Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 7

JULY 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(7) 515-592(2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Mini Review

 

Characteristics and physiological role of surfactant-like–particles secreted
by enterocytes

519

      Aasma Turan, Shiffalli Gupta & Akhtar Mahmood

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Vitiligo: Pathomechanisms and genetic polymorphism of susceptibility genes

526

      E M Shajil, Sreejata Chatterjee, Deepali Agrawal, T Bagchi &
Rasheedunnisa Begum

 

 

 

Papers

 

A comparative study on the protective effects of 17β-estradiol, biochanin A and bisphenol A on mammary gland differentiation and tumorigenesis in rats

540

      Hong Yin, Akihiro Ito, Dilip Bhattacharjee & Masaharu Hoshi

 

 

 

Molecular characterization of mutation associated with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

547

      Sanjay Singh Negi, Ranjana Anand, S T Pasha, Sunil Gupta, Seemi Farhat Basir, Shashi Khare & Shiv Lal

 

 

 

Excretory-secretory product of Fasciola hepatica worm protects against
Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

554

      Manal A Hamed

 

 

 

Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in
adult albino rats

562

      Sumedha S Audi, Marjorie E Abraham & Abhaya S Borker

 

 

 

Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin attenuates thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic rats

566

      Sameer Sharma, S K Kulkarni & Kanwaljit Chopra

 

 

 

Teratogenicity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root, a herbal medicine

570

      R K Goel, T Prabha, M Mohan Kumar, M Dorababu, Prakash & G Singh

 

 

 

Evaluation of adaptogenic activity profile of herbal preparation

574

      Shaik Azmathulla, Amolkumar Hule & Suresh Ramnath Naik

 

 

Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in toxicological evaluation of commonly used organophosphate pesticides

580

      Mohan Singh, Rajat Sandhir & Ravi Kiran

 

 

Development of endosulfan tolerant strain of an egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

584

      S K Jalali, S P Singh, T Venkatesan, K S Murthy & Y Lalitha

 

 

 

Information for Authors

591

 

 

 

Author Index

Abraham Marjorie E

562

Agrawal Deepali

526

Anand Ranjana

547

Audi Sumedha S

562

Azmathulla Shaik

574

Bagchi T

526

Basir Seemi Farhat

547

Begum Rasheedunnisa

526

Bhattacharjee Dilip

540

Borker Abhaya S

562

Chatterjee Sreejata

526

Chopra Kanwaljit

566

Dorababu M

570

Goel R K

570

Gupta Shiffalli

519

Gupta Sunil

547

Hamed Manal A

554

Hoshi Masaharu

540

Hule Amolkumar

574

Ito Akihiro

540

Jalali S K

584

Khare Shashi

547

Kiran Ravi

580

Kulkarni S K

566

Kumar M Mohan

570

Lalitha Y

584

Mahmood Akhtar

519

Murthy K S

584

Naik Suresh Ramnath

574

Negi Sanjay Singh

547

Pasha S T

547

Prabha T

570

Prakash

570

Sandhir Rajat

580

Shajil E M

526

Sharma Sameer

566

Shiv Lal

547

Singh G

570

Singh Mohan

580

Singh S P

584

Turan Aasma

519

Venkatesan T

584

Yin Hong

540

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetylcholinesterase

580

Adaptogenic

574

Anabolic

574

Antioxidant

554

Antistress

574

Artificial selection

584

Asparagus racemosus

570

Autoimmunity

526

Biochanin A

540

Bisphenol A

540

Cigarette smoke

562

Diabetic neuropathy

566

Endosulfan

584

Enzymes

554

Erythrocytes

580

17-β-Estradiol

540

Excrtory- secretory antigen

554

Fasciola hepatica

554

Fat feeding

519

Glucose-6-phosphate

580

dehydrogenase

 

Glutathione reductase

580

Glutathione-s-transferase

580

Haematological parameters

574

Herbal medicines

570

Hyperalgesia

566

Immunomodulatory

574

Intestinal lumen

519

Isoniazid

547

Mammary gland differentiation

540

Mammary tumorigenesis

540

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

547

Neural factors

526

Ovary

562

Oxidative stress

526, 566

Polymorphism

526

Reproductivity

562

Resistance

584

Resveratrol

566

Rifampicin

547

Satavari

570

Schistosoma mansoni

554

Surfactant-like-particles

519

Teratogenicity

570

Testes

562

Trichogramma chilonis

584

Tuberculosis

547

Vitiligo

526

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp. 519-525

 

