Indian Journal of Experimental Biology


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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(4) 261-344(2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza virus H5N1 in context of India

265

      Madhu Khanna, Naseem Akther, Vikram Srivastava, Prashant Kumar &     V K Vijayan

 

 

 

Papers

 

Occurrence of non-protein low molecular weight cardiotoxin in Indian King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah) Cantor 1836, venom

279

Archita Saha, Aparna Gomes, B Giri, A K Chakravarty, A K Biswas, S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

 

 

 

Effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in various animal models (bicuculline, picrotoxin, maximal electroshock-induced convulsions) of epilepsy with possible mechanism of action

286

Ashish Dhir, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: Role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals

292

M Mohan Kumar, M C Joshi, T Prabha, M Dorababu & R K Goel

 

 

 

Antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) seed oil

300

Shweta Gupta, Pramod K Mediratta, Surender Singh, K K Sharma & Rimi Shukla

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract

305

Chanchal K Roy, Jagadish V Kamath & Mohammed Asad

 

 

 

Protective effect of melatonin against propoxur-induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response in rats

312

Sanvidhan G Suke, Achint Kumar, Rafat S Ahmed, Ayanabha Chakraborti,
A K Tripathi, P K Mediratta & B D Banerjee

 

 

 

Immunotoxicity of phosphamidon following subchronic exposure in albino rats

316

Sanvidhan G Suke, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Ayanabha Chakraborti &
B D Banerjee

 

 

 

Detection of Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected embryonated chicken eggs by PCR assay

321

S B Shivachandra, A A Kumar, R Gautam, S Joseph, P Chaudhuri, M K Saxena,
    
S K Srivastava & Nem Singh

 

 

Response to complete and skeleton photoperiods in subtropical male house sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus)

325

Anushi & S K Bhardwaj

 

 

 

Effect of UV-B on photosynthesis, membrane lipids and MAAs in marine cyanobacterium, Phormidium corium (Agardh) Gomont

330

Rupali Bhandari & Prabhat Kumar Sharma

 

 

 

Development of bioconcrete material using an enrichment culture of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

336

P Ghosh, S Mandal, S Pal, G Bandyopadhyaya & B D Chattopadhyay

 

 

 

Siderophores of halophilic archaea and their chemical characterization

340

B P Dave, Kena Anshuman & Puja Hajela

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Ahmed Rafat S

312,316

Akther Naseem

265

Anshuman Kena

340

Anushi

325

Asad Mohammed

305

Bandyopadhyaya G

336

Banerjee B D

312,316

Bhandari Rupali

330

Bhardwaj S K

325

Biswas A K

279

Chakraborti Ayanabha

312, 316

Chakravarty A K

279

Chattopadhyay B D

336

Chaudhuri P

321

Dasgupta S C

279

Dave B P

340

Dhir Ashish

286

Dorababu M

292

Gautam R

321

Ghosh P

336

Giri B

279

Goel R K

292

Gomes A

279

Gomes Aparna

279

Gupta Shweta

300

Hajela Puja

340

Joseph S

321

Joshi M C

292

Kamath Jagadish V

305

Khanna Madhu

265

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

286

Kumar A A

321

Kumar Achint

312

Kumar M Mohan

292

Kumar Prashant

265

Mandal S

336

Mediratta P K

300, 312

Naidu Pattipati S

286

Pal S

336

Prabha T

292

Roy Chanchal K

305

Saha Archita

279

Saxena M K

321

Sharma K K

300

Sharma Prabhat Kumar

330

Shivachandra S B

321

Shukla Rimi

300

Singh Nem

321

Singh Surender

300

Srivastava S K

321

Srivastava Vikram

265

Suke Sanvidhan G

312, 316

Tripathi A K

312, 316

Vijayan V K

265

 

 

Keyword Index

Amphiphilic siderophores

340

Anaerobic bacteria

336

Antioxidant activity

300

Antioxidants

292

Avian influenza

265

Bicuculline

286

Bird flu

265

Body mass

325

Carbamate

312

Carbon tetrachloride

305

Carboxylate

340

Cardiotoxin

279

Catecholate

340

Cell proliferation

292

Cell-mediated immunity

316

Chick embryo

321

Chlorophyll fluorescence

330

Compressive strength

336

Concrete

336

Convulsions

286

Cyanobacteria

330

Cyclooxygenases

286

Epilepsy

286

Free radicals

292

Glycoproteins

292

H5N1 virus

265

Halophilic archaea

340

Hepatoprotection

305

Human flu

265

Humoral immunity

312, 316

Hydroxamate

340

Hypocholesterolaemic agents

300

Immunotoxicity

312

Indian King Cobra

279

Lipid peroxidation

312, 330

Microbial precipitation

336

Mortar

336

Musa sapientum

292

Mycosporine like amino acids

330

NIDDM

292

Nimesulide

286

Non-protein toxin

279

Ocimum sanctum seed oil

300

Ophiophagus Hannah

279

Organophosphate

316

Pandemic flu

265

Paracetamol

305

Passer domesticus

325

Pasteurella multocida

321

PCR

321

Pesticide

312,

Phosphoglycolipids

330

Photoinducible phase

325

Photoperiod

325

Picrotoxin

286

Psidium guajava

305

Rofecoxib

286

Siderophores

340

Snake venom

279

Sugar

330

Testis

325

Thermophilic bacteria

336

Thioacetamide

305

UV-B Radiation

330

 

