Sehnaz Bolkent & Refiye Yanardag

 

[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

 

 

 

Restriction analysis of conserved and variable regions of VP2 gene of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus serotype 1

272

Swati Dahiya, G Prasad, Minakshi & Ramesh C Kovi

 

 

 

A simple method for efficient extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Geitler


277

S Uday Bhaskar, G Gopalaswamy & R Raghu

 

 

 

In vitro propagation of Dendrobium hybrids using flower stalk node explants

280

K P Martin, Julie Geevarghese, Dominic Joseph & Joseph Madassery

 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H]

 

 

 

Inter-specific hybridization between freshwater catfish Mystus cavasius (Ham & Buch) and M. seenghala (Sykes) by artificial fertilization

 

286

 A Jesu Arockia Raj, M A Haniffa, S Seetharaman, P S Allen Benziger & Shybu Jacob

 

 

 

Notes

 

In vivo induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations
(CAs) by lynestrenol

 

291

Yasir Hasan Siddique & Mohammad Afzal

 

 

 

Effect of nifedipine and amlodipine on dead space wound healing in rats

294

H N Bhaskar, Saraswathi L Udupa & A L Udupa

 

Author Index

 

Keyword Index

 

 

Erratum

 Preparation and in vitro evaluation of liposomal/niosomal delivery systems for antifungal drug clotrimazole, by Meiying Ning, Zhongwei Gu, Huaizhong Pan, Heming Yu & Kai Xiao, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol.43, February 2005, pp. 150-157

Caption given for Fig. 2 may be read as caption for Fig. 3 and caption for Fig. 3 as caption for Fig. 2.

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 209-223

  

Current progress in shrimp endocrinology—A review

A D Diwan

 

One problem in aquaculture is obtaining brood because many commercially important species are incapable of spontaneous maturation under artificial conditions. Commercial shrimp hatcheries commonly use eyestalk ablation to stimulate gonadal maturation in shrimps. Research has been conducted on the inhibition of reproductive maturation by hormones originating in the eyestalk glands and on other endocrine sources (e.g.,brain, thoracic ganglion, ovary, mandibular organ, androgenic gland and Y-organs) to determine their roles. Alternate techniques for acceleration of gonad maturation through the use of synthetic hormones or neurotransmitters may benefit aquaculture. Neurohormones and neuroregulators have been shown to accelerate gonadal maturation but an effective delivery technique must be developed for use in a large-scale aquaculture operation.

 

 

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 224-232

 

 Seasonal effects of melatonin on ovary and plasma gonadotropin and vitellogenin levels in intact and pinealectomized catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn)

Juthika Ghosh & Panchanan Nath

 

Effects of daily administration of melatonin for 15 days were evaluated with respect to ovarian activities and plasma gonadotropin (GtH II) and vitellogenin (Vg) levels in intact (INT) and pinealectomized (Px) female catfish, C. batrachus, during preparatory (April), prespawning (May and June), spawning (July) and post-spawning (September) periods. Px (saline control groups) caused a stimulatory effect during preparatory (with respect to Vg synthesis and incorporation) and prespawning (with respect to Vg synthesis) periods whereas no effect was observed during spawning and post-spawning periods with respect to the reproductive parameters studied. During April, melatonin-treatment significantly decreased plasma GtH II levels and percentage of vitellogenic oocytes without any significant changes in plasma Vg levels and gonadosomatic index (GSI). During early prespawning period, in May, 50µg melatonin brought about a significant reduction in plasma GtH II levels in INT group, whereas 100µg caused a decrease in all parameters; on the other hand, in Px groups both dose levels proved to be inhibitory. In June (late prespawning period) melatonin-treatment could not bring about any change in GSI and plasma Vg levels compared to the control groups regardless of Px but plasma GtH II and mean number of yolky oocytes were significantly reduced in melatonin-treated INT group. During spawning period (July) melatonin inhibited the GSI, mean number of yolky oocytes and plasma GtH II levels without affecting plasma Vg levels. In September (post-spawning period), melatonin did inhibit both GSI and plasma GtH II levels. The results, thus, indicate that melatonin showed variable effects (inhibitory and/or no effect) to GSI, mean number of yolky oocytes and plasma Vg levels but a consistent inhibiton of plasma GtH II levels indicating that melatonin may control the reproduction by blocking the GtH II release from the pituitary via affecting the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 233-240

 

