Indian Journal of Experimental Biology


 

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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(1) 1-88(2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 Effect of C-terminal 44 amino acids deletion on activity of Haemophilus influenzae UvrA protein

7

      Amit S Kulkarni, Nutan Khalap & Vasudha P Joshi

 

 

 

Studies on diagnostic potential of secretory antigens of Mycobacterium bovis

14

      Shweta Trivedi, S K Das, Rajesh Kumar & Rajesh Chandra

 

 

 

Hypothyroid state reduces calcium channel function in 18-day pregnant rat uterus

19

      S C Parija, S K Mishra & V Raviprakash

 

 

 

Progesterone restores stress induced inhibition of estrous behavior in rat

28

      B N Madhuranath & H N Yajurvedi

 

 

 

Modulatory effect of dietary factors on iron-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in liver and serum of albino rats

32

      H D Ramachandran, Kusum R & P L Raina

 

 

 

In vitro antioxidant activity of Diospyros malabarica Kostel bark

39

      Susanta Kumar Mondal, Goutam Chakraborty, M Gupta & U K Mazumder

 

 

 

Effect of BR-16A (MentatŇ), a polyherbal formulation on drug-induced

      catalepsy in mice

45

      Anil Kumar & S K Kulkarni

 

        [IPC Code Cl7 A61 P]

 

 

 

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed

      wound healing

49

      S L Udupa, Somashekar Shetty, A L Udupa & S N Somayaji

 

 

 

Air-breathing rhythm in Clarias batrachus (Linn.): Modulatory role of eyes, pineal and exogenous melatonin

55

      Swati Sahu & Maya Shedpure

 

 

 

Shrimps survive white spot syndrome virus challenge following treatment with
vibrio bacterin

63

      M Rosalind George, A Maharajan, K Riji John & M J Prince Jeyaseelan

 

 

 

Intraspecific strains of Pythium aphanidermatum induced disease resistance in ginger and response of host proteins

68

      Rajyasri Ghosh, Moumita Datta & R P Purkayastha

 

 

Biosorption of Ni, Cr and Cd by metal tolerant Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. using single and multi-metal solution

73

      Iqbal Ahmad, Mohd Ikram Ansari & Farrukh Aqil

 

 

In vitro clonal propagation of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand.,

      a rare medicinal herb from immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis

77

      Urvashi Sharma & J S S Mohan

 

        [IPC Code Cl7 A01 H4]

 

 

 

Aluminium toxicity induced poikilocytosis in an air-breathing teleost,

      Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

83

      Ranu Naskar, N S Sen & M Firoz Ahmad

 

 

 

Effect of T-2 toxin on growth, performance and haematobiochemical

      alterations in broilers

86

      V V Pande, N V Kurkure & A G Bhandarkar

 

 

 

Announcements

 

Symposium on Emerging Trends in Biochemistry; Quality Improvement Programme on Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Sciences

6

 

 

Announcements

 

Symposium on Emerging Trends in Biochemistry

3-4 February, 2006, Chandigarh, India

 

Organised under the auspices of the Department of Biochemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh, the symposium will focus on the latest developments and trends in the area of Biochemistry, covering the themes: (1) Molecular medicine, (2) Nutrition in health and disease, and (3) Environmental biochemistry. For further details, please contact— Dr Rajat Sandhir, Organizing Secretary, Symposium on ‘Emerging Trends in Biochemistry’, Department of Biochemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India, Tel: (0172) 2534131, 2534134, Fax: (0172) 2541022, E-mail: biochem@pu.ac.in, setb2006@yahoo.co.in.

