Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(8) 593-678 (2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

 

Environmental contaminants in pathogenesis of breast cancer

597

      Shyamali Mukherjee, Bidhan Chandra Koner, Sanhita Ray & Amitabha Ray

 

 

 

Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes

618

      N Puvaneswari, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

 

 

 

Papers

 

Modulation of gastric mucosal mast cell population : Role of vestibulo cerebellar lesion

627

      Nita Sarkar, Sudarshana Purkayastha, Biswarup Sarkar & Debjani Guha

 

 

 

Does melatonin have a time-dependent effect on brain and gill ionic metabolism in a teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch)?

635

      L Divya, A S Vijayasree, P Sreejith, R S Beyo, M Smita & O V Oommen

 

 

 

Tri-iodo thyronine regulates antioxidant enzyme activities in different cell fractions through a mechanism sensitive to actinomycin D in a teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch)

640

      S M Saumya, P Sreejith, A S Vijayasree, L Divya, M Manju & O V Oommen

 

 

 

Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum L after high-dose 131iodine exposure in mice: An
in vivo study

647

      Uma S Bhartiya,Yogita S Raut, Lebana J Joseph & Badanidiyoor S Rao

 

 

 

Effect of radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) on thyroid status under conditions of varying iodine intake in rats

653

      Amar K Chandra, Sanjukta Mukhopadhyay, Dishari Ghosh & Smritiratan Tripathy

 

 

 

Sterculia guttata seeds extractives ¾ An effective mosquito larvicide

662

      Sushama R Katade, Pushpa V Pawar, Radhika D Wakharkar &
Nirmala R Deshpande

 

 

 

Partial purification and cytotoxic effects of Salmonella proteinous moieties on chick embryo fibroblasts

666

      Anupma Sharma, V D Sharma, V Umapati & B D Lakhchaura

 

 

 

Characterization of intrinsic variability of Mesorhizobium ciceri isolates of
cultivated fields

671

      P M Kamble, Aqbal Singh & L R Kashyap

 

 

 

Fishmeal extract bile salt lactose agar–A differential medium for enteric bacteria

675

      K Subbannayya, J Udayalaxmi & M Anugraha

 

 

 

Announcement

 

International Symposium on Application of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose in the Management of Cancer

596

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

International Symposium on

Applications of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose in the Management of Cancer

8-10 November 2006, INMAS, Delhi, India

 

      The tentative topics to be covered in the symposium are: Oncogenic alterations of glucose metabolism: mechanisms and implication; Effects and mechanisms of 2-DG induced cytotoxicity in tumors; Physiological, pharmacological and immunological effects of 2-DG; Radiosensitization and chemosensitization by 2-DG; Approaches for enhancing the radio­sensitizng effects of 2-DG; Current status of clinical studies with 2-DG; Role of 2-DG in improving the efficacy of novel therapeutic modalities; and Future directions in basic research and clinical studies with metabolic modifiers for the treatment of resistant tumors. Participation in this symposium is by invitation. However, a few proffered and poster presentation will be encouraged. For further details please contact: Dr. B.S. Dwarakanath, Convener, Division of Biocybernetics, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S K Mazumdar Road, Delhi 110 054, India. Telephone: (+91) 11-2391 8838 / 2390 5129 / 2390 5130; Fax: (+91) 11 -2391 9509; E-mails: ISY2DG@inmas.org / bsd@inmas.org / bilikeredwaraka@yahoo.com

 

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Author Index

 

 

Anugraha M

675

Beyo R S

627

Bhartiya Uma S

647

Chandra Amar K

653

Deshpande Nirmala R

662

Divya L

627, 640

Ghosh Dishari

653

Guha Debjani

627

Gunasekaran P

618

Joseph Lebana J

647

Kamble P M

671

Kashyap L R

671

Katade Sushama R

662

Koner Bidhan Chandra

597

Lakhchaura B D

666

Manju M

640

Mukherjee Shyamali

597

Mukhopadhyay Sanjukta

653

Muthukrishnan J

618

Oommen O V

627, 640

Pawar Pushpa V

662

Purkayastha Sudarshana

627

Puvaneswari N

618

Rao Badanidiyoor S

647

Raut Yogita S

647

Ray Amitabha

597

Ray Sanhita

597

Sarkar Biswarup

627

Sarkar Nita

627

Saumya S M

640

Sharma Anupma

666

Sharma V D

666

Singh Aqbal

671

Smita M

627

Sreejith P

627, 640

Subbannayya K

675

Tripathy Smritiratan

653

Udayalaxmi J

675

Umapati V

666

Vijayasree A S

627, 640

Wakharkar Radhika D

662

 

