Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

Total visitors: 2,270  since 07-11-05

 

ISSN : 0019-5189

             CODEN : IJEB (A6) 43(10)                                   841-932 (2005)

VOLUME 43

                NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2005

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Protective effect of coenzyme Q 10 in simvastatin and gemfibrozil induced rhabdomyolysis in rats
Mamta Farswan, S P Rathod, A B Upaganlawar & Arvind Semwal
[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

845

Pharmacological studies on mechanisms of aminophylline-induced seizures in rats
Arunabha Ray, Kavita Gulati, Seema Anand & V K Vijayan

849

Enhanced erythrocytic lipid peroxides level in rabbits after repeated parental administration of iron
P Bhatt, D Swarup, R C Patra, A K Pattanaik & R Ranjan

854

Psychopharmacological profile of hydro-alcoholic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia leaves in mice and rats
Papiya Bigoniya & A C Rana
[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

859

Hypolipidaemic efficacy of Capparis decidua fruit and shoot extracts in cholesterol fed rabbits
Ashok Purohit & Keshav Bihari Vyas
[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A61P]

863

Identification of novel indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates
A Mahalakshmi, R Shenbagarathai & K Sujatha

867

Effect of sodium nitroprusside on H+ -ATPase activity and ATP concentration in Candida albicans
Mohammad Mahfuzul Haque, Pooja, Nikhar Manzoor, Luqman A Khan & Seemi Farhat Basir

873

Chemical properties and NMR spectroscopic identification of certain fungal siderophores
Arefa Baakza, B P Dave & H C Dube

880

Improvement of xylanase production in solid state fermentation by alkali¾ tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus MKUI using a fractional factorial design
S Thiagarajan, M Jeya & P Gunasekaran

 

887

Production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes by a biocontrol strain of Bacillus subtilis AF 1
K Manjula & A R Podile

892

Isolation of 4-aminopyridine resistant mutants affecting alkali-insoluble glucan content of cell walls in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Sukhdeep Gill, Balwant Singh & Sham Sunder

 

897

Mating success of males with and without wing patch in Drosophila biarmipes
S N Hegde, B K Chethan & M S Krishna

902

Involvement of oxyradicals in promotion/inhibition of expansion growth in cucumber cotyledons
Sunita Kataria, Karishma Jain & K N Guruprasad

910

 

In vitro multiple shoot regeneration and plant production in Alysicarpus rugosus DC. var. heyneanus Baker
S V Bhosle, R J Thengane & S R Thengane
[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A01H]

 

916

Carbon source dependent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR2 through suspension cultures
M Ganesan & N Jayabalan

[IPC Code: Int Cl7 A01H]

 

921

Notes

 

Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of Ganoderma applanatum

Krishnendu Acharya, Parinita Yonzone, Manjula Rai & Rupa Acharya

926

Propagation of Chandipura virus in chick embryos
S D Pawar, A Singh, S V Gangodkar & B L Rao

930

Announcement

 

International Conference on Biodiversity of Insects: Challenging Issues in Management and Conservation


844

Announcement

International Conference on

Biodiversity of Insects: Challenging Issues in Management and Conservation

30 January – 3 February 2006, Coimbatore, India

Organised under the auspices of the Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, the conference will cover the following themes: (i) Insect conservation and taxonomy, (ii) Biodiversity and molecular systematics of insects, (iii) Biodiversity and management of agricultural insects, (iv) Biodiversity, management and conservation of forestry insects, (v) Biodiversity and management of medical and veterinary insects, and (vi) Biodiversity and biotechnological advancement in insects. For further details, please contact: Dr K Murugan, Organizing Secretary, Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Phone: 91-422-2422222, Ext.: 481-484 (O), Telefax: 91-422-2425015 (R), Fax: 91-422-2422387, 2425706, Mobile: 91-9894832849, E-mail: kmvvk@yahoo.com; kmvvk@rediffmail.com.

Erratum

Glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, does not enhance radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes and splenocytes in vitro, by R K Swamy, J Manickam, J S Adhikari & B S Dwarakanath, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol.43, August 2005, pp.686-692.

The caption for Fig.1 may be read as "Viability assay for thymocytes by flowcytometry. Propidium iodide stained live (unfixed) cells were analysed by flowcytometry following treatment with 2-DG alone or in combination with radiation (2 Gy)".

