Indian Journal of Experimental Biology


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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(2) 89-166(2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Some novel approaches for radioprotection and the beneficial effect of natural products

93

      Dharmendra K Maurya, Thomas P A Devasagayam & Cherupally Krishnan K Nair

 

 

 

Papers

 

Methylation of E-cadherin and hMLH1 genes in Indian sporadic breast carcinomas

115

      M Viswanathan, S P R Solomon, N Tsuchida, G S Selvam & G Shanmugam

 

 

 

Involvement of potassium channels in hypoglycemic effect of sertraline

120

      Razia Khanam & K K Pillai

 

 

 

Binding of diclofenac sodium with bovine serum albumin at different temperatures,
pH and ionic strengths

123

      S K Dutta, S K Basu & K K Sen

 

 

 

Potentiation of antinociceptive effect of NSAID’s by a specific lipooxygenase inhibitor, acetyl 11-keto –beta boswellic acid

128

      Mahendra Bishnoi, Chandrashekar S Patil, Anil Kumar & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice

133

      Hanumanthachar Joshi & Milind Parle

 

 

 

Bioactivity of marine organisms : Part IX - Screening of some marine flora from the Indian coasts

137

      V Lakshmi , A K Goel, M N Srivastava, D K Kulshreshtha & R Raghubir

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of a new osmotolerant, non-virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SAP for biosynthesis of succinic acid

142

      Chandresh Thakker, Zainab Burhanpurwala, Gurdeep Rastogi, Yogesh Shouche & Dilip Ranade

 

 

 

Response surface optimization of effective medium constituents for the production of alkaline protease from a newly isolated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

151

      Saif Khan, A K Misra, C K M Tripathi, B N Mishra & Vinod Bihari

 

 

 

Formation of ortho-benzoquinone from sodium benzoate by Pseudomonas
mendocina
P2d

157

      Chanda Parulekar & Suneela Mavinkurve

 

 

 

Note

 

Modulation of serum cortisol by Substance P in albino rats: Evidence of a direct effect on adrenal gland

163

      Anita Prasad, Ranu Naskar, Rakhi Dubey, Dipali Raha & M Firoz Ahmed

 

 

 

Announcement

 

PP Surya Kumari Prize

92

 

 

Information for Authors

165

 

PP Surya Kumari Prize

 

PP Surya Kumari prize is awarded, every year, by the Indian Pharmacology Society (IPS) for the best paper on ‘Diabetes mellitus and other endocrinal and metabolic disorders’ published in any journal during last five years. The prize is open to Indian scientists working in Indian laboratories. The award is presented to the winner at the annual conference of IPS.

Those desirous of competing for the prize for the year 2006 may submit five reprints/copies of the paper, published during 2001–2005 to Professor R Raveendran, Convener, P P Surya Kumari Prize, and The Chief Editor, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry 605 006, India, before 31 March 2006.

Phone: 0413-2271969; Fax: 0413-2272067; e-mail: ijp@jipmer.edu; Website: www.ijp-online.com

 

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. On of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)            After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)            The heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