 

Keyword Index

Actinomycin D

640

Aedes aegypti

662

Anabas

640

Antioxidant enzymes

640, 647

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

597

Azo dye

618

Bile salt lactose agar

675

Bioremediation

618

Brain

635

Breast cancer

597

Ca2+ ATPase

635

Cerebellar lesion

627

Cerebellum

627

Chicken embryo fibroblast

666

Culex quinquefasciatus

662

Cytotoxic

666

Differential medium

675

Enteric bacteria

675

Fish

640

Fishmeal extract

675

Gastric mucosal mast cell

627

Generation time

671

Gills

635

Glucosinolates

653

Histamine

627

Immunotoxicant

597

Industrial effluent

618

Intrinsic variability

671

Iodine

647, 653

K+ATPase

635

Lipid peroxidation

640

Liver

640

Melatonin

635

Mesorhizobium ciceri

671

Mice

647

Microbial degradation

618

Mosquito larvicide

662

Na+ ATPase

635

Ocimum sanctum

647

Oxidative metabolism

597

Proteins

666

Radioprotection

647

Radish (Rapanus sativus)

653

Salivary gland

647

Salmonella

666

Sterculia guttata

662

Symbiotic effectivity

671

Teleost

635, 640

Thyroid hormone

653

Thyroid peroxidase

653

Thyroid

640

Tri-iodothyronine

640

Ulcer

627

Urinary iodine

653

Urinary thiocyanate

653

Xenoestrogens

597

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 597-617

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

Environmental contaminants in pathogenesis of breast cancer

Shyamali Mukherjee ,Bidhan Chandra Koner,Sanhita Ray,Amitabha Ray 

 

This review is an attempt to comprehend the diverse groups of environmental chemical contaminants with a potential for pathogenesis of breast cancer, their probable sources and the possible mechanisms by which these environmental contaminants act and interplay with other risk factors. Estrogens are closely related to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Oxidative catabolism of estrogen, mediated by various cytochrome P450 enzymes, generates reactive free radicals that can cause oxidative damage. The same enzymes of estrogenic metabolic pathways catalyze biological activation of several environmental (xenobiotic) chemicals. Xenobiotic chemicals may exert their pathological effects through generation of reactive free radicals. Breast tissue can be a target of several xenobiotic agents. DNA-reactive metabolites of different xenobiotic compounds have been detected in breast tissue. Many phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are expressed in both normal and cancerous breast tissues. These enzymes play a significant role in the activation/detoxification of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds including estrogens. More than 30 carcinogenic chemicals are present in tobacco smoke; many of them are fat-soluble, resistant to metabolism and can be stored in breast adipose tissue. Similarly, pesticides are also known to cause oxidative stress; while some act as endocrine disruptor, some are shown to suppress apoptosis in estrogen sensitive cell lines. Reports have shown an association of smoking (both active and passive) and pesticides with breast cancer risk. However, the issues have remained controversial. Different mutagenic substances that are generated in the cooking process e.g., heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be a threat to breast tissue. PAHs and dioxins exert their adverse effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which activates several genes involved in the metabolisms of xenobiotic compounds and endogenous estrogens. These chemicals also induce AhR-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction. Many of the environmental pollutants suppress the immune system, which are implicated to risk. A better understanding about the biological effects of different environmental carcinogenic compounds and determination of their impact on rising incidence of breast cancer will be beneficial in improving preventive policy against breast cancer.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 618-626

 

  

 

Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes

N Puvaneswari, J Muthukrishnan & P Gunasekaran

  

Toxic effluents containing azo dyes are discharged from various industries and they adversely affect water resources, soil fertility, aquatic organisms and ecosystem integrity. They pose toxicity (lethal effect, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) to aquatic organisms (fish, algae, bacteria, etc.) as well as animals. They are not readily degradable under natural conditions and are typically not removed from waste water by conventional waste water treatment systems. Benzidine based dyes have long been recognized as a human urinary bladder carcinogen and tumorigenic in a variety of laboratory animals. Several microorganisms have been found to decolourize, transform and even to completely mineralize azo dyes. A mixed culture of two Pseudomonas strains efficiently degraded mixture of 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and phenol/cresols. Azoreductases of different microorganisms are useful for the development of biodegradation systems as they catalyze reductive cleavage of azo groups (-N=N-) under mild conditions. In this review, toxic impacts of dyeing factory effluents on plants, fishes, and environment, and plausible bioremediation strategies for removal of azo dyes have been discussed

