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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(5)  385-478  (2005)

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 5

MAY 2005

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Tumor vaccine: Current trends in antigen specific immunotherapy

389

Rathindranath Baral

 

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of glutamine analogue-acivicin on tumor induced angiogenesis in Ehrlich

ascites carcinoma

407

Subhadra Roy & Putul Maity

 

 

 

Sheep erythrocyte demonstrated better effect than IL-2 and IFN-g as biological

response modifier against glioma in experimental model

414

Susobhan Sarkar, Anirban Ghosh, Shukla Dutta, Ram Uday Roy, Zarina Begum, Joydeep Mukherjee, Samares Chaudhuri & Swapna Chaudhuri

 

 

 

Anti-lipidperoxidative role of exogenous dehydroepiendrosterone (DHEA) administration in normal ageing rat brain

420

Nupur Sinha, N Z Baquer & Deepak Sharma

 

 

 

Acute analgesic effect of loperamide as compared to morphine after intrathecal administration in rat

425

Subrata Basu Ray, Dilip Verma & Shashi Wadhwa

 

 

 

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity and DNA synthesis in Wistar rats

430

Sarwat Sultana, Salahuddin Ahmad, Naghma Khan & Tamanna Jahangir

 

 

 

Nutraceutical effects of garlic oil, its nonpolar fraction and a Ficus flavonoids as compared to vitamin E in CCl4 induced liver damage in rats

437

K T Augusti, Anuradha, S P Prabha, K B Smitha, M Sudheesh, Anu George & M C Joseph

 

 

 

Effect of chronic ethanol administration on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzyme activity in rats

445

M Maneesh, H Jayalekshmi, Sanjiba Datta, Amit Chakrabarti & D M Vasudevan

 

 

 

Effect of sublethal levels of nitrite on some blood parameters of juvenile Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan)

450

Subhendu Acharya, Tanusree Dutta & Manas Kr Das

 

 

Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila

455

Paras Kumar Mishra & B N Singh

 

 

 

Molecular tagging of gene conferring leaf blight resistance using microsatellites in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

462

Mukta Mittal & K S Boora

 

 

 

Characterization of an exopolysccharide produced by a marine Enterobacter cloacae

467

Anita Iyer, Kalpana Mody & Bhavanath Jha

 

 

 

Phytopesticidal and repellent efficacy of Litsea salicifolia (Lauraceae) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

472

S Phukan & M C Kalita

 

 

 

Note

 

Comparative protein profiles of Salmonella and Escherichia coli

475

Meenal Gupta, V D Sharma & R S Gupta

 

Author Index

Keyword Index

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 389-406

 

 

Review Article

 

Tumor vaccine: Current trends in antigen specific immunotherapy

Rathindranath Baral

 

Effective cancer treatment to prevent the tumor growth as well as to stop its recurrence is the dream of oncologists. Currently available therapeutic measures like, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, often suffer from severe toxicity and lack of specificity of the drug towards tumor cells. Another promising approach is the ‘immunotherapy’, in which either the immune system is activated by tumor vaccine to combat the tumor growth or antitumor antibodies can be used. Vaccination can stimulate humoral, cellular and innate immune systems to generate various effector molecules, like antibody, cytotoxic T cells, cytokines etc. In antigen specific immunotherapy, the immune system can be stimulated actively by antigen based tumor vaccine to kill only those tumor cells, having expression of the particular tumor associated antigen. Different experimental, preclinical and clinical studies have proved that generated immune responses are effective to restrict the tumor growth. Useful strategies of antigen specific immunotherapy and outcome of various laboratory and clinic based studies are discussed.

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 407-413

 

Papers

 

Effect of glutamine analogue-acivicin on tumor induced angiogenesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

Subhadra Roy & Putul Maity

 

The inhibition of tumor growth and tumor induced angiogenesis by the glutamine antimetabolite acivicin was evaluated in 6-7 weeks old male Swiss albino mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) transplanted by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of EAC cells. Treatment involving ip injections with two different doses of acivicin (0.05 and 0.4µg/g body weight/day) in saline revealed decrease in tumor volumes and reduced number of blood vessels on peritoneal wall after 10 and 15 days of treatment when compared to control (i.e. injected with saline only). Vascular hyperpermeability was found to be lesser in the treated groups of mice than the control as indicated by the FITC- D and colloidal carbon assay. Serum VEGF level was found to decrease in the drug treated groups both after 10 and 15 days of treatment. The results thus suggest that acivicin may suppress tumoral angiogenesis through regulation of VEGF level. 