 

Author Index

Farswan Mamta

845

Rathod S P

845

Semwal Arvind

845

Upaganlawar A B

845

Anand Seema

849

Gulati Kavita

849

Ray Arunabha

849

Vijayan V K

849

Bhatt P

854

Patra R C

854

Pattanaik A K

854

Ranjan R

854

Swarup D

854

Bigoniya Papiya

859

Rana A C

859

Purohit Ashok

863

Vyas Keshav Bihari

863

Mahalakshmi A

867

Shenbagarathai R

867

Sujatha K

867

Basir Seemi Farhat

873

Haque Mohammad Mahfuzul

873

Khan Luqman A

873

Manzoor Nikhar

873

Pooja

873

Baakza Arefa

880

Dave B P

880

Dube H C

880

Gunasekaran P

887

Jeya M

887

Thiagarajan S

887

Manjula K

892

Podile

892

Gill Sukhdeep

897

Singh Balwant

897

Sunder Sham

897

Chethan B K

902

Hegde S N

902

Krishna M S

902

Guruprasad K N

910

Jain Karishma

910

Kataria Sunita

910

Bhosle S V

916

Thengane R J

916

Thengane S R

916

Ganesan M

921

Jayabalan N

921

Acharya Krishnendu

926

Acharya Rupa

926

Rai Manjula

926

Yonzone Parinita

926

Gangodkar S V

930

Pawar S D

930

Rao B L

930

Singh A

930

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Coenzyme Q10

845

Gemfibrozil

845

Prooxidant

845

Rhabdomyolysis

845

Simvastatin

845

Aminophylline

849

Seizures

849

Iron overload

854

Liqid peroxides

854

Rabbit

854

Superoxide dismutase

854

Anti-convulsant

859

Anti-psychotic

859

Anxiolytic

859

Euphorbia nerifolia

859

Steroidal saponin

859

Antiatherosclerotic

863

Atherogenic index

863

Capparis decidua

863

Cholesterol

863

Hypolipidaemic

863

Bacillus thuringiensis

867

Internally Transcribed Spacers (ITS)

867

Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP-PCR) sequences

867

ATP

873

Candida albicans

873

H+-ATPase

873

Nitric oxide

873

Nutrients

873

Sodium nitroprusside

873

Amino acids 880

Fungi

880

Siderophores

880

Fractional factorial design

887

Solid-state fermentation

887

Wheat bran

887

Xylan

887

Xylanase production

887

Bacillus subtilis

892

Biocontrol

892

Fungal cell wall

892

Wall degrading enzyme

892

Cell integrity pathway

897

Cell lysis mutants

897

Cell wall

897

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

897

Courtship

902

Drosophila biarmipes

902

Male wing patch

902

Mating success

902

Cucumber cotyledons

910

Cytokinins

910

Expansion growth

910

Hydro-oxyradical

910

Superoxide radical

910

UV-B stress

910

Alysicarpus rugosus

916

Multiple Shoot regeneration

916

Carbon source

921

Cotton

921

Eimbryoids

921

Regeneration Suspension culture

921

Antioxidant 926

Ganoderma applanatum

926

Nitric oxide synthase

926

Chandipura virus

930

Chick embryos

930

Propagation 930
Oxidative stress 845

Oxidative stress

849

Oxidative stress 854
Antioxidant 845
Antioxidant 849

Antioxidant

854

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 845-848

 

Protective effect of coenzyme Q10 in simvastatin and gemfibrozil induced rhabdomyolysis in rats

Mamta Farswan, S P Rathod, A B Upaganlawar & Arvind Semwal

Received 10 December 2004; revised 10 June 2005

Administration of simvastatin (80 mg/kg, po. evening dose) and gemfibrozil (600 mg/kg, po twice) for 30 days produced significant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and increase in the level of lipid peroxidation and various serum parameters (creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen). This suggested involvement of oxidative stress in rhabdomyolysis. Increase in the level of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation and serum parameters after administration of antioxidant CoQ10 (10 mg/kg.ip) proved the protective effect of CoQ10 in rhabdomyolysis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 849-853

 