 

Mini Review

 

 

 

Characteristics and physiological role of surfactant-like particles secreted
by entrocytes

 

Aasma Turan, Shiffalli Gupta & Akhtar Mahmood

 

Intestinal epithelium secretes novel unilamellar membranes having characteristics similar to lung surfactants and thus has been named Surfactant-like particles (SLP). The chemical analysis of the membranes revealed cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of 0.68-0.78, which is much distinct from that of the underlying microvillus membranes (1.34-1.49). The membrane contains 4-6 proteins with a molar weight of 30-120 kDa and is enriched with alkaline phosphatase, contains low amounts of disaccharidases but no Na+, K+–ATPase activity. The secretion of SLP is stimulated by fat feeding. Chronic ethanol ingestion also induces the formation of SLP in rat intestine. A number of physiological functions have been attributed to SLP, which include: (i) as a protective lubricant in intestinal lumen, (ii) a role in triacylglycerol transport, (iii) as a vehicle for the transport of luminal proteins into blood, (iv) as a stratum for the adhesion of microorganisms in intestinal lumen, and (v) a role in trans-signalling mechanism across the basolateral surface of enterocytes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp. 526-539

 

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Vitiligo: Pathomechanisms and genetic polymorphism of susceptible genes

 

E M Shajil, Sreejata Chatterjee, Deepali Agrawal, T Bagchi & Rasheedunnisa Begum

 

Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes in the skin and affects 1-4% of the world population. Incidence of vitiligo is found to be 0.5-2.5% in India with a high prevalence of 8.8% in Gujarat and Rajasthan states. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to melanocyte destruction in this disorder are not yet been fully elucidated. Genetic factors, neural factors, toxic ROS metabolites, autoantibodies and autoreactive T lymphocytes may be the causative agents for the selective destruction of melanocytes. Three major hypotheses of pathogenesis of vitiligo are neural, autoimmune and oxidative stress hypotheses, however none of them explains the pathogenesis of vitiligo in toto. Genetics of vitiligo is characterized by incomplete penetrance, multiple susceptibility loci and genetic heterogeneity. Recent advances in this field are linkage and association of candidate gene studies. The linkage and association studies provide a strong evidence for the presence of multiple vitiligo susceptibility genes on different chromosomes. Several candidate genes for vitiligo are identified from different populations. In this review, we have provide an overview of different hypotheses of vitiligo pathogenesis, and discuss the recent advances in this field with special reference to linkage, association and candidate gene approach.

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.540-546

 

 

A comparative study on the protective effects of 17β-estradiol, biochanin A and bisphenol A on mammary gland differentiation and tumorigenesis in rats

 

Hong Yin, Akihiro Ito, Dilip Bhattacharjee & Masaharu Hoshi

 

Received 18 August 2005; revised 22 March 2006

Mammary tissue differentiation and tumorigenesis were studied in female rats following subcutaneous injection at 2, 4 and 6 days after birth with low or high doses of 17β-estradiol (0.1 or 10 µg; E2), biochanin A (0.1 or 10 mg; BCA) or bisphenol A (0.1 or 10.0 mg; BPA). Half of the rats were killed on day 35 to analyze the terminal end bud (TEB), terminal duct (TD) and alveolar bud (AB) of the mammary tissue. The remaining rats were injected, ip, with a dose of 50 mg/kg of
N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) at 7 weeks of age and sacrificed 26 weeks later. The incidence and multiplicity of mammary tumors (MT) decreased among all three different treated groups, dose-dependently. However, the pattern of mammary gland differentiation varied. No significant difference was observed after E2 administration. TEB decreased dose-dependently in BCA treated groups and the number of TD and AB were suppressed significantly in BPA high dose group.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.547-553

 

 

Molecular characterization of mutation associated with rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates

Sanjay Singh Negi, Ranjana Anand, S T Pasha, Sunil Gupta, Seemi Farhat Basir, Shashi Khare& Shiv Lal

 