Author Index

Selvam G S

115

Shanmugam G

115

Solomon S P R

115

Tsuchida N

115

Viswanathan M

115

Khanam Razia

120

Pillai K K

120

Basu S K

123

Dutta S K

123

Sen K K

123

Bishnoi Mahendra

128

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

128

Kumar Anil

128

Patil Chandrashekar S

128

Joshi Hanumanthachar

133

Parle Milind

133

Goel A K

137

Kulshreshtha D K

137

Lakshmi V

137

Raghubir R

137

Srivastava M N

137

Burhanpurwala Zainab

142

Ranade Dilip

142

Rastogi Gurdeep

142

Shouche Yogesh

142

Thakker Chandresh

142

Bihari Vinod

151

Khan Saif

151

Mishra B N

151

Misra A K

151

Tripathi C K M

151

Mavinkurve Suneela

157

Parulekar Chanda

157

Ahmed M Firoz

163

Dubey Rakhi

163

Naskar Ranu

163

Prasad Anita

163

Raha Dipali

163

Devasagayam Thomas P A

93

Maurya Dharmendra K

93

Nair Cherupally Krishnan K

93

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Antioxidant

93

Ionizing radiation

93

Medicinal plants

93

Natural compounds

93

Novel approaches

93

Radioprotection

93

Radiotherapy

93

Breast carcinoma

115

E-cadherin

115

Indian sporadic carcinoma

115

LMLH1 gene

115

Methylation

115

Diabetes mellitus

120

Glimepiride

120

Potassium channels

120

Sertraline

120

Albumin

123

Bovine serum

123

Diclofenac sodium

123

Ionic strength

123

Antinociception

128

Boswellic acid

128

Nociception

128

NSAID

128

Diazepam

133

Memory

133

Ocimum sanctum

133

Piracetam

133

Scopolamine

133

Bioactive flora

137

Diuretic

137

Hypotensive effect

137

Indian coast

137

Marine flora

137

Anaerobic bacteria

142

Klebsiella pneumoniae

142

  Succinic acid

    142

Central Composite Design

151

Fermentation

151

Proteases

151

Methodology

151

Catechol

157

2-HMS

157

Ortho-benzoquinone

157

Pseudomonas mendocina

157

Sodium benzoate

157

Cortisol

163

Regulatory role

163

Substance P

163

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 93-114

 

 

                                                                        Review Article

 

 

Some novel approaches for radioprotection and the
beneficial effect of natural products

 

Dharmendra K Maurya, Thomas P A Devasagayam & Cherupally Krishnan K Nair

 

Due to the increased use of ionizing radiation in various aspects of human life especially in areas pertaining to radiotherapy of cancer, food preservation, agriculture, industry and power generation, there is a need to develop an effective and non-toxic radioprotector. The currently available ones have many drawbacks including high cost, side effects and toxicity. Several novel approaches are on to locate a potent radioprotector. These include mimics of antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, melatonin, growth factors, gene therapy, hyperthermia apart from natural products. The latter has several advantages since they are non-toxic with proven therapeutic benefits. These can be classified as natural compounds and plant extracts; polyherbal formulations; besides natural and semi-natural compounds of plant origin. A review of the above agents, their efficacy in radioprotection and possible mechanisms responsible has been carried out. As India and many Eastern countries have an enormous heritage of vast natural dietary and time tested medicinal resources it is worth exploring the possibility of developing efficient, economically viable and clinically acceptable radioprotectors for human application from these resources.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 115-119

 

                                                                    Papers

 

Methylation of E-cadherin and hMLH1 genes in Indian sporadic breast carcinomas

M Viswanathan, S P R Solomon, N Tsuchida, G S Selvam & G Shanmugam

 

Received 17 May 2005; revised 17 October 2005

Hypermethylation of promoter regions leading to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is a common event in the progression of several tumor types. We have employed a novel restriction digestion based multiplex PCR assay to analyse the methylation status of promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes (p16, hMLH1, MGMT and E-cadherin) in sporadic breast carcinomas of Indian women. The present results indicated the absence of hypermethylation in promoter region of p16 and MGMT genes. However, 6 of the 19 (31.6%) sporadic breast carcinomas showed hypermethylation in the promoters of two of the genes analysed; three in hMLH1 and another three in E-cad. Since our earlier studies have shown lack of genetic alterations such as missense mutations and deletions in the tumor associated genes-p16, ras and p14ARF in sporadic breast tumors, the epigenetic alterations of the two genes reported in the present study could be of interest and might be among the events in the genesis/progression of sporadic breast carcinomas.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 120-122

 

 

Involvement of potassium channels in hypoglycemic effect of sertraline

Razia Khanam & K K Pillai

 