 

Review Article

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.265-278

 

  

Biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza virus H5N1 in
context of India

Madhu Khanna, Naseem Akther, Vikram Srivastava, Prashant Kumar & V K Vijayan

  

Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus crossed the species barriers from birds to humans and caused fatal disease, leading to great speculation about a possible influenza pandemic. This subtype is characterized by its pathogenicity in a large number of animal species and resistance to older class of antiviral drugs. At present, two out of three general conditions for the onset of pandemic have been met, emergence of new virus; and its ability to replicate in humans causing serious illness. Next influenza pandemic might be due to human to human transmission. This review addresses the biological and epidemiological aspects of influenza in context of India.

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.279-285

  

Occurrence of non-protein low molecular weight cardiotoxin in
Indian King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Cantor 1836, venom

 

Archita Saha, Aparna Gomes, B Giri, A K Chakravarty, A K Biswas & S C Dasgupta & A Gomes

 

Received 14 July 2005; revised 12 January 2006

Pathophysiology due to snakebite is a combined effect of various actions of the complex venom constituents. Importance of protein toxins in snake envenomation is well known. The present investigation reports the existence of non-protein/nonpetide low molecular weight toxin in Indian King Cobra venom, which plays an important role in envenomation consequences in experimental animal models. A group of non-peptidic toxins (OH-NPT1) was isolated from Indian King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography. UV, IR, NMR and (ESI) TOF-MS studies characterized the OH-NPT1 as a mixture of aliphatic acids having molecular weights 256, 326 and 340Da. The minimum lethal dose of OH-NPT1 was found to be 2.5 mg/20g (iv) and 4mg/20g (ip) in male albino mice. The cardiotoxic property of OH-NPT1 was established through studies on isolated guinea pig heart and auricle preparations, ECG studies in albino rat and estimation of LDH1/LDH and CPK-MB/CPK ratio in Swiss albino mice. Commercial antiserum failed to neutralize the lethality and cardiotoxicity of the toxin. However, calcium and magnesium effectively neutralized the lethal action.

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.286-291

 

Effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors in various animal models (bicuculline, picrotoxin, maximal electroshock-induced convulsions) of
epilepsy with possible mechanism of action

 

Ashish Dhir, Pattipati S Naidu & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Received 24 December 2004; revised 20 December 2005

Enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is reported to play a significant role in neurodegeneration and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Bicuculline (4 mg/kg; ip), picrotoxin (8 mg/kg; ip) and electroshock (60 mA for
0.2 sec) significantly induced convulsions in male Laka mice. COX-inhibitors viz. nimesulide (2.5 mg/kg; ip) and rofecoxib
(2 mg/kg, ip) administered 45 minutes prior to an epileptic challenge prolonged mean onset time of convulsions, decreased duration of clonus and decreased % mortality rate against bicuculline- and picrotoxin-induced convulsions in mice. COX-2 inhibitors were ineffective towards maximal electroshock-induced convulsions. Nimesulide (1 mg/kg) and rofecoxib
(1 mg/kg) also enhanced the effect of subprotective dose of muscimol against picrotoxin-induced convulsions. The result of the present study strongly suggests for a possible role of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes particularly, COX-2 in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and its GABAergic modulation.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.292-299

 

 Effect of plantain banana on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: Role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, antioxidants and free radicals

 

M Mohan Kumar, M C Joshi, T Prabha, M Dorababu & R K Goel

 