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 627-634

 

 

Modulation of gastric mucosal mast cell population : Role of vestibulo
cerebellar lesion

Nita Sarkar, Sudarshana Purkayastha, Biswarup Sarkar & Debjani Guha

 

Received 13 January 2005; revised 27 March 2006

Posterior cerebellar lesion induced severe focal inflammatory ulcers at the stomach associated with extensive damage of the surface epithelial cells, leading to focal necrotic ulcers. The ulcer index increased maximally and progressively between day 7 and day 14 after lesion. The total mucosal mast cell and degranulated mucosal mast cell increased maximally on day 7 and progressively declined from day 14 to day 21. Gastric histamine content was also significantly increased on day 7 and 14. A significant reduction in mucous content (total CHO:P) was observed within 7-28 days after lesion. The results suggest that the gastric mucosal mast cells play an important role in ulcerogenesis induced by cerebellar lesion.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 635-639

 

 

Does melatonin have a time-dependent effect on brain and gill ionic metabolism in a teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch)?

L Divya, A S Vijayasree, P Sreejith, R S Beyo, M Smita & O V Oommen

 

Received 1 September 2005; revised 1 May 2006

Exogenous administration of 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 μg/g body weight melatonin over a 24 hr cycle caused an inhibition of Na+, K+ ATPase activity in both brain and gills of A. testudineus. However, Ca2+ ATPase activity in the brain was significantly inhibited by the highest dose, and that in the gill at all the doses of melatonin. Evening injection of melatonin had an inhibitory effect on both brain and gill Na+ K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity. Melatonin treatment in the morning for 12 hrs did not have an effect on brain Na+, K+ ATPase, while Ca2+ ATPase was inhibited. Similar treatment stimulated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ATPase activity in the gills. Sodium, potassium and calcium ions in the gill were significantly reduced in the evening treated group while no change was observed in the morning melatonin injected group. The results suggest that melatonin elicits a time - dependent effect on the enzymes and ionic content in the brain and gills of A. testudineus.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 640-646

 

 

Tri-iodo thyronine regulates antioxidant enzyme activities in different cell fractions through a mechanism sensitive to actinomycin D in a teleost,
Anabas testudineus (Bloch)

S M Saumya, P Sreejith, A S Vijayasree, L Divya, M Manju & O V Oommen

 

Received 14 June 2005; revised 3 April 2006

The present study evaluated the effects of hyperthyroid state on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in the crude (CF), post nuclear (PNF) and mitochondrial fractions (MF) of the fish liver. The in vivo injection of T3 (200ng) did not change the lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD), while actinomycin D (10mg), a potent mRNA inhibitor when administered with T3 increased them. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) had an increased activity in CF and MF of hyperthyroid group to compete the increased oxidative stress, but actinomycin D partially inhibited the T3  induced activity. SOD and CAT activities in PNF of hyperthyroid group had no change, the glutathione concentration varied depending on the GPx and GR activity. Hyperthyroidism decreased the protein content, while simultaneous administration of actinomycin D inhibited the T3 action of elevating the protein content. The results suggest that the antioxidant defense status in A. testudineus is modulated by thyroid hormone, through an action sensitive to actinomycin D.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 647-652

 

 

Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum L after high-dose

131iodine exposure in mice:An in vivo study

 

 

Uma S Bhartiya,Yogita S Raut & Lebana J Joseph,Badanidiyoor S Rao

 

Received 25 November 2005; revised 17 May 2006

Radioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (40 mg/kg body weight, for 15 days) in mice exposed to high-doses (3.7 MBq) of oral 131iodine was investigated by studying the organ weights, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense enzymes in various target organs like liver, kidneys, salivary glands and stomach at 24 hr after exposure in adult Swiss mice. The mean weight of the salivary glands showed significant increase after 131iodine administration. 131iodine exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation in kidneys and salivary glands in comparison to control animals. Pretreatment with O. sanctum in radioiodine exposed group showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation in both kidneys and salivary glands. In liver, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed significant reduction after radioiodine exposure while pretreatment with O. sanctum exhibited less depletion in GSH level even after 131iodine exposure. However, no such changes were observed in stomach. The results indicate the possibility of using aqueous extract of O. sanctum for ameliorating 131Iodine induced damage to the salivary glands.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 653-661