Clobetasol propionate solid lipid nanoparticles cream for effective treatment of eczema: Formulation and clinical implications

Mayur Kalariya, Bijay Kumar Padhi, Mahavir Chougule & Ambikanandan Misra

 

In the present study clobetasol propionate (Cp) was loaded as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), incorporated it in suitable cream base and evaluated in vitro and its performance clinically against equivalent marketed formulation. Cp was incorporated into SLN by high-pressure homogenization technique and characterized for mean particle size, surface morphology and per cent drug entrapment. Drug permeation and skin uptake studies from Cp creams were carried out in a validated Franz static diffusion cell across human cadaver skin (HCS). Sixteen chronic eczema patients were enrolled in a controlled double blind clinical trial. Optimized Cp-SLN was smooth and spherical under scanning electron microscopy; with average particle size of 177 nm and per cent drug entrapment of 92.05%. In vitro permeation studies revealed lower mean flux value and higher skin uptake of Cp from Cp-SLN cream compared to marketed drug cream. Both formulations were found to be responsive to manifestations of chronic eczema, while Cp-SLN cream prepared in this investigation registered significant improvement in therapeutic response (1.9 fold; inflammation, 1.2 fold; itching) in terms of per cent reduction in degree of inflammation and itching against marketed cream. Further clinical trials are required to ascertain the efficiency of the present formulation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 241-246

 

Effect of losartan and enalapril on cognitive deficit caused by Goldblatt induced hypertension

J Srinivasan, S Jayadev, D Kumaran, K F Haja Nazeer Ahamed, B Suresh & M Ramanathan

 

The present study was designed to evaluate the learning and memory, in an altered physiological state associated with increased blood pressure and activated renin angiotensin system in Wistar rats. The role of angiotensin in cognitive function was assessed by treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril (2 mg/kg), angiotensin 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan (5 mg/kg) and their combination. The experimental renal hypertension was induced by the method of Goldblatt. Learning and memory was assessed using the radial arm maze test. Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) levels in the pons medulla, hippocampus, striatum and frontal cortex were measured as a cholinergic marker of learning and memory. Results indicate that in comparison to normotensive rats, renal hypertensive rats committed significantly higher number of errors and took more trials and days to learn the radial arm maze learning and exhibited memory deficit in the radial arm maze retrieval after two weeks of retention interval, indicating impaired acquisition and memory. Treatment with enalapril, losartan and their combination attenuated the observed memory deficits indicating a possible role of renin angiotensin system in cognitive function. AChE level was reduced in hippocampus and frontal cortex of renal hypertensive rats which could be attributed to the observed memory deficit in hypertensive rats. It can be concluded that, renal hypertensive rats had a poor acquisition, retrieval of the learned behavior, perhaps a possible disturbance in memory consolidation process and that this state was reversed with ACE inhibitor enalapril and AT 1 receptor antagonist losartan.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 247-253

 

Effect of licofelone against NSAIDs-induced gastrointestinal ulceration and inflammation

Vijay Pal Singh, Chandrashekhar S Patil & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of licofelone, a dual inhibitor of cycloxygenase1/2-5-lipoxygenase against indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats and mice in order to assess the role of leukotrienes if any, in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced gastrointestinal inflammation. Acute pretreatment with licofelone reversed the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, neutrophil adhesion in mesentery venules, neutrophil count in blood, lipid peroxides and vascularity in the stomachs of mice and rats. Further, chronic pretreatment of licofelone also prevented indomethacin-induced gastric morphological changes and cellular infiltration in mesentery venules. Moreover, acute administration of indomethacin elevated leukotriene B4 levels in gastric mucosa, which was reversed by pretreatment with licofelone The results suggest that licofelone offered gastroprotection against NSAIDs-induced gastropathy through its effect on leukotrienes and by inhibiting extravasation of neutrophils.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 254-258 

 

In vivo effect of whole grain flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) on rat dermal wound healing

Prashant S Hegde, Anitha B & T S Chandra

 