 

 

Quality Improvement Programme on Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Sciences

30 January–11 February 2006, Manipal, India

 

Sponsered by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), and organized by the Departments of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, the programme is meant for young pharmacy teachers. The course content will include—1. Drug discovery: (a) Lead optimization, (b) organic synthesis and chiral separation, and (c) evaluation techniques; 2. Herbal medicines: (a) scientific evaluation of medicinal and aromatic plants, (b) biopharming, and (c) role of pesticides in cultivation; and 3. New drug delivery system: (a) approaches for designing and development, (b) physicochemical characterization, and (c) preclinical and clinical performance evaluation. For details, please contact—The Principal, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576 104. Tel: 0820-2922482, 292433, 2571201 (Ext. 22482/22433), Fax: 0820-2571998, E-mail: cpe.mcops@manipal.edu

 

 

Author Index

 

Ahmad Iqbal

73

Ahmad M Firoz

83

Ansari Mohd Ikram

73

Aqil Farrukh

73

Bhandarkar A G

86

Chakraborty Goutam

39

Chandra Rajesh

14

Das S K

14

Datta Moumita

68

George M Rosalind

63

Ghosh Rajyasri

68

Gupta M

39

Jeyaseelan M J Prince

63

John K Riji

63

Joshi Vasudha P

7

Khalap Nutan

7

Kulkarni Amit S

7

Kulkarni S K

45

Kumar Anil

45

Kumar Rajesh

14

Kurkure N V

86

Kusum R

32

Madhuranath B N

28

Maharajan A

63

Mazumder U K

39

Mishra S K

19

Mohan J S S

77

Mondal Susanta Kumar

39

Naskar Ranu

83

Pande V V

86

Parija S C

19

Purkayastha R P

68

Raina P L

32

Ramachandran H D

32

Raviprakash V

19

Sahu Swati

55

Sen N S

83

Sharma Urvashi

77

Shedpure Maya

55

Shetty Somashekar

49

Somayaji S N

49

Trivedi Shweta

14

Udupa A L

49

Udupa S L

49

Yajurvedi H N

28

 

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Air-breathing

55

Aluminium toxicity

83

Antioxidant

39

Aphrodisiac

77

Ashwagandha

45

Aspergillus

73

Bacterin

63

Blinding

55

BR-16A

45

Broilers

86

Calcium

19

Catalepsy

45

Catfish

55

Cholesterol

32

Circadian rhythm

55

Clarias batrachus

83

Cod liver oil

32

Crude palm oil

32

C-terminal deletion

7

Culture filtrate proteins

14

Dead space wound

49

Defence activator

68

Defence proteins

68

Delayed type hypersensitivity

14

Dexamethasone

49

Diospyros malabarica

39

DNA binding

7

Enucleation

55

Estrous behavior

28

Excision wound

49

Fasciculated roots

77

Fatty acids

32

Filamentous fungi

73

Free radicals

39

Ginger

68

Haemato-biochemistry

86

Haemophilus influenzae

7

Haloperidol

45

Hypothyroidism

19

Incision wound

49

Induced resistance

68

Intraspecific strains

68

Lipid peroxidation

32

Lordosis

28

Metal biosorption

73

Metal tolerance

73

Mycobacterium bovis

14

Nucleotide Excision Repair

7

Ocimum sanctum

49

Oxidative stress

32

Penaeus monodon

63

Penicillium

73

Phenolic compound

39

Pineal

55

Poikilocytosis

83

Poultry

86

Pregnancy

19

Progesterone

28

Purified protein derivative

14

Pythium aphanidermatum

68

Rare species

77

Reductive ability

39

Reproductive stress response

28

Reserpine

45

Rhizome rot

68

Safed musli

77

Shoot multiplication

77

Shrimp

63

Soybean oil

32

T-2 toxin

86

Uterus

19

UvrAΔC44 protein

7

Vaccination

63

Vibrio harveyi

63

White spot syndrome virus

63

Wound healing

49

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 7-13

 

 

 

Effect of C-terminal 44 amino acids deletion on activity of
Haemophilus influenzae UvrA protein

 

Amit S Kulkarni, Nutan Khalap & Vasudha P Joshi

 

UV-sensitive mutant strain of Haemophilus influenzae Rd MBH3, is 20 times more sensitive to UV irradiation than the wild type strain. The mutation responsible for increased UV sensitivity of the strain was identified as G®A transition predicting synthesis of truncated UvrAΔC44 protein (Balsara & Joshi)12. Recombinant UvrAΔC44 protein was purified for the first time under denaturing conditions. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein was estimated as ~100 kDa. Recombinant UvrAΔC44 protein was found to be less efficient in its ATPase and DNA binding activity as compared to the wild type protein. Recombinant plasmid carrying uvrAΔC44 gene could partially complement the UvrA deficiency in E. coli UvrA mutant.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 14-18