Received 20 September 2005; revised 19 December 2005

Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca (MSE, 100 mg/kg) was studied for its antiulcer and mucosal defensive factors in normal and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. NIDDM was induced by administering streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg, ip) to 5 days old rat pups. The animals showing blood glucose level >140mg/dL after 12 weeks of STZ administration were considered as NIDDM positive. Effects of MSE were compared with known ulcer protective drug, sucralfate (SFT, 500 mg/kg) and anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (GLC, 0.6 mg/kg) when administered orally, once daily for 6 days against gastric ulcers (GU) induced by cold-restraint stress (CRS) and ethanol and subsequent changes in gastric mucosal glycoproteins, cell proliferation, free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) and anti-oxidants enzymes (super oxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione (GSH) levels. MSE showed better ulcer protective effect in NIDDM rats compared with SFT and GLC in CRS-induced GU. NIDDM caused a significant decrease in gastric mucosal glycoprotein level without having any effect on cell proliferation. However, all the test drugs reversed the decrease in glycoprotein level in NIDDM rats, but cell proliferation was enhanced in case of MSE alone. Both CRS or NIDDM as such enhanced gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD, but decreased CAT levels while CRS plus NIDDM rats caused further increase in LPO and NO level without causing any further changes in SOD and CAT level. MSE pretreatment showed reversal in the levels of all the above parameters better than GLC. Ethanol caused a decrease in glutathione level which was further reduced in NIDDM-ethanol rats. MSE reversed the above changes significantly in both normal as well as in NIDDM rats, while GLC reversed it only in NIDDM rats. However, SFT was ineffective in reversing the changes induced by CRS or ethanol or when given in NIDDM-CRS or NIDDM-ethanol rats. The results indicated that the ulcer protective effect of MSE could be due to its predominant effect on mucosal glycoprotein, cell proliferation, free radicals and antioxidant systems.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.300-304

 

 Antidiabetic, antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) seed oil

Shweta Gupta, Pramod K Mediratta, Surender Singh, K K Sharma & Rimi Shukla

 

Received 3 June 2005; revised 29 December 2005

Antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. seed oil (OSSO) was investigated in rabbits. Administration of OSSO (0.8 g/kg body weight/day) for four weeks, in cholesterol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) fed rabbits significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and LDL-+VLDL-cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol fed group. There was significant fall in atherogenic index in OSSO treated group. In addition, treatment with OSSO decreased lipid peroxidation and increased reduced glutathione content in blood. Antidiabetic effect of O. sanctum seed oil was evaluated in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Two weeks treatment of diabetic rabbits with OSSO (0.8 gm/kg/day) showed no significant hypoglycaemic effect. Results of the present study show that OSSO has hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects but it does not have antidiabetic effect.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.305-311

  

Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract

Chanchal K Roy, Jagadish V Kamath & Mohammed Asad

 

Received 15 July 2005; revised 30 December 2005

The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamide and chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin. In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava leaf extracts (250 and 500mg/kg, po) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. The higher dose of the extract
(500 mg/kg, po) prevented the increase in liver weight when compared to hepatoxin treated control, while the lower dose was ineffective except in the paracetamol induced liver damage. In the chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, the higher dose (500 mg/kg, po) of P. guajava leaf extract was found to be more effective than the lower dose (250 mg/kg, po). Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the aqueous extract of leaves of guava plant possesses good hepatoprotective activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.312-315

 

 Protective effect of melatonin against propoxur-induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response in rats

Sanvidhan G Suke, Achint Kumar, Rafat S Ahmed, Ayanabha Chakraborti, A K Tripathi ,
P K Mediratta & B D Banerjee

 

Received 13 June 2005; revised 29 December 2005

Effect of melatonin in attenuation of propoxur induced oxidative stress and suppression of humoral immune response was studied in rats. Oral administration of propoxur (10 mg/kg) increased lipid peroxidation in serum after 28 days treatment. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione were also altered following propoxur exposure. In addition propoxur exposure markedly suppressed humoral immune response as assessed by antibody titre and plaque forming cell assay. Simultaneous treatment with melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) markedly attenuated the effect of propoxur on (a) lipid peroxidation, (b) oxidative stress parameters and (c) immunotoxicity. Results have been discussed in the light of possible immunopotentiating and antioxidant effects of melatonin to understand the influence of oxidative stress on propoxur induced immunomodulation.

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.316-320

 

 Immunotoxicity of phosphamidon following subchronic exposure in albino rats

Sanvidhan G Suke, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Ayanabha Chakraborti & B D Banerjee

 

Received 6 May 2005; revised 29 December 2005

Effect of subchronic doses of phosphamidon exposure on humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses were studied in male albino rats using SRBC, ovalbumin and KLH as antigens. Humoral immune responses were assessed by estimating antibody titre against antigen and splenic plaque forming cells (PFC) assay. CMI responses were studied by using leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI), macrophage migration inhibition (MMI) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. Results obtained in the present study revealed marked suppression of humoral and CMI responses in a dose dependent pattern. Hence, suppression of immune responses by phosphamidon even at subchronic doses is clearly an important aspect for its safety evaluation.