Influence of finger millet and kodo millet on rat dermal wound healing was assessed by making a 4 cm2 (2 ´ 2 cm) excision wound on the shaven back of rats under ether anesthesia. Finger millet or kodo millet flour (300 mg) as aqueous paste was applied topically once daily for 16 days. The granulation tissue formed on day 4, 8 and 12 was used to estimate some biochemical parameters like protein, DNA, collagen and lipid peroxides. There was significant increase in protein and collagen contents and decrease in lipid peroxides. Biophysical parameters like rate of contraction and number of days for epithelialization were also studied. Rate of contraction was 88-90% in kodo millet and finger millet treated rats in comparison to 75% in untreated rats. The number of days for complete closure of wounds was lower for finger millet (13 days) and kodo millet (14 days) treated rats in comparison to untreated (16 days) rats. The results implicate a possible therapeutical role for finger millet and kodo millet in accelerating the process of wound healing.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 259-263

 

Influence of zinc on the status of hepatic trace elements and biokinetics of 65Zn in ethanol treated rats

D Dhawan, A Pathak, Vijayta Dani, R Pathak & A Mahmood

 

Whole body counting studies of 65Zn indicated that the Tb1 (the faster component) was significantly decreased while the slower component (Tb2) was increased significantly following ethanol treatment. Interestingly, following zinc treatment to ethanol treated rats, slower component (Tb2) of 65Zn came back to within normal limits while the faster component (Tb1) got significantly elevated in comparison to ethanol treatment. Percent uptake values of 65Zn were found to be increased in liver, intestine, muscle, brain and kidney, and decreased in bone under alcoholic conditions. Interestingly, the uptake values of 65Zn in all the organs except muscle were reverted back to within normal limits upon zinc supplementation to these ethanol intoxicated animals. A significant decrease in zinc contents was noticed in ethanol treated rats, which, however, were raised to normal levels upon zinc supplementation. Copper levels, on the other hand, were significantly enhanced in both ethanol fed and combined ethanol + zinc treated rats. Calcium levels were significantly decreased in both ethanol and zinc treated rats, which however were further reduced upon zinc supplementation to ethanol fed rats. However, no significant change was observed in the concentrations of sodium and potassium in any of the treatment groups. In conclusion, zinc appears to play a protective role by normalizing the turnover of 65Zn in whole body as well as in its uptake in different organs under alcoholic conditions.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 264-267

 

Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats

S Sivalokanathan, M Ilayaraja & M P Balasubramanian

 

The effect of ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar albino rats were studied. The plasma and liver glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aldolase were significantly increased in cancer induced animals while glyconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase was decreased. These enzymes were reverted significantly to near normal range in treated animals after oral administration of T. arjuna for 28 days. The modulation of the enzymes constitute the depletion of energy metabolism leads to inhibition of cancer growth. This inhibitory activity may be due to the anticancer activity of constituents present in the ethanolic extract of T. arjuna.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 268-271

 

Effect of glurenorm on immunohistochemical changes in pancreatic β cells of rats in experimental diabetes

Meral Koyuturk, Ozlem Ozsoy-Sacan, Sehnaz Bolkent & Refiye Yanardag

 

Immunohistochemical localization of islets of Langerhans of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic + glurenorm (10 mg/kg, po) treated female albino rats revealed increase in number of β cells and insulin immunoreactivity of β cells. The results suggest that glurenorm can cause the stimulation of β cells of endocrine pancreas in diabetic rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 272-276

 

Restriction analysis of conserved and variable regions of VP2 gene of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus serotype 1

Swati Dahiya, G Prasad, Minakshi & Ramesh C Kovi

 

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of Orbivirus genus in family Reoviridae. The virus genome is composed of 10 double-stranded RNA segments. The RNA segment L2 encodes an outer capsid viral protein VP2, which is the main determinant of neutralization and serotype-specific immune response. BTV serotype 1 (BTV-1) specific novel primer pair was designed using VP2 gene sequences available in GenBank to amplify 1240-1844 bp region because two hypervariable and three conserved regions have been reported within these 604 nucleotides. This primer pair successfully amplified cell culture adapted six Indian isolates of BTV-1 from different geographical regions of the country. The 604 bp PCR product of VP2 gene of all six BTV-1 yielded two fragments of 273 and 331 bp when digested with Taq1 restriction enzyme. This indicated that there is only one TaqI site at 1513 bp (within 1240-1844 bp region) of VP2 gene of BTV-1 Indian isolates. The in silico restriction analysis revealed that in BTV-1 South African isolate (BTV-1SA) there is no TaqI site while in BTV-1 Australian isolates (BTV-1AUS), there are two TaqI sites (at 1513 and 1567 bp) within 1240-1844 bp region of VP2 gene. The earlier reported VP2 gene based primer pair for BTV-1 was used in the present study to amplify 2242-2933 bp region of six BTV-1 Indian isolates as three conserved regions have been reported within these 691 nucleotides. The digestion of 691 bp PCR products with XmnI yielded three fragments of 364, 173 and 154 bp with all the six Indian isolates of BTV-1 suggesting that there are two XmnI sites within 2242-2933 bp region of VP2 gene. A single XmnI site was observed in silico in BTV-1AUS and BTV-1SA isolates at different positions within this region. The in vitro and in silico restriction profile analyses of partial VP2 gene sequences using TaqI and XmnI restriction enzymes indicated a close relationship of Indian isolates of BTV-1 with BTV-1AUS isolates but not with BTV-1SA isolate.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 277-279