 

 

 

 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 414-419

 

  

Sheep erythrocyte demonstrated better effect than IL-2 and IFN-g as biological response modifier against glioma in experimental model

Susobhan Sarkar, Anirban Ghosh, Shukla Dutta, Ram Uday Roy, Zarina Begum, Joydeep Mukherjee, Samares Chaudhuri &

Swapna Chaudhuri

 

The significant insights into the immunobiology of central nervous system (CNS) and brain tumor have opened up the feasibility of applying ‘Immunotherapy’ as an alternative to the poor prognosis of malignant brain tumor with conventional therapeutic approaches. Though cytokines like IL-2 and IFN-γ used against glioma showed some favorable results by eliciting Th1 type immune response, a proper immunotherapeutic agent is still to be searched for. Sheep erythrocyte (SRBC), a corpuscular antigen showed a better therapeutic efficacy in terms of enhanced survival and augmentation of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in a glioma model developed by chemical carcinogen ethyl nitrosourea. Histological findings revealed most efficient glioma rejection in SRBC and combination biological response modifier (BRM) treated groups. Simultaneously E-rosetting, cytotoxicity of lymphocytes, phagocytosis and antigen presenting capacity of myeloid cells established the better therapeutic efficacy of SRBC alone than other BRMs viz. IL-2 and IFN-γ. Even the effect of combination therapy of different BRMs showed marginal differences in facilitating glioma reduction than the single use of SRBC. These findings emphasized the application of SRBC as an exogenous BRM having the potential as a rational therapeutic adjunct against glioma.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 420-424

 

Anti-lipidperoxidative role of exogenous dehydroepiendrosterone (DHEA) administration in normal ageing rat brain

Nupur Sinha, N Z Baquer & Deepak Sharma

 

Effects of exogenous dehydroepiendrosterone (DHEA) administration on the levels of lipid proxidation products,
malondialdyde (MDA)-a thiobarbuteric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in different brain regions viz. cerebral cortex, hippocampus cerebellum, and brain stem of 12 and 22 months old rats were studied. DHEA treatment significantly depressed TBARS and 4-HNE in all the brain regions studied, in both the age group rats. Interestingly, the magnitude of decrease was higher in the 22 months old rats than that in 12 months old rats. The results suggest that older the animal, better will be the response of exogenous DHEA administration against age-related peroxidative
products.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 425-429

 

Acute analgesic effect of loperamide as compared to morphine after intrathecal administration in rat

Subrata Basu Ray, Dilip Verma & Shashi Wadhwa

 

Loperamide, a mu opioid receptor agonist, which is commonly used as an antidiarrhoeal agent has been reported to possess analgesic activity after intrathecal administration. However, the exact analgesic profile, i.e., onset, duration and intensity of analgesia in relation to morphine is not fully known. In the present study, the acute analgesic effect of loperamide (5 μg) was compared with that of morphine (5 μg) and morphine + loperamide (5 μg of each) using the tail flick method after intrathecal administration. Naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversibility of the analgesic effect was also studied. The analgesic response of loperamide was significantly higher than morphine. Even after 22 hr, maximum possible effect was greater than 49%. Naloxone partially antagonized the analgesic effect of loperamide. This suggested that loperamide may be acting through blockade of Ca2+ channels besides activating mu opioid receptors. Loperamide may prove to be a better substitute for morphine as spinal analgesic.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 430-436

 

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity and DNA synthesis in Wistar rats

Sarwat Sultana, Salahuddin Ahmad, Naghma Khan & Tamanna Jahangir

 

A single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, po in corn oil) increased the levels of SGOT (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), glutathione-S-transferase and depletion in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. It also caused enhancement in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA synthesis. There was also pathological deterioration of hepatic tissue as evident from multivacuolated hepatocytes containing fat globules around central vein. The pretreatment of E. officinalis for 7 consecutive days showed a profound pathological protection to liver cell as depicted by univacuolated hepatocytes. Pretreatment with E. officinalis at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, prior to CCl4 intoxication showed significant reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT, LDH, glutathione-S-transferase , LPO and DNA synthesis. There was also increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The results suggest that E. officinalis inhibits hepatic toxicity in Wistar rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 437-444

  

Nutraceutical effects of garlic oil, its nonpolar fraction and a Ficus flavonoid as compared to vitamin E in CCl4 induced liver damage in rats

K T Augusti, Anuradha, S P Prabha, K B Smitha, M Sudheesh, Anu George & M C Joseph

 