Received 3 November 2005; revised 18 January 2006

Nucleotide changes in catalase peroxidase (Kat G) gene and gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpo B), responsible for isoniazid and rifampicin drug resistance were determined in the clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by PCR-RFLP, Line probe assay and DNA sequencing. PCR-RFLP test was performed by HapII cleavage of an amplified fragment of Kat G gene to detect the transversion 315AGC→ACC(Ser→Thr) which is associated with INH drug resistance. The Line probe assay kit was evaluated to detect the mutation in 81bp RMP resistance determining region of rpo B gene associated with RMP drug resistance. These results were validated by DNA sequencing and drug susceptibility test. Kat G S 315 T mutation was found in 74.19% strains of M. tuberculosis from Delhi. This mutation was not found in any of the susceptible strains tested. The line probe assay kit and DNA sequencing identified 18 isolates as RMP resistant with specific mutation, while one of the RMP resistant strain was identified as RMP susceptible, with a concordance of 94.73% with the phenotypic drug susceptibility result. Majority (8 of 19, 42.1%) of resistant isolates involved base changes at codon 531 of rpo B gene. Both PCR-RFLP and Line probe assay test can be used in many of the clinical microbiology laboratories for early detection of isoniazid and rifampicin drug resistance in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.554-561

 

Excretory-secretory product of Fasciola hepatica worm protects against Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

Manal A Hamed

 

Received 9 December 2005; revised 17 March 2006

The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective immunity of excretory-secretory products of Fasciola hepatica (FhES) worm against S.mansoni infection in mice. Evaluation of FhES antigen was through measuring worm burden, ova count, granuloma size and frequency as well as the histopathological picture of the liver. The study was extended to determine the level of free radical scavengers; lipid peroxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, vitamin E, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Liver function enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also taken into consideration. Four groups of eight mice each were selected for this study. Group 1 served as control group. Group 2: normal healthy mice vaccinated with FhES product. Group 3: S.mansoni infected mice for 2 months and group 4: infected mice pre-vaccinated with FhES antigen. Vaccination schedule comprised of a single subcutaneous injection of FhES antigen emulsified with Freund’s complete adjuvant in a dose 0.5 mg protein/mouse, followed by intraperitoneal injections of the same antigen without adjuvant in 3 doses/week for 3 successive weeks. The total antigen inoculation was 5 mg protein/mouse. The present results revealed a drastic change in all the measured parameters after S.mansoni infection and a noticeable improved level after vaccination with FhES antigen. It can be concluded that FhES antigen succeeded to protect mice against schistosomiasis by a significant reduction in worm burden, ova count, granuloma size and number, improvement in the histopathological architecture of the liver as well as amelioration in the antioxidant levels under investigation.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.562-565

 

 

Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in adult albino rats

 

Sumedha S Audi, Marjorie E Abraham & Abhaya S Borker

 

Received 12 January 2005; revised 3 April 2006

One hour daily exposure to cigarette smoke for two months significantly decreased the body weight and food intake in male and female albino rats. The latency for conception increased significantly and the litter size decreased. Mortality rate per litter increased and grayish discoloration of the skin in the experimental group was the only congenital anomaly seen. Testes and ovaries showed a significant decrease in weight. The stroma of the ovaries were occupied by very few Graafian follicles. Testes showed disruption of the normal orderly progression of the spermatogonia. The tubules showed only one layer of spermatogonia and very few germinal cells. The number of sperms was less in the testes. The results show that exposure to cigarette smoke is detrimental to the reproductivity in both, male and female albino rats.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.566-569

 

 

Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin attenuates thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic rats

Sameer Sharma, S K Kulkarni & Kanwaljit Chopra

 

Received 16 December 2005; revised 10 April 2006

The effects of resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine have been investigated on hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65mg/kg). After 4-weeks of STZ injection, diabetic rats exhibited a significant thermal hyperalgesia and cold allodynia along with increased plasma glucose and decreased body weights as compared with controls rats. Chronic treatment with resveratrol (10mg/kg orally) from week 4 to week 6 significantly attenuated the cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. The results emphasize the role of oxidative stress in development of hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in diabetic animals and point towards the potential of resveratrol as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.570-573

 

 

Teratogenicity of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root, a herbal medicine

R K Goel, T Prabha, M Mohan Kumar & M Dorababu

and

Prakash & G Singh

 