 

A simple method for efficient extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Geitler

S Uday Bhaskar, G Gopalaswamy & R Raghu

 

Phycocyanin is a major light harvesting accessory pigment of red algae and cyanobacteria. In the light of its many commercial applications in food and pharmaceutical industry, purity of the pigment plays a major role. Pharmaceutical industry demands a highly pure phycocyanin with A620/280 ratio of 4 and food industry a ratio of 2. In the present study phycocyanin was extracted in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7) after macerating in liquid nitrogen. The crude phycocyanin thus extracted was precipitated with 50% ammonium sulphate, purified by dialysis and finally by gel filtration chromatography. Pure phycocyanin was finally obtained with an A620/A280 value of 4.98.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 280-285

 

In vitro propagation of Dendrobium hybrids using flower stalk node explants

K P Martin, Julie Geevarghese, Dominic Joseph & Joseph Madassery

 

Large-scale in vitro propagation protocol for Dendrobium hybrids Sonia 17 and 28, two highly prized commercial cut flower cultivars through shoot multiplication using flower stalk node explants and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) formation was accomplished. Both hybrids did not exhibit significant differences in initiation, multiplication, rooting, and field establishment. Flower stalk nodes cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6.97 mM kinetin (Kn), or 15% coconut water (CW) or 13.3 mM of N6-benzyladenine (BA) evoked bud break. Kn showed better growth of the initiated bud. Excision and culture of the initiated shoots on medium having same amount of Kn developed more than 5 shoots per shoot directly from the base. Subsequent culture enhanced the rate of shoot induction. Transfer of isolated shoots onto 44.4 mM of BA enriched medium displayed induction of more than 6 PLBs from the base within 60 days. PLBs underwent rapid multiplication upon transferral to medium having the same concentration of BA (44.4 mM). Subsequent culture increased the proliferation of PLBs. No decline was observed in the proliferation of shoots as well as PLBs up to 15th subculture. PLBs transferred onto half strength MS medium with 6.97 mM of Kn underwent conversion of more than 90% PLBs to shoots. The shoots were rooted at the best on half strength MS medium with 2 g l-1 activated charcoal. Survival rate of the plantlets of the two hybrid cultivars after acclimatization was more than 80%.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 286-290

 

Inter-specific hybridization between freshwater catfish Mystus cavasius (Ham & Buch) and M. seenghala (Sykes) by artificial fertilization

A Jesu Arockia Raj, M A Haniffa, S Seetharaman, P S Allen Benziger & Shybu Jacob

 

By employing the technique of induced ovulation for artificial fertilization, inter-specific hybrids between the threatened catfish species (Mystus cavasius × M. seenghala) were produced. Fertilization, hatching and survival were significantly different between control and hybrids. The hatching time of the hybrid was significantly lower than that of the control. The average performance viz., hatching time and viability of larvae of the control fish, was significantly better than that of the hybrids. In the hybrid cross, hatchlings were mostly deformed and abnormal and after yolk absorption ultimately succumbed.

 

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 291-293

 

In vivo induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) by lynestrenol

Yasir Hasan Siddique & Mohammad Afzal

 

Genotoxicity study of synthetic progestin lynestrenol, was carried out on mouse bone marrow cells using sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) as parameters. Lynestrenol was studied at three different doses (6.87, 13.75 and 27.50 mg/kg body wt.). SCE and CA increased significantly as compared to normal control when treated with lynestrenol at 13.75 and 27.50 mg/kg body wt. The present results suggest that lynestrenol has both a genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in mouse bone marrow cells.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, March 2005, pp. 294-296

 

Effect of nifedipine and amlodipine on dead space wound healing in rats

H N Bhaskar,  Saraswathi L Udupa and A L Udupa

  