Pharmacological studies on mechanisms of aminophylline-induced seizures in rats

Arunabha Ray , Kavita Gulati , Seema Anand & V K Vijayan

Received 23 March 2005; revised 6 July 2005

In the present study, the possible role of free radicals in aminophylline–induced seizures was evaluated in albino rats. Aminophylline (theophylline in ethylene diamine; 50 – 300 mg/kg) induced convulsions in rats in a dose-dependent manner, and both incidence of seizure and mortality were maximum at 300 mg/kg. Conventional anti-epileptics, diphenylhydantoin and dizocilpine, as well as adenosine agonists were ineffective in antagonizing these seizures. On the other hand, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, pentoxyphylline and rolipram, showed insignificant seizurogenic effects. Pretreatment with antioxidants (ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and melatonin) showed differential attenuating effects on aminophylline seizures and lethality. Further, prior administration of l-buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO, glutathione depletor) and triethyltetramine (TETA, superoxide dismutase inhibitor), precipitated seizures and enhanced lethality in response to subthreshold doses of aminophylline. The present results suggested of the possible involvement of oxidative stress during aminophylline-induced seizures.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 854-858

 

Enhanced erythrocytic lipid peroxides level in rabbits after repeated parental administration of iron

P Bhatt, D Swarup, R C Patra, A K Pattanaik & R Ranjan

Received 15 March 2005; revised 25 April 2005

An             Experiment was conducted in rabbits to evaluate the possible involvement of oxidative stress in iron-overload animals. Ten adult female Newzealand white rabbits were divided into 2 equal groups with 5 animals each. Group II animals received intramuscular iron dextran injections (120 mg/kg body wt/day) on alternate day for 14 days (8 injections), while Group I animals did not receive any iron supplementation to serve as negative controls. The blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture before the start of iron dosing and thereafter, at weekly intervals for 28 days. The samples were processed to measure blood iron concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocytic lipid peroxide (LPO) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The blood iron concentration showed a rising trend following repeated iron administration, and the mean level recorded on day 14 was significantly higher than respective day 0 value. LPO level remained significantly higher from day 14 onwards till the end of the observation period of 14 more days after cessation of iron adminstration. Erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activities showed a transient significant rise on day 7, and thereafter, showed a declining trend, but remained statistically comparable to respective day 0 or corresponding value of the control animals.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 859-862

Psychopharmacological profile of hydro-alcoholic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia leaves in mice and rats

Papiya Bigoniya & A C Rana

Received 29 March 2004; revised 9 May 2005

The leaf extract of E. neriifolia significantly reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice at all doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in mice and rats and was devoid of catalepsic effect thereby, suggesting specific dopaminergic receptor modulating activity. The extract (400 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. It showed protection against maximal electro-shock-induced convulsion at 400 mg/kg. E. neriifolia leaf extract had anxiolytic action at 400 mg/kg by increasing the percentage of time spent in open arm in elevated plus-maze. The extract did not reverse scopolamine-induced amnesia on elevated plus-maze. It increased transfer latency at 200 and 400 mg/kg and also in combination with scopolamine. These results indicated anti-anxiety, anti-psychotic and anti-convulsant activity of E. neriifolia leaf extract in mice and rats. Phytochemical study showed the presence of steroidal saponin, reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids in the crude leaf extract

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 863-866

 

Hypolipidaemic efficacy of Capparis decidua fruit and shoot extracts in cholesterol fed rabbits

Ashok Purohit & Keshav Bihari Vyas

Received 20 August 2004; revised 1June 2005

High fat diet caused significant (8-fold) increase in serum total cholesterol in rabbits. Administration of C.decidua fruit extract (50% ethanolic) at the dose of 500mg/kg body weight significantly reduced serum total cholesterol (61%), LDL cholesterol (71%), triglycerides(32%) and phospholipids(25%). Similarly C.decidua shoot extract lowered serum total cholesterol (48%), LDL cholesterol (57%), triglycerides (38%) and phospholipids (36%).The cholesterol content of aorta was decreased by 44 and 28% in fruit and shoot extract treatment respectively. The HDL to total cholesterol ratio and atherogenic index was significantly decreased in plant extract treated groups suggesting antiatherosclerotic nature of these plant extract. These results reveal the hypolipidaemic potential of C. decidua fruit and shoot.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 867-872

 

Identification of novel indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates

A Mahalakshmi, R Shenbagarathai& K Sujatha

Received 20 October 2004; revised 26 April 2005

Internally Transcribed Spacers (ITS) characterization and distribution of Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP) sequences were studied in the genome of 223 field isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis from Madurai, India. They were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. One hundred and twenty four of a total 223 isolates fitted ITS characterization of B. thuringiensis varieties known. Significant genomic variation was observed among seven isolates using REP primers. The ITS PCR product (EMBL accession number AJ639659) exhibited 98% nucleotide sequence homology with B. thuringiensis and placed the origin of indigenous isolate LDC-7 closer to B. thuringiensis on the basis of phylogenetic analysis.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 873-879

 

Effect of sodium nitroprusside on H+-ATPase activity and ATP concentration in Candida albicans

Mohammad Mahfuzul Haque, Pooja, Nikhat Manzoor, Luqman A Khan & Seemi Farhat Basir

Received 15 September 2004; revised 5 July 2005

ATP hydrolysis by plasma membrane H+-ATPase from Candida albicans has been investigated in presence of nitric oxide and various nutrients (sugars and amino acids). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as nitric oxide donor. It was found that ATP concentration decreased in SNP treated cells which was more in presence of sugars like glucose, xylose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose and amino acids as compared to their respective controls. The activity of H+-ATPase from plasma membrane decreased by 70 % in SNP treated cells. Both in vivo and in vitro treatments of SNP showed almost similar effects of decrease in ATPase activity. Effect of SNP was more pronounced in presence of nutrients. Interestingly, it was observed that vanadate did not show any independent effect in presence of nitric oxide. Several workers have reported similar type of results with other P-type ATPases. For the first time, it was observed in the present study that in presence of nitric oxide, H+-ATPase activity decreased like other P-type ATPases. Our study indicated that NO had a significant effect on ATP synthesis and activity of H+- ATPase. In the presence of NO, the ATP concentration was decreased indicating it affected mitochondrial electron transport chain. It may be concluded that NO, not only affects (inhibit) mitochondrial electron transport chain but also interferes with H+- ATPase of plasma membrane by changing its conformation resulting in decreased activity.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 880-886

 

Chemical properties and NMR spectroscopic identification of certain fungal siderophores

Arefa Baakza, B P Dave & H C Dube

Received 19 January 2005; revised 25 April 2005

Siderophores of six fungi viz. Aspergillus sp. ABp4, Aureobacidium pullulans, Penicillium oxalicum, P. chrysosporium, Mycotypha africana and Syncephalastrum racemosum were examined for their (1) electrophoretic mobilities to determine the acidic, basic or neutral charge; (2) Fe (III) binding nature viz., mono-, di-, or trihydroxamate; (3) amino acid composition; and (4) NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy to determine their structure. Electrophoretic mobilities of siderophores of 3 fungi (P. oxalicum, P. chrysosporium, and M. africana) exhibited net basic charge, siderophores of 2 fungi (Aspergillus sp. ABp4 and S. racemosum) were acidic and 1 fungus (A. pullulans) was neutral. Electrophoresis of ferrated siderophore at pH 2 and colour of the spots indicated that siderophores of Aspergillus sp. ABp4 and P. oxalicum and A. pullulans were trihydroxamates, whereas siderophore of P. chrysosporium was dihydroxamate. Amino acid composition of siderophores purified by XAD-2 column chromatography, revealed the presence of asparagine, histidine, and proline in Aspergillus sp. ABp4, serine and alanine in P. chrysosporium, and valine in M. africana. The structure of purified siderophores as revealed by NMR spectroscopy identified siderophore of AB – 2670 (A. pullulans) as asperchrome F1, and AB–513 (M. africana) as rhizoferrin. The peak obtained for siderophore AB-5 (Aspergillus sp. ABp4) did not show resemblance to any known siderophore, therefore may be an exception.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 887-891

 

Improvement of xylanase production in solid state fermentation by alkali–tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus MKU1 using a fractional factorial design