 

 

Effect of radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) on thyroid status under conditions of varying iodine intake in rats

Amar K Chandra, Sanjukta Mukhopadhyay, Dishari Ghosh & Smritiratan Tripathy

 

Received 23 February 2005; revised 20 April 2006

Cruciferous plants viz. cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard etc. that contain goitrogenic/antithyroid substances, constitute a portion of regular human diet. The effect of chronic feeding of fresh and cooked radish, R. sativus under varying state of iodine intake on morphological and functional status of thyroid in albino rats was evaluated by thyroid gland morphology and histology, thyroid peroxidase activity, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin levels. The consumption pattern of iodine and goitrogens of cyanogenic origin was evaluated by measuring urinary iodine and thiocyanate levels respectively. After chronic radish feeding, increased weight of thyroid gland, decreased thyroid peroxidase activity, reduced thyroid hormone profiles and elevated level of thyrotropin were observed resembling a relative state of hypoactive thyroid gland in comparison to control even after supplementation of adequate iodine.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 662-670

 

 

Sterculia guttata seeds extractives ¾ An effective mosquito larvicide

Sushama R Katade, Pushpa V Pawar, Radhika D Wakharkar & Nirmala R Deshpande

 

Received 8 November 2005; revised 23 May 2006

The larvicidal activity of ethanol, chloroform and hexane soxhlet extracts obtained from S. guttata seeds was investigated against the IVth instar larvae of Dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. All extracts including fractions of ethanol extract exhibited 100% larval kill within 24 hr exposure period at 500 ppm concentration. Fraction A1 of ethanol was found to be most promising; its LC50 was 21.552 and 35.520 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti respectively. Naturally occurring S. guttata seed derived fractions merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or lead compounds.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 666-670

 

 

Partial purification and cytotoxic effects of Salmonella proteinous moieties on chick embryo fibroblasts

Anupma Sharma, V D Sharma, V Umapati & B D Lakhchaura

 

Received 9 December 2005; revised 27 March 2006

Salmonella enterica serovars, viz., S. Weltevreden, S. Typhimurium, S. Gallinarum and S. Bareilly were treated with cephotaxime to release of intracellular proteins. The cephotaxime extract (CE) was salt precipitated with ammonium sulphate (45-70%) and dialyzed, and denoted as precipitated dialyzed proteins (PDP). Further, both CE and PDP of Salmonella Weltevreden and PDP of rest of the serovars were subjected to gel filtration using Sephacryl S—200HR. Different fractions along with CE and PDP were studied for their cytotoxicity using chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF). All the CE and PDP exerted cytotoxic effects, characterized by rounding, detachment, shrinkage and clumping of cells with syncytia formation. Also, the fractions eluted in the 2nd and 3rd peaks through Sephacryl S-200HR column invariably had cytotoxic activity. It was concluded that in place of Vero cell line, CEF cells could also be used to test cytotoxicity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 671-674

 

 

Characterization of intrinsic variability of Mesorhizobium ciceri isolates of
cultivated fields

P M Kamble, Aqbal Singh & L R Kashyap

 

Received 2 January 2006; revised 27 April 2006

A large number of putative rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of various chickpea cultivars growing in agricultural research fields. Of these, thirty were selected and characterized for traits, such as, generation time, intrinsic azide resistance and several symbiotic characters.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, August 2006, pp. 675-678

 

 

Fishmeal extract bile salt lactose agar–A differential medium for enteric bacteria

K Subbannayya, J Udayalaxmi & M Anugraha

 

Received 12 December 2005; revised 22 March 2006

Fishmeal extract bile salt lactose agar (FEBLA), a new differential medium for enteric bacteria was developed and evaluated for its ability to grow and differentiate lactose fermenters (LF) from non-lactose fermenters (NLF) in comparison with MacConkeys agar. Performance of FEBLA was at par with the latter. On FEBLA medium, the contrast between LF and NLF colonies was pronounced and Klebsiella pneumoniae produced more mucoid colonies than on MacConkeys agar (Hi Media). Unlike MacConkeys agar, a 24 h culture of K. pneumoniae cells on FEBLA were longer and thicker with abundant capsular material around the bacilli. Escherichia coli produced long and thick cells but only after 48h. No change in cell morphology was evident with regard to Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter koseri and Acinetobacter baumannii. Performance of the medium was controlled using E. coli and S. flexneri. FEBLA is simple, cost effective and may be a suitable alternative in the preliminary identification of enteric bacteria.