Indian Journal of Experimental Biology


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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(3) 167-260(2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Cytosolic sulfotransferases

171

      Deepthi Nimmagadda, Ganesh Cherala, & Srinivas Ghatta

 

 

 

Papers

 

Catheter related bacteremia in rats: A preliminary report on the effect of methylene blue coated catheter

183

      Augustine T Peter, Janusz Steczko, Stephen R Ash,Carol A Dowell, Ching C Wu & Gregory W Stevenson

 

 

 

Comparison of conditioned medium and direct co-culture of human granulosa cells on mouse embryo development

189

      Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah, Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam & Saeed Musavi Daraka

 

 

 

Impaired cell motility in chronic myeloid leukemic granulocytes related to altered cytoskeletal pattern

193

      M G Kamble, S H Advani  & A N Bhisey

 

 

 

Induction and evaluation of atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits

203

      B G Madhumathi, M V Venkataranganna, S Gopumadhavan, Mohd Rafiq &
S K Mitra

 

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of mangiferin on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction
in rats

209

      S Prabhu, Mallika Jainu, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi *

 

 

 

Inhibitory effect of cinnamoyl compounds against human malignant cell line

216

      M A Indap, S Radhika, Leena Motiwale & K V K Rao

 

 

 

Histopathological changes in experimental cholera with a non toxigenic non- O1,
non- O139 Vibrio cholerae strain isolated from Kolkata, India

221

      D R Saha, A Pal, K Rajendran & P Dutta

 

 

 

Histopathological changes in liver, kidney and muscles of pesticides exposed malnourished and diabetic rats

228

      Nidhi Benjamin, Ameeta Kushwah, R K  Sharma & A K  Katiyar

 

 

 

In vitro cytogenetic studies of cypermethrin on human lymphocyte

233

      Suman G, Rambabu Naravaneni & Kaiser Jamil

 

Constitutive acetonitrile hydrolysing activity of Nocardia globerula NHB-2: Optimization of production and reaction conditions

240

      H Kumar, S Prasad, J Raj & T C Bhalla

 

 

 

Antioxidative effect of Rhus oxyacantha root cortex

246

      Olfa Tebourbi, Chiraz Trabelsi-, Cherif Ben Nasr & Mohsen Sakly

 

 

 

Short Communications

 

Host range nodulation and adaptation in frenchbean rhizobia

250

      B Dhar, Ashok Mishra & M K Singh

 

 

 

Limitation of glucose oxidase method of glucose estimation in jaundiced neonates

254

      Rupak Kr Chaudhuri, M Mukherjee, D Sengupta & S Mazumder

 

 

 

Optimum conditions for L-glutaminase production by actinomycete strain isolated from estuarine fish, Chanos chanos (Forskal, 1775)

256

      K Sivakumar, Maloy Kumar Sahu, P R Manivel & L Kannan

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Advani S H

193

Ash Stephen R

183

Benjamin Nidhi

228

Bhalla T C

240

Bhisey A N

193

Chaudhuri Rupak Kr

254

Cherala Ganesh

171

Daraka Saeed Musavi

189

Dhar B

250

Dowell Carol A

183

Dutta P

221

Ghatta Srinivas

171

Gopumadhavan S

203

Indap M A

216

Jainu Mallika

209

Jamil Kaiser

233

Kamble M.G

193

Kannan L

256

Katiyar A K

228

Kumar H                

  240

Kushwah Ameeta

228

Madhumathi B G

203

Malekshah Abbasali Karimpour

189

Manivel P R

256

Mazumder S

254

Mishra Ashok

250

Mitra S K

203

Moghaddam Amir Esmailnejad

189

Motiwale Leena

216

Mukherjee M

254

Naravaneni Rambabu

233

Nasr Cherif Ben

246

Nimmagadda Deepthi

171

Pal A

221

Peter Augustine T

183

Prabhu S

209

Prasad S

240

Radhika S

216

Rafiq Mohd.

203

Raj J

240

Rajendran K

221

Rao K V K

216

Sabitha K E

209

Saha D R

221

Sahu Maloy Kumar

256

Sakly Mohsen

246

Sengupta D

254

Sharma R K

228

Shyamala Devi C S

209

Singh M K

250

Sivakumar K

256

Steczko Janusz

183

Stevenson Gregory W

183

Suman G

233

Tebourbi Olfa

246

Trabelsi Chiraz

246

Venkataranganna M V

203

Wu Ching C

183

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetonitrilase

240

Actinomycetes

256

Adaptation

250

Amidase

240

Antitumor

216

Atherosclerosis

203

Bactericidal activity

193

Blood and liver chemistry

203

Breast cancer

171

Caffeic acid

216

Carcinogens

171

Catheter

183

Cell motility

193

Chanos chanos

256

Chromosomal aberrations

233

Chronic myeloid leukemia

193

Cinnamoyl compounds

216

Co-culture

189

Comet assay

233

Conditioned-medium

189

Curcumin

216

Cypermethrin

233

Cytogenetic damage

233

Cytoskelatal pattern

193

DDT

246

Diabetic

228