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.321-324

 

 Detection of Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected embryonated chicken eggs by PCR assay

S B Shivachandra, A A Kumar, R Gautam, S Joseph, P Chaudhuri, M K Saxena, S K Srivastava & Nem Singh

 

Received 5 October 2005; revised 7 December 2005

Applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected embryonated chicken egg was assessed in the present study. PCR assay rapidly and specifically detected the genome of P. multocida in amniotic fluid, allantoic fluid and homogenates of infected embryo and its membranes. The sensitivity of detection was as low as 20 bacterial cells/ml of allantoic or amniotic fluids. Detection of P. multocida in dead embryos by PCR was possible up to 6 and 30 days or more following storage of dead embryos at 37oC, and at 4oC as well as at -20oC, respectively. The study revealed that PCR assays could be employed directly for detection and confirmation of P. multocida infection in experimentally infected chicken embryos.

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.325-329

 

 Response to complete and skeleton photoperiods in subtropical male house sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus)

Anushi & S K Bhardwaj

 

Received 22 March 2005; revised 21 December 2005

To examine the importance of the inductive light period of a skeleton photoperiod in relation to the endogenous circadian rhythm of photoinducibility mediating photoperiodic induction, P. domesticus were exposed for 28 weeks to a series of skeleton photoperiods, viz. 6L:4D:1L:13D, 6L:6D:1L:11D, 6L:8D:1L:9D and 6L:14D:1L:3D. The inductive effects of 1 hr light pulse at night varied depending on the time of its placement. To compare the inductive effects of complete and its corresponding skeleton photoperiods, birds in the second experiment were subjected for 20 weeks to 12L:12D and 6L:5D:1L:12D given daily or interposed on alternate days with constant darkness (12L:12D/DD and 6L:5D:1L:12D/DD). There was a difference in the rate and magnitude of response between the complete and skeleton photoperiods. It appears that the subtropical house sparrow uses photoperiodic strategy in regulation of its seasonal testicular responses similar to that is reported for its temperate population.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.330-335

 

 Effect of UV-B on photosynthesis, membrane lipids and MAAs in marine cyanobacterium, Phormidium corium (Agardh) Gomont

 

Rupali Bhandari & Prabhat Kumar Sharma

 

Received 26 July 2005; revised 31 January 2006

UV-B radiation (0.80.1 mW cm-2) and UV-B radiation supplemented with low intensity PAR (~80 m mol m-2 s-1) affected photosynthesis at the level of antenna system as well as PS II reaction centre (Fo and Fm declined) in Phormidium corium (Agardh) Gomont. UV-B radiation resulted in decline in sugar content, peroxidation of membrane lipids as well as quantitative and qualitative changes in phosphoglycolipids and neutral lipids. Fatty acid profile did not show any qualitative changes due to the treatment, however, UV-B supplemented with low PAR resulted in slightly higher level of unsaturation. P. corium synthesized MAAs in response to UV-B. Quantity of MAAs increased when UV-B treatment was supplemented with low level PAR.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.336-339

 

 Development of bioconcrete material using an enrichment culture of novel thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

P Ghosh & S Mandal

 

S Pal

and

G Bandyopadhyaya & B D Chattopadhyay*

 

Received 8 October 2004; revised 26 December 2005

In the biosphere, bacteria can function as geo-chemical agents, promoting the dispersion, fractionation and/or concentration of materials. Microbial mineral precipitation is resulted from metabolic activities of microorganisms. Based on this biomineralogy concept, an attempt has been made to develop bioconcrete material incorporating of an enrichment culture of thermophilic and anaerobic bacteria within cement-sand mortar/concrete. The results showed a significant increase in compressive strength of both cement-sand mortar and concrete due to the development of filler material within the pores of cement sand matrix. Maximum strength was observed at concentration 105cell/ml of water used in mortar/concrete. Addition of Escherichia coli or media composition on mortar showed no such improvement in strength.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, April 2006, pp.340-344

 

 Siderophores of halophilic archaea and their chemical characterization

B P Dave, Kena Anshuman & Puja Hajela

 

Received 25 November 2005; revised 27 December 2005

Nine halophilic archaea viz., Halobacterium salinarum, Halobacterium sp.1, Halobacterium sp.2, Halobaculum sp., Halococcus saccharolyticus, Halorubrum saccharovorum, Haloterrigena turkmenica, Halogeometricum sp. and Natrialba sp. isolated from marine salterns around Bhavnagar coast were screened for siderophore production. Five isolates viz., Halococcus saccharolyticus, Halorubrum saccharovorum, Haloterrigena turkmenica, Halogeometricum sp. and Natrialba sp. produced siderophores as evidenced by positive reaction in FeCl3 test, CAS assay and CAS agar plate test. Determination of chemical nature of siderophores by chemical assays and bioassays identified them as carboxylates. Quantification of siderophores indicated Halorubrum saccharovorum to be the maximum siderophore producer (2.62 RE mg/ml) and Halococcus saccharolyticus to be the least (1.33 RE mg/ml). The present study is the first report on siderophore production in Indian haloarchaeal strains. Mechanism of iron assimilation in four non-siderophore isolates still needs to be investigated further.