Received 12 January 2005; revised 13 October 2005

Effect of 21 days administration of sertraline (30 mg/kg, po) in streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats produced hypoglycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Pinacidil (1mg/kg, po), when co-administered with sertraline or glimepiride antagonized the decrease in glucose levels in diabetic rats. Pinacidil (10 -6-10-3 M) produced dose dependent relaxation (EC50 -1.58´10-5M). Neither sertraline nor glimepiride had any effect on the resting tension of ileum preparation. Both sertraline and glimepiride antagonized competitively the pinacidil-induced relaxation. The pA2 values of sertraline and glimepiride reversal of pinacidil-induced relaxation were 5.5 and 6.2 respectively. These studies suggest the involvement of K+ channels in hypoglycemic effects of sertraline.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 123-127

 

 

Binding of diclofenac sodium with bovine serum albumin at different
temperatures, pH and ionic strengths

 

S K Dutta, S K Basu & K K Sen

 

Received 28 March 2005; revised 17 October 2005

The study was designed to examine the binding of diclofenac sodium with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at different temperatures (20°, 30° and 40°C), pH (6.4,7.4 and 8.4) and ionic strengths (m = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) by means of equilibrium dialysis method. The concentration of diclofenac sodium was maintained at wider range from 15 to 900 mmole/l and BSA concentration was maintained at 61.5 mmole/l. The data obtained were interpreted by nonlinear regression method using Graphpad prism software. The analysis showed that the interaction between diclofenac sodium with BSA results in two-site saturable binding. A decrease in association constant was observed with increasing temperature. The average standard free energy change (DG°) value was –7.07 (site I) and –4.2 (site II) Kcal/mol. The standard enthalpy change (DH°) and the standard entropy change (DS°) were–7.8 Kcal/mole, –2.35 cal/mole (site I) and –7.4 Kcal/mole, –10.5 cal/mole (site II), respectively. The negative enthalpy change suggested the binding between diclofenac sodium and the binding sites of BSA were spontaneous and exothermic. The negative value of DH° and DS° indicated hydrogen bonding and van der Waal’s force was the major mechanism for diclofenac sodium and BSA interaction. Increase in pH and ionic strength also caused decrease in association constant of diclofenac sodium and BSA binding.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 128-132

 

 

Potentiation of antinociceptive effect of NSAIDs by a specific lipooxygenase inhibitor, acetyl 11-keto-beta boswellic acid

Mahendra Bishnoi, Chandrashekar S Patil, Anil Kumar & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Received 10 January 2005; revised 10 October 2005

The present study was aimed to assess the combined effects of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase (COX/5-LOX) inhibitors in different animal models of nociception. Naproxen, nimesulide and rofecoxib are well-established antinociceptive agents acting via COX inhibition. AKBA (acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid) is a 5-LOX inhibitor. AKBA (50-200 mg/kg) produced a dose dependent and significant antinociceptive effect in different animal models of nociception. Based on the earlier reports from our laboratory, sub effective doses of all the three COX Inhibitors were selected and they were administered (naproxen, 5 mg/kg; nimesulide, 1 mg/kg; and rofecoxib, 1 mg/kg) with AKBA (100 mg/kg). This produced a more significant antinociceptive effect as compared to per se effect observed in all the three models of nociception. However, the effect of combination of nimesulide with AKBA was more pronounced as compared to naproxen and rofecoxib and their combination with AKBA. The present finding provided an evidence for the potentiation of antinociceptive effect of NSAIDs with AKBA. Such a combination may help to reduce the therapeutic doses of conventional NSAIDs and also reduce side effects (gastric, cardiac and renal) that are popularly associated with the NSAIDs.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 133-136

 

 

Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice

Hanumanthachar Joshi & Milind Parle

 

Received 25 January 2005; revised 17 October 2005

Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 137-141

 

 

Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part IX - Screening of some marine flora from the Indian coasts