Carbon tetrachloride feeding (3.2g/kg/72hr) for one month increased significantly the serum and tissue lipid profile and deranged the enzyme levels viz; alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, glutathione reductase, HMGCoA reductase, catalase, gluc.6.PDH and malic enzyme in rats.  Simultaneously the lipid peroxidation level in liver was also raised.  On administration of garlic oil and its major nonpolar fraction (NPFGO) and a flavonoid isolated from the bark of Ficus bengalensis Linn, viz; leucopelargonin derivative respectively to different groups(100mg/kg/day) the deleterious effects of CCl4 were significantly ameliorated.  The liver damage by CCl4 was satisfactorily prevented by these samples as effectively as Vit. E (50 mg/kg/day).  The results  prove that important nutraceuticals (phytonutrients) like bioflavonoids and theols i.e. allylic sulphide rich fractions give protection from toxins like CCl4.  The order of beneficial effects of the drugs are Leucopelargonin > NPFGO > Garlic oil and their effects are comparable to that of vitamin E used at a minimal dose.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 445-449

 

Effect of chronic ethanol administration on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzyme activity in rats

M Maneesh, H Jayalekshmi, Sanjiba Dutta, Amit Chakrabarti & D M Vasudevan

 

In order to find out the effect of chronic ethanol administration on testicular antioxidant system and steroidogenic enzyme activity, male rats fed with ethanol 1.6g/kg body weight per day for four weeks were studied. Besides a drastic reduction in body and testis weight, there was decrease in ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in the testicular tissue of the treated animals. Simultaneously, there was increase in lipid peroxidation and glutathione S-transferase activity. Activities of 3 β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 17 β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase were also found decreased in the treated animals. The results indicate that chronic ethanol administration resulted in increase in oxidative stress and decrease in the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the rat testes.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 450-454

 

Effect of sublethal levels of nitrite on some blood parameters of juvenile Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan)

Subhendu Acharya, Tanusree Dutta & Manas Kr Das

 

Juveniles of L. rohita were exposed to sublethal levels of nitrite (0.02, 0.1 and 0.4 mg/l) for 2, 24, 48 and 96 hr. The time of exposure at individual concentrations of nitrite did not show any significant difference in haemoglobin, cortisol, chloride and lactic acid. Haematocrit showed significant reduction with increasing concentration of nitrite irrespective of duration of exposure. Fishes exposed to 0.4 mg/l nitrite showed significantly high levels of glucose beyond 2 hr. The mean erythrocytic fragility of fishes exposed to the 3 concentrations of nitrite for 3 exposure periods showed significant higher sensitivity to osmotic stress. The results suggest decrease in haematocrit and cell wall strength of erythrocytes creating stress to fish.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 455-461

 

Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila

Paras Kumar Mishra & B N Singh

 

The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinatamalerkotliana and parabipectinata malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 462-466

 

Molecular tagging of gene conferring leaf blight resistance using microsatellites in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

Mukta Mittal & K S Boora

 

Resistance to leaf blight in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] accession G-118 was found to segregate as a single dominant trait in a cross to susceptible cultivar, HC-136. Molecular marker(s) linked to the locus for disease resistance was identified using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers coupled with bulk segregant analysis. Genomic DNA from the parental cultivars and bulks were screened by PCR amplification with 50 simple sequence repeat primer pairs. Out of these, 38 SSR primers produced polymorphism between parents. After screening of these 38 SSRs with resistant and susceptible bulk, one SSR primer, Xtxp 309 produced a unique band of approximately 700 bp only in resistant parent and resistant bulk and a unique band of 450 bp only in susceptible parent and susceptible bulk. Upon screening with individual resistant and susceptible recombinant inbred lines (RILs), marker Xtxp 309 produced amplification in 23 of the 26 resistant RILs and no amplification was produced in any of the 25 susceptible RILs. The same marker Xtxp 309 produced amplification in 21 of the susceptible RILs and 3 of the resistant RILs of 450 bp band. This was found to be located at a distance of 3.12 cM away from the locus governing resistance to leaf blight which was considered to be closely linked and 7.95 cM away from the locus governing susceptibility to leaf blight. This marker may prove useful in MAS for gene introgression, plant genetic diagnostics and gene pyramiding for resistance via genetic transformation for disease resistance in plants.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 467-471

 

Characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by a marine Enterobacter cloacae

Anita Iyer, Kalpana Mody & Bhavanath Jha

 

An exopolysaccharide producing marine bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae, was isolated from marine sediment collected from Gujarat coast, India. Chemical investigation of exopolysaccharide (EPS 71a) revealed that this exopolysaccharide was an acidic polysaccharide containing high amount of uronic acid, fucose and sulfate which is rare for bacterial exopoly-saccharides. EPS 71a was found to have fucose, galactose, glucose and glucuronic acid in a molar ratio of 2 : 1 : 1 : 1.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 472-474