 

 

Studies on diagnostic potential of secretory antigens of Mycobacterium bovis

Shweta Trivedi, S K Das, Rajesh Kumar & Rajesh Chandra

 

Culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) of M. bovis were produced by culturing the organism for a period of 3 weeks. These CFPs elicited a good delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in cattle and guinea pig. However, CFPs showed least cross–reactivity when tested in guinea pigs sensitized with M. bovis BCG and M. phlei. CFPs were found to be well recognized by T–cells of single intradermal test (SIDT) positive cattle and were also sero-reactive. Lymphocyte transformation assay revealed the culture filtrate antigens as major T-cell antigens. CFPs induced a good interferon gamma release as compared to conventional antigen, PPD, thereby highlighting their diagnostic capabilities.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 19-27

 

 

Hypothyroid state reduces calcium channel function in 18-day pregnant rat uterus

S C Parija, S K Mishra & V Raviprakash

 

Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the mean amplitude and increased the mean frequency of spontaneous rhythmic contractions in 18day pregnant rat uterus. Nifedipine (10-12-10-9 M) and diltiazem (10-10-10-6 M) caused concentration related inhibition of the myogenic responses of the uterine strips obtained from both pregnant and hypothyroid state. However, nifedipine was less potent (IC50:2.11´10-11 M) in pregnant hypothyroid state as compared to pregnant control (IC50: 3.1´10-12 M). Similarly, diltiazem was less potent (IC50 : 3.72´10-9 M) in inhibiting the uterine spontaneous contractions in hypothyroid than in pregnant rat uterus (IC50:5.37´10-10 M). A similar decrease in the sensitivity to nifedipine and diltiazem for reversal of K+ (100 mM)–induced tonic contraction and K+-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx was observed with these calcium channel antagonists in uterus obtained from hypothyroid pregnant rats compared to the controls. Nifedipine–sensitive influx of 45Ca2+-stimulated either by K+ (100 mM) or by Bay K8644 (1,4-dihydro-2,6-methyl-5-nitro-4-[2˘-(tri-fluromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridine carboxylic acid methyl ester) (10-9 M) was significantly less in uterine strips from hypothyroid rats compared to controls. The results suggest that the inhibition of uterine rhythmic contractions may be attributable to a reduction in rat myometrial Ca2+ channel function in the hypothyroid state.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 28-31

 

 

Progesterone restores stress induced inhibition of estrous behavior in rat

B N Madhuranath & H N Yajurvedi

 

Exposure to a stressor (mild electrical shocks to foot, five times per episode, at 1800, 1830, 1900 and 1930 hrs of proestrus) coinciding with period of pre-ovulatory progesterone secretion in rats abolished estrous behavior as shown by the absence of lordosis response and a significant increase in rejection quotient compared to controls. These rats did not show spermatozoa in the vaginal smear next day morning in contrast to their presence in controls. On the other hand, rats treated with progesterone (a single injection, 500 μg in 0.1 ml olive oil at 1800 hr of proestrus) prior to exposure to stressor showed normal estrous behavior, as shown by significantly lower rejection quotient than rats exposed to stress alone, lordosis quotient similar to controls and presence of spermatozoa in the vaginal smear next day. The results, albeit indirectly, to the best of our knowledge, first time indicate that stress induced impaired steroidogenesis leads to suppression of estrous behavior.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 32-38

 

 

Modulatory effect of dietary factors on iron-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in liver and serum of albino rats

H D Ramachandran, Kusum R & P L Raina

 