V Lakshmi, A K Goel, M N Srivastava, D K Kulshreshtha & R Raghubir

 

Received 9 February 2005; revised 1 September 2005

Alcoholic extracts of 48 identified species of marine flora were screened for a wide range of biological activities. Of these, 3 extracts showed diuretic activity while 2 extracts showed hypotensive effect.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 142-150

 

 

Isolation and characterization of a new osmotolerant, non-virulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SAP for biosynthesis of succinic acid

Chandresh Thakker, Zainab Burhanpurwala, Gurdeep Rastogi, Yogesh Shouche & Dilip Ranade

 

Received 31 March 2005; revised 8 September 2005

In the present study, isolation of anaerobic bacteria from 24 different eco-niches was carried out. A total number of 300 bacterial isolates, including 230 obligate and 70 facultative anaerobes were obtained using anaerobic techniques. All the isolates were initially screened for succinic acid production by Fluorescein test and TLC method. During screening, 10 isolates found to produce succinic acid were further examined by HPLC and then finally confirmed for succinic acid by LC-MS analysis. Amongst 10 isolates, isolate SAP, a facultative anaerobe isolated from buffalo rumen fluid, showed maximum yield of 2.1 g/l of succinic acid from 10 g of glucose in 24 hr under anaerobic condition. This isolate was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SAP by 16S rDNA sequence and signature sequence analysis. Mouse lethality test for the strain SAP showed LD50 value of 3.3 × 108 CFU/ml, which shows non-virulent nature of the strain. This strain may become a candidate strain for succinic acid production because of its osmotolerant nature and higher succinate:acetate ratio.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 151-156

 

 

Response surface optimization of effective medium constituents for the production of alkaline protease from a newly isolated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa*

Saif Khan, A K Misra, C K M Tripathi, B N Mishra & Vinod Bihari

 

Received 31 March 2005; revised 30 August 2005

Optimization of the fermentation medium for maximum alkaline protease production was carried out with a new strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (B-2). Replacing the protein source/inducer (albumin in place of casein) brought about significant increase in yield after 48 hr of inoculation. Three most effective medium constituents identified by initial screening method of Plackett-Burman were albumin, (NH4)2SO4 and glucose. Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were used in the design of the experiment and in the analysis of the results. Optimum levels of the effective medium constituents were albumin (6.586%); (NH4)2SO4, 0.164%; and glucose, 6.72%. The alkaline protease production increased from 533460 to 793492 Ul-1.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 157-162

 

 

Formation of ortho-benzoquinone from sodium benzoate by Pseudomonas mendocina P2d

Chanda Parulekar & Suneela Mavinkurve

 

Received 16 March 2005; revised 19 September 2005

Pseudomonas mendocina P2d grew in sodium benzoate at as high as 1% concentration and formed a quinonoid compound, identified as ortho-benzoquinone, that rendered the medium orange to wine-red in colour. The quinone was not metabilised further by the organism. Sodium benzoate was converted to catechol, which was a central metabolite forming ortho-benzoquinone and 2- hydroxymuconic semialdehyde (2-HMS) via.  meta ring cleavage pathway.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, February 2006, pp. 163-164

 

                                                                        Note

 

Modulation of serum cortisol by Substance P in albino rats: Evidence of a direct effect on adrenal gland

 

Anita Prasad, Ranu Naskar, Rakhi Dubey, Dipali Raha & M Firoz Ahmed

 

Received 1 April 2005; revised 12 July 2005

Effect of prolonged administration of substance P on the plasma cortisol level in the albino rats has been investigated. An inhibitory impact on intact individuals and a stimulatory effect in pharmacologically annulled rats has been observed. It is concluded that in normal conditions substance P presumably acts as a preventive agent for any excess secretion of cortisol while during stress or disturbed HPA or RAS conditions, it stimulates the secretion of cortisol. An intraglandular modulatory role of substance P has been suggested.