Received 15 September 2005; revised 20 April 2006

Asparagus racemosus (AR) is a herb used as a rasayana in Ayurveda and is considered both general and female reproductive tonic. Methanolic extract of A. racemosus roots (ARM; 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days) showed teratological disorders in terms of increased resorption of fetuses, gross malformations e.g. swelling in legs and intrauterine growth retardation with a small placental size in Charles Foster rats. Pups born to mother exposed to ARM for full duration of gestation showed evidence of higher rate of resorption and therefore smaller litter size. The live pup showed significant decrease in body weight and length and delay of various developmental parameters when compared to respective control groups. AR therefore, should be used in pregnancy cautiously as its exposure during that period may cause damage to the offspring.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.574-579

 

 

Evaluation of adaptogenic activity profile of herbal preparation

Shaik Azmathulla, Amolkumar Hule & Suresh Ramnath Naik

 

Received 15 July 2005, revised 27 March 2006

The herbal formulation, AVM is a proprietary formula that consists of extracts of herbs that have been used in Indian traditional medicine to promote physical and mental health, improve defense mechanisms of the body and enhance longevity. AVM (500 and 1000 mg/kg) was tested for its adaptogenic activity by determining antistress, anabolic and immunomodulatory effects. In antistress activity, pretreatment with AVM significantly attenuated the changes in ascorbic acid (from blood and adrenal), cortisol (from plasma and adrenal) and adrenal gland weights induced due to restrain stress (physical immobilization). Its antistress effect at 1000 mg/kg was comparable to that of diazepam (5 mg/kg) treated group. Leucopenia, and anemia induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP) was shown to reduce significantly by AVM. Treatment of AVM + CYP had increased spleen and thymus weights significantly as compared to CYP alone treated group. The anabolic activity was evaluated by weight gain of the levator ani muscle, ventral prostrate gland and seminal vesicles in rats as compared to untreated control.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.580-583

 

 

Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in toxicological evaluation of commonly used organophosphate pesticides

Mohan Singh, Rajat Sandhir & Ravi Kiran

 

Received 18 November 2005; revised 13 April 2006

Erythrocytes are excellent models for the study of interactions of xenobiotics with biomembranes. Present work is designed to study the in vitro effects of some organophosphates (ethion, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and monocrotophos) on rat erythrocytes. Treatment of erythrocytes with organophosphates resulted in decreased erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activity, whereas activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased. Reduced Glutathione (GSH) content of RBCs was decreased after treatment with the pesticides. Increased activities of GST and GR were due to induction of natural defense mechanism of erythrocytes against the toxicity of the pesticides. Membrane bound enzymes like acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase were also inhibited. Altered activities of these enzymes along with decreased GSH content indicate increased oxidative stress in erythrocytes after treatment with organophosphates.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, July 2006, pp.584-590

 

 

Development of endosulfan tolerant strain of an egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

S K Jalali, S P Singh, T Venkatesan, K S Murthy & Y Lalitha

 

Received 23 December 2005; revised 24 March 2006

A strain of T. chilonis, an egg parasitoid of lepidopteran pests tolerant to the most commonly used cyclodiene insecticide – endosulfan was developed in the laboratory. Tolerance to endosulfan was induced by exposing adult parasitoids sequentially from a sub-lethal concentration (0.004%) to the field recommended concentration (0.09%). The strain acquired tolerance to the insecticide after 341 generation of continuous exposure with LC50 values of 1074.96 ppm as compared to LC50 of (70.91 ppm) in susceptible strain. The genetical study showed that F1 crosses exhibited a semi-dominant response to endosulfan with degree of dominance value (D) of 0.58. The resistant factor of tolerant strain was 15.1 folds and of F1 cross were 8.53 folds over susceptible strain. Under net house conditions, the tolerant strain parasitised 56% Helicoverpa armigera eggs on potted cotton plants immediately after an insecticide spray, compared to 3% by the susceptible strain.  High percentage survival of the immature stages of the tolerant strain proved their ability to withstand the insecticide load. Breakdown of insecticide tolerance in the strain occurred after four generations in absence of insecticide load. Use of the tolerant strain as a component of bio-intensive IPM in various crops where insecticide use is higher is discussed.