Effect of a computed diet based on cereals and spices incorporated with either crude palm oil (CPO)/soybean oil (SBO)/cod liver oil (CLO) at 10% level in the diet in modulating iron-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation was carried out during a 12 week study in albino rats. Three groups of rats, each divided into three sets were fed diets based on casein/ragi/jowar incorporated with CPO or SBO or CLO. The casein group of rats did not receive any spice mixture, while the ragi and jowar groups received spice mixture at 2.5% level. Serum lipid analysis showed significant increase in cholesterol, LDL-c + VLDL-c and decrease in HDL-c levels in all the iron treated group of animals. In liver, non-significant increase in total cholesterol triglyceride and decrease in phospholipid levels were noted. Fatty acid profile of liver tissue exhibited low 18:2 levels in various experimental groups due to peroxidation of membrane lipids. Histopathological examination of liver tissue in particular showed mild cytoplasmic vacuolation in control group of rats fed ragi/jowar and moderate vacuolation in all the iron-treated groups. The results demonstrate that different dietary components can beneficially modulate free radical mediated oxidative stress induced by lipid peroxidation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 39-44

 

 

In vitro antioxidant activity of Diospyros malabarica Kostel bark

Susanta Kumar Mondal, Goutam Chakraborty, M Gupta & U K Mazumder

 

Antioxidant activity of defatted methanol extract of D. malabarica bark was studied for its free radical scavenging property on different in vitro models e.g. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxide radical model. The extract showed good dose-dependent free radical scavenging property in all the models except in hydroxyl radical inhibition assay. IC50 values were found to be 9.16, 13.21, 25.27 and 17.33 µg/ml respectively in DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. In hydroxyl radical inhibition assay 1000 µg/ml extract showed only 10% inhibition with respect to the control. Measurement of total phenolic compounds by Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent indicated that 1mg of the extract contained 120.7µg equivalent of pyrocatechol. The results indicate that the antioxidant property of the extract may be due to the high content of phenolic compounds. However, the underlying mechanism may not involve hydroxyl radical scavenging property.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 45-48

 

 

Effect of BR-16A (MentatŇ), a polyherbal formulation on drug-induced
catalepsy in mice

Anil Kumar & S K Kulkarni

 

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The events, which trigger and/or mediate the loss of nigral DA neurons, however, remain unclear. Neuroleptic-induced catalepsy has long been used as an animal model for screening drugs for Parkinsonism. Administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, ip) or reserpine (2 mg/kg, ip) significantly induced catalepsy in mice. BR-16A (50 and 100 mg/kg, po), a polyherbal formulation or ashwagandha (50 and 100 mg/kg, po), significantly reversed the haloperidol or reserpine-induced catalepsy. The results indicate that BR-16A or ashwagandha has protective effect against haloperidol or reserpine-induced catalepsy and provide hope that BR-16A could be used in preventing the drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects and may offer a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 49-54

 

 

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on normal and dexamethasone

suppressed wound healing

 

S L Udupa, Somashekar Shetty, A L Udupa & S N Somayaji

 

Ethanolic extract of leaves of O. sanctum was investigated for normal wound healing and dexamethasone depressed healing using incision, excision and dead space wound models in albino rats. The extract of O. sanctum significantly increased the wound breaking strength in incision wound model. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster and the rate of wound contraction was significantly increased as compared to control wounds. Significant increase in wet and dry granulation tissue weight, granulation tissue breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wound model was observed. The extract significantly decreased the antihealing activities of dexamethasone in all the wound models. The results indicated that the leaf extract promotes wound healing significantly and able to overcome the wound healing suppressing action of dexamethasone. Histological examination of granulation tissue to determine the pattern of lay-down for collagen confirmed the results.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 55-62

 

 

Air-breathing rhythm in Clarias batrachus (Linn.): Modulatory role of eyes, pineal and exogenous melatonin

Swati Sahu & Maya Shedpure

 