 

Phytopesticidal and repellent efficacy of Litsea salicifolia (Lauraceae) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

S Phukan & M C Kalita

 

Litsea salicifolia is one of the many plants used as phytopesticide, traditionally by various tribes of Assam. Of the five extracts of L. salicifolia tested for the bioactivity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the aqueous extract was more effective compared to other extracts exhibiting bioactivity at 72 ppm against A. aegypti. The hexane extract (2000 ppm) exhibited 70% repellent activity for 3 hr against A.aegypti and 46% activity for 3 hr against C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the insecticidal properties of L. salicifolia which can be further developed as an eco-friendly biopesticides of the future.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 475-478  

 

Note

 

Comparative protein profiles of Salmonella and Escherichia coli

Meenal Gupta, V D Sharma & R S Gupta

 

Protein profiles of selected Salmonella serovars were compared with E. coli to identify genus specific protein(s) for Salmonella. The PDP formed of different Salmonella serovars were compared with E. coli O78 when subjected to SDS-PAGE yielded 11, 15, 15, 11 and 14 bands in S. Bareilly, S. Gallinarum, S. Typhimurium and S. Weltevreden and E. coli O78 respectively. The bands produced were compared with each other. It was found that S. Weltevreden shared 7 bands with E. coli O78, A protein of molecular weight 20.89 kDa was found in all Salmonella serovars, but not in E. coli O78 suggesting its genus specific attribute.

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Acharya Subhendu

450

George Anu

437

Phukan S

472

Ahmad Salahuddin

430

Ghosh Anirban

414

Prabha S P

437

Anuradha

437

Gupta Meenal

475

 

 

Augusti K T

437

Gupta R S

475

Ray Subrata Basu

425

 

 

 

 

Roy Ram Uday

414

Baquer N Z

420

Iyer Anita

467

Roy Subhadra

407

Baral  Rathindranath

389

 

 

 

 

Begum Zarina

414

Jahangir Tamanna

430

Sarkar Susobhan

414

Boora K S

462

Jayalekshmi H

445

Sharma Deepak

420

 

 

Jha Bhavanath

467

Sharma V D

475

Chakrabarti Amit

445

Joseph M C

437

Singh B N

455

Chaudhuri Samares

414

 

 

Sinha Nupur

420

Chaudhuri Swapna

414

Kalita M C

472

Smitha K B

437

 

 

Khan Naghma

430

Sudheesh M

437

Das Manas Kr

450

 

 

Sultana Sarwat

430

Datta Sanjiba

445

Maity Putul

407

 

 

Dutta Shukla

414

Maneesh M

445

Vasudevan D M

445

Dutta Tanusree

450

Mishra Paras Kumar

455

Verma Dilip

425

 

 

Mittal Mukta

462

 

 

 

 

Mody Kalpana

467

Wadhwa Shashi

425

 

 

Mukherjee Joydeep

414

 

 

 

 
Keyword Index

 

Acivicin

407

Fucose

467

Marine bacteria

467

Ageing

420

 

 

Microsatellites

462

Analgesia

425

Galactose

467

Molecular tagging

462

Angiogenesis

407

Garlic oil

437

Morphine

425

Antibody

389

Gene

462

Mosquito

472

Antigen

389

Genetic analysis

455

Mu-opioid receptor

425

Anti-lipidperoxidation

420

Glioma

414

 

 

Antioxidants

445

Glucose

467

Nitrite

450

 

 

Glucuronic acid

467

NPFGO

437

Bacteria

467

 

 

Nutraceuticals

437

Blood

450

Hepatic toxicity

430

 

 

Brain

420

Hybrid male sterility

455

Protein

475

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calcium channel antagonist

425

IFN-g

414

Rat

420, 445

Carbon tetrachloride

430, 437

IL-2

414

Repellant

472

Cefotaxime

475

Immunotherapy

389, 414

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salmonella

475

Dehydroepiendrosterone

420

Labeo rohita

450

Sorghum bicolor

462

DHEA

420

Larvicide

472

SRBC

414

Drosophila

455

Leaf blight resistance

462

Steroids

445

 

 

Leucopelargonin

437

Stress

450

Ehrlich ascites tumor

407

Lipid

437

 

 

Emblica officinalis

430

Litsea salicifolia

472

Testes

445

Enterobacter cloacae

467

Loperamide

425

Tumor

389

Erythrocytes

450

 

 

 

 

Ethanol

445

 

 

Vaccine

389

Exopolysaccharides

467

 

 

Vitamin E

437