S Thiagarajan, M Jeya & P Gunasekaran

Received 6 January 2005; revised 14 June 2005

Optimization of media for the maximum production of xylanase by Aspergillus fumigatus MKU1 was carried out using De Meo’s fractional factorial design with seven components such as NaNO3, K2HPO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, KCl, peptone and yeast extract. A. fumigatus produced a maximum of 700 U/gds of enzyme after 48 hr of incubation (before optimization). After two steps of optimization, the medium designed favoured a 2.8 fold (1950 U/gds) increase in xylanase production by A. fumigatus. Optimized medium for Aspergillus fumigatus contained (g/l) NaNO3, 15; K2HPO4, 15; MgSO4, 5; FeSO4, 0.009; KCl, 0.5; peptone, 20; and yeast extract, 10.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 892-896

 

Production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes by a biocontrol strain of Bacillus subtilis AF 1

K Manjula & A R Podile

Received 20 July 2004; revised 12 July 2005

Fungal cell wall degrading chitinases and glucanases attained significance in agriculture, medicine, and environment management. The present study was conducted to describe the optimum conditions required for the production of b -1,4-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and b -1,3-glucanase by a biocontrol strain of Bacillus subtilis AF 1. B. subtilis AF 1 was grown in minimal medium with colloidal chitin (3.0%) and yeast extract (0.3% YE ) and incubated at pH 7.0 and 30° C on constant shaker at 180 rpm for 6 days produced highest amounts of NAGase. Presence of 0.5 mM of phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and 0.04% of Tween 20 further improved the enzyme production. B. subtilis AF 1 grown in minimal medium with laminarin (1%) and yeast extract (0.3%) for 3 days produced maximum amount of b -1,3-glucanase. These conditions can be further scaled-up for large-scale production of NAGase and b -1,3-glucanase by B. subtilis AF 1.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 897-901

 

Isolation of 4-aminopyridine resistant mutants affecting alkali-insoluble glucan content of cell walls in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Sukhdeep Gill, Balwant Singh & Sham Sunder

Received 24 November 2004; revised 25 May 2005

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells when grown on synthetic medium plates containing 10 mM of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) undergo cell lysis. Using an ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis (EMS) screen, 4-AP resistant mutants (apr) were isolated which could grow on inhibitory concentration of 4-AP. Eighty mutants were obtained that were recessive, monogenic and formed two complementation groups. To identify genes, whose products might be interacting with the apr loci, extragenic suppressors were isolated, which reverted 4-AP resistance phenotype of apr mutants. The suppressors, when genetically characterized, were found to be recessive and represented two loci with overlapping functions. Representative alleles from apr mutants were analyzed for cell wall composition. They were found to have a higher amount of alkali-insoluble glucan signifying the role of alkali-insoluble glucan in cell wall maintenance.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp.902-909

 

Mating success of males with and without wing patch in Drosophila biarmipes

S N Hegde, B K Chethan & M S Krishna

Recived 14 March 2005; revised 5 August 2005

Some males of D. biarmipes¾ synonym of D. rajasekari and D. raychaudhuri have a black patch on the wing. The patch extends from the apical margin of wing to the third longitudinal vein. Field and laboratory studies have been carried out in D. biarmipes to study role of male’s wing patch in mating success. The field study shows that nature favors D. biarmipes males with patch. Although males without patch mated, males with patch have higher mating success suggesting the role of wing patch during courtship. Further, among mating males, males with patch had longer wings than males without patch. During courtship, males with patch oriented and mated faster; performed courtship acts such as tapping, scissoring, vibration, licking and twist dance more times than males without patch in both competitive and non-competitive situations. The results indicate that there is a casual relationship between the presence of wing patch, mating speed and success. Also there is a correlation between presence of wing patch, size of the flies and mating success.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 910-915

 

Involvement of oxyradicals in promotion/inhibition of expansion growth in cucumber cotyledons

Sunita Kataria, Karishma Jain & Guruprasad K N

Received 22 March 2005; revised 6 June 2005

Cytokinin-induced expansion growth of cucumber cotyledons and its interaction with UV-B (280–320 nm) was studied with reference to oxyradicals. UV-B radiation enhanced the level of oxyradicals in the cotyledons measured by EPR spectroscopy. Cytokinin promoted expansion growth was inhibited by UV-B radiation. Cytokinins reduced the level of oxyradicals in dark grown cotyledons, while promoting growth. Overproduction of oxyradicals by UV-B could not be fully accounted for the inhibition of growth of cotyledons, since quenching of radicals by cytokinins did not fully restore inhibition of growth.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 916-925

 

In vitro multiple shoot regeneration and plant production in Alysicarpus rugosus DC. var. heyneanus Baker