Effects of enucleation followed by pinealectomy and administration of exogenous melatonin on air-breathing activity rhythm in a fresh water catfish, C. batrachus maintained at LD 12:12 and laboratary temperature during its prepratory phase, were examined. Results of cosinor analysis clearly reveal that most of the intact individuals exhibited circadian rhythm in their air-breathing activity and such rhythm persists even after enucleation followed by pinealectomy and then melatonin administration. However, the period (t) of the activity obtained by power spectrum analysis was prominent 24 hr in most of the intact individuals, but it was increased (t > 24 hr) after enucleation in most of the individuals. In most of the enucleated + pinealectomized individuals t was less than 24 hr, and after receiving melatonin treatment t was shifted to prominent
24 hr in most of the individuals. In addition, visual analysis of the actograms depicted that in intact individuals air-breathing activity is entrained with the timings of lights on/off with elevation of activity during dark period and decreased activity during light hours. However, enucleated and enucleated + pinealectomized individuals showed free run in their activity rhythm. The treatment of melatonin reestablished the entrainment of activity atleast with the timing of lights off, in most of the studied individuals. Further, daily mean of the air-breathing activity was decreased in enucleated + pinealectomized individuals as compared with other studied groups (intact, enucleated, enucleated + pinealectomized + melatonin receiving). It could be speculated that there may be existence of extraretinal and extrapineal photoreceptors in C. batrachus. However, eyes play an important role in regulating air-breathing activity rhythm in such species. In addition, exogenous melatonin may also have some modulatory effect on such rhythm.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 63-67

 

 

Shrimps survive white spot syndrome virus challenge following treatment with vibrio bacterin

M Rosalind George, A Maharajan, K Riji John & M J Prince Jeyaseelan

 

Taking an innovative approach, a vaccination study using five bacterial strains viz. Vibrio campbelli (B60),
V. alginolyticus (B73), V. parahaemolyticus-like (B79), V. parahaemolyticus (R8) and V. harveyi (RG203) was conducted in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, considered as one of the serious pathogens of shrimps. Oral challenge with shrimps infected with WSSV showed a relative percentage survival of 5 and 47 % in the
P. monodon juveniles vaccinated with V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi, respectively. Results showed that there is a possibility of specifically immunising the shrimps against WSSV using bacterin prepared out of Vibrio harveyi isolates taken from shrimps infected with WSSV. Also, there was a level of protection attained by the shrimps due to immunisation with Vibrio strains.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 68-72

 

 

Intraspecific strains of Pythium aphanidermatum induced disease resistance in ginger and response of host proteins

Rajyasri Ghosh, Moumita Datta & R P Purkayastha

 

Intraspecific strains of Pythium aphanidermatum induced resistance in ginger against rhizome rot and activated biosynthesis of selected host proteins. Pre-inoculation of plants with IR strain (avirulent) or co-inoculation with SR2 (virulent) caused significant reduction in disease severity. Analysis of protein profiles of ginger leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by SDS-PAGE and Image Master VDS-ID Gel Analysis version : 3.0 revealed that some specific defence proteins/stress proteins increased in inoculated plants. Five such proteins having molecular weight 56, 32, 27, 18 and 14 kDa were detected in leaves of plant treated with IR + SR2 strains. On the contrary, mycelial protein profiles and submerged growth of strains were studied separately and together. Mycelia of IR, SR2 and IR + SR2 exhibited 26, 23 and 25 protein bands, respectively although, 21 bands were common between IR and SR2. Growth of SR2 in synthetic medium was much higher than that of IR, but the growth of two strains together was lower than SR2 alone. To characterise strains, their differential growth response to DL-b-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a known defence activator of ginger was also tested. Results suggested that at least 5 specific defence proteins/stress proteins were involved in microbially induced resistance in ginger and inducer strains were distinct in their specific protein profiles and sensitivity to BABA.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 73-76

 

 

Biosorption of Ni, Cr and Cd by metal tolerant Aspergillus niger and
Penicillium sp. using single and multi-metal solution

Iqbal Ahmad, Mohd Ikram Ansari & Farrukh Aqil

 