Effect of two calcium channel blockers (CCBs) nifedipine and amlodipine, was studied on normal and steroid depressed wound healing in albino rats, using the dead space wound model.  The drugs enhanced normal healing as evidenced by increase in tensile strength of 10 days old granulation tissue.  There was neither a significant change in the hydroxyproline level (or collagen) nor a change in the glycosaminoglycan content in granulation tissue.   However, lysyloxidase level was increased significantly.  The increase in tensile strength could thus be attributed to better cross-linking and maturation of collagen rather than collagen synthesis per se.  The drugs were also able to overcome steroid depressed wound healing.  It is likely that the prohealing effects may be related to the improved antioxidant status too, since superoxide dismutase levels were observed to be higher in the CCB- treated animals.

 

Author Index

Afzal Mohammad

291

Haniffa M A

286

Ozsoy-Sacan Ozlem

268

Ahamed K F Haja Nazeer

241

 

 

 

 

Anitha B

254

Hegde Prashant S

254

Padhi Bijay Kumar

233

 

 

 

 

Pathak A

259

Balasubramanian M P

264

Ilayaraja M

264

Pathak R

259

Benziger P S Allen

286

 

 

Patil Chandrashekhar S

247

Bhaskar H N

294

Jacob Shybu

286

Prasad G

272

Bhaskar S Uday

277

Jayadev S

241

 

 

Bolkent Sehnaz

268

Joseph Dominic

280

Raghu R

277

 

 

 

 

Raj A Jesu Arockia

286

Chandra T S

254

Kalariya Mayur

233

Ramanathan M

241

Chougule Mahavir

233

Kovi Ramesh C

272

 

 

 

 

Koyuturk Meral

268

Seetharaman S

286

Dahiya Swati

272

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

247

Siddique Yasir Hasan

291

Dani Vijayta

259

Kumaran D

241

Singh Vijay Pal

247

Dhawan D

259

 

 

Sivalokanathan S

264

Diwan A D

209

Madassery Joseph

280

Srinivasan J

241

 

 

Mahmood A

259

Suresh B

241

Geevarghese Julie

280

Martin K P

280

 

 

Ghosh Juthika

224

Minakshi

272

Udupa A L

294

Gopalaswamy G

277

Misra Ambikanandan

233

Udupa Saraswathi L

294

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nath Panchanan

224

Yanardag Refiye

268

 

Keyword  Index

Acetylcholine esterase

241

Glurenorm (gliquidone)

268

Ovary

224

Amlodipine

294

Gonadotropin

224

 

 

Angiotensin

241

 

 

Paspalum scrobiculatum

254

Antioxidant

254, 294

Hepatic trace elements

259

PCR

272

Artificial fertilization

286

Hepatocellular carcinoma

264

C-Phycocyanin

277

 

 

High pressure homogenization technique

233

Protocom-like bodies

280

Bluetongue virus

272

Hormone

209

 

 

 

 

Hybridization

286

Renal hypertension

241

Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

264

 

 

Restriction analysis

272

Catfish

224, 286

Kodo millet

254

 

 

b-Cell

268

 

 

Serotype specific VP2 Gene

272

Chromosomal aberrations

291

Learning and memory

241

Shoot regeneration

280

Chronic eczema

233

Licofelone

247

Shrimp

209

Clobetasol propionate

233

Losartan

241

Sinus gland

209

Clonal propagation

280

LOX

247

Sister chromatid exchanges

291

Collagen

254

LTB4

247

Solid lipid nanoparticles

233

 

 

Lynestrenol

291

 

 

Diabetes mellitus

268

 

 

Terminalia arjuna

264

Dialysis

277

Mean flux

233

 

 

 

 

Melatonin

224

Vitellogenin

224

Eleusine coracana

254

Mouse bone marrow cells

291

 

 

Enalapril

241

Mystus cavasius

286

Wound healing

254, 294

Endocrine pancreas

268

Mystus seenghala

286

 

 

Ethanol

259

 

 

X-organ

209

 

 

Neurotransmitter

209

 

 

Finger millet

254

Neutrophil

247

Yolky oocytes

224

Free radicals

254

Nifedipine

294

Y-organ

209

 

 

NSAIDs

247

 

 

Gastric ulceration

247

 

 

65Zn biokinetics

259

Gel electrophoresis

277

Orbivirus

272

 

 

Genotoxicity

291

Orchids

280