S V Bhosle, R J Thengane & S R Thengane

Received 30 December 2004; revised 13 June 2005

A protocol for in vitro multiple shoot regeneration and plant production through seedling (shoot tip) culture was established for Alysicarpus rugosus DC. var. heyneanus Baker. Maximum number of adventitious shoots (14.4) per shoot tip explant were initiated after two subcultures on MS solid medium supplemented with IAA (2.85 μM) plus BAP (2.22 μM) after 4 weeks. Shoot elongation (3.0–3.5 cm) was achieved on MS medium without any hormones. Stunted shoots elongated on half MS medium without growth hormones. Rooting occurred in MS medium containing IAA (1.14 – 2.85 μM) alone or in combination with IBA (0.89 – 2.46 μM) and or NAA (1.07 – 2.69 μM). Maximum rooting was established in MS medium supplemented with IAA (2.85 μM). The plants were acclimatized successfully with 55% survival in pot containing cocoa peat and sand (1:1). After a month, hardened plants were transferred to pots with manure, garden soil and sand (1:2:1) for further growth and finally planted in field.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 921-925

 

Carbon source dependent somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR2 through suspension cultures

M Ganesan & N Jayabalan

Received 17 August 2004; revised 9 May 2005

Highly reproducible and simple protocol for cotton somatic embryogenesis is described here by using different concentrations of maltose, glucose, sucrose and fructose. Maltose (30 g/l) is the best carbon source for embryogenic callus induction and glucose (30 g/l) was suitable for induction, maturation of embryoids and plant regeneration. Creamy white embryogenic calli of hypocotyl explants were formed on medium containing MS basal salts, myo-inositol (100 mg/l), thiamine HCl (0.3 mg/l), picloram (0.3 mg/l), Kin (0.1 mg/l) and maltose (30 g/l). During embryo induction and maturation, accelerated growth was observed in liquid medium containing NH3NO4 (1 g/l), picloram (2.0 mg/l), 2 ip (0.2 mg/l), Kin (0.1 mg/l) and glucose (30 g/l). Before embryoid induction, large clumps of embryogenic tissue were formed. These tissues only produced viable embryoids. Completely matured somatic embryos were germinated successfully on the medium fortified with MS salts, myo-inositol (50 mg/l), thiamine HCl (0.2 mg/l), GA3 (0.2 mg/l), BA (1.0 mg/l) and glucose (30 g/l). Compared with earlier reports, 65% of somatic embryo germination was observed. The abnormal embryo formation was highly reduced by using glucose (30 g/l) compared to other carbon sources. The regenerated plantlets were fertile but smaller in height than the seed derived control plants.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 926-929

 

Notes

Antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase activation properties of Ganoderma applanatum

Krishnendu Acharya, Parinita Yonzone, Manjula Rai & Rupa Acharya

 

Received 31 January 2005; revised 26 May 2005

In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activities of Ganoderma applanatum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and potent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity when compared with standard drug catechin. IC50 values of crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts of G. applanatum were 604.8, 624 and 267 µg/ml, respectively in case of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and 441, 520.5 and 166.16 µg/ml, respectively in case of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, crude, boiled and ethanolic extracts also increased significantly nitric oxide production (156.67, 121.88 and 742 pmole/mg dry wt/hr, respectively) over the control. The results of present investigation revealed that G. applanatum have potential therapeutic use.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 43 October 2005, pp. 930-932

 

Propagation of Chandipura virus in chick embryos

S D Pawar, A Singh, S V Gangodkar & B L Rao

Received 4 October 2004; revised 26 April 2005

Stocks of three Indian Chandipura virus (CHPV) isolates; one isolate from an adult febrile case in 1965 from Chandipura town, Maharashtra, and two isolates from two pediatric encephalitis cases from Andhra Pradesh, 2003 were inoculated in 10-day-old chick embryos by allantoic route. All three virus isolates replicated in chick embryos showing titre of log 1012 to log 1013 EID50. The results demonstrated that chick embryos are susceptible to CHPV and virus grows to high titres in this system. Therefore chick embryos can be used as an alternative host system for cultivation and isolation of CHPV as they are less expensive than laboratory animals and have several other advantages over cell cultures. Also this system can be used for the development of vaccine and diagnostic reagents.