Fungi including Aspergillus and Penicillium, resistant to Ni2+, Cd2+, and Cr6+ were isolated from soil receiving long-term application of municipal wastewater mix with untreated industrial effluents of Aligarh, India. Metal tolerance in term of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 125-550 μg/ml for Cd, 300-850 μg/ml for Ni and 300-600 μg/ml for Cr against test fungi. Two isolates, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were tested for their Cr, Ni and Cd biosorption potential using alkali treated, dried and powdered mycelium. Biosorption experiment was conducted in 100 ml of solution at three initial metal concentrations i.e., 2, 4 and 6 mM with contact time (18 hr) and pretreated fungal biomass (0.1g) at 25°C. Biosorption of all metals was found higher at 4 mM initial metal concentration as compared to biosorption at 2 and 6 mM concentrations. At 4 mM initial metal concentration, chromium biosorption was 18.05 and 19.3 mg/g of Aspergillus and Penicillium biomasses, respectively. Similarly, biosorption of Cd and Ni ions was also maximum at 4 mM initial metal concentration by Aspergillus (19.4 mg/g for Cd and 25.05 mg/g of biomass for Ni) and Penicillium (18.6 mg/g for Cd and 17.9 mg/g of biomass for Ni). In general, biosorption of metal was influenced by initial metal concentration and type of the test fungi. The results indicated that fungi of metal contaminated soil have high level of metal tolerance and biosorption properties.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 77-82

 

 

In vitro clonal propagation of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand., a rare medicinal herb from immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis

Urvashi Sharma & J S S Mohan

 

A novel method of shoot regeneration from immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis in C. borivilianum, a rare medicinal herb is described. Using this explant, axenic cultures were established with very less contamination (10%). MS medium with 2 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.1 mg l-1 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid proved to be the best for multiple shoot induction. Maximum number (35) of shoot production was achieved in MS medium with 2 mg l-1 benzylaminopurine. Rooting of shoots (86.7%) with maximum fasciculated roots (5) occurred on Knops medium containing iron and vitamins of MS medium with 2 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 0.1% activated charcoal. Plant survival was 80% in four weeks after their removal from in vitro conditions. Per explant 34 hardened plants generated within 50 weeks. This protocol can be useful for large-scale clonal multiplication from immature floral buds with inflorescence axis and successfully used for germplasm conservation of this rare medicinal herb without destroying the mother plant.

 

 

Notes

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 83-85

 

 

Aluminium toxicity induced poikilocytosis in an air-breathing teleost, Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

 

Ranu Naskar, N S Sen & M Firoz Ahmad

 

The present study was undertaken to assess the toxicity of acid alone and two different sublethal concentrations of aluminium, (25% and 75% dose of 96 hr LC50 value in acidified soft water of pH 5) on red blood cells of a stenohaline catfish, C. batrachus for an acute exposure of 5 days. The scanning electron microscopic studies on all the three treated groups revealed several kinds of erythrocyte alterations and modifications with abnormal morpho­logy. These included abnormal surface-wrinkling accompanied with excessive roughness on the membrane, erythrocytes with surface granulation in higher dose and finally the appearance of morphologically abnormal forms, the codocyte (target cell) and the stomatocyte. The results suggest that abnormality in the shape of erythrocytes could be linked to altered surface membrane area to volume ratio, decrease in cytoplasmic volume owing to reduced Hb content or increase in the amount of water content within the cell resulting from osmotic disequilibrium. In this context, the abnormal surface membrane morphology could be attributed to cytoskeleton fragility and defects in structural proteins. Further, the acid group exhibited a striking behavior of cellular adhesion and bonding to adjoining cell surfaces, culminating in several bunches which thereby reduces the surface area for gaseous exchange and could produce blocking effect while flowing through microcirculation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, January 2006, pp. 86-88

 

 

Effect of T-2 toxin on growth, performance and haematobiochemical alterations
in broilers

V V Pande, N V Kurkure & A G Bhandarkar

 

Administration of dietary T-2 toxin in 120 days old broiler chicks led to significant lower body weights and increase in feed conversion ratio from 2nd week of age. There was significant reduction in haemoglobin and packed cell volume in T-2 toxicated birds at 4 ppm level only. The other hematological parameters like TEC, TLC and absolute leucocyte count did not showed any variation due to T-2 toxin in feed. Significant reduction in serum total protein and cholesterol levels and rise in serum uric acid and LDH levels of broilers were observed due to dietary T-2 toxin. The result suggests that T-2 toxin is toxic to broilers even at very low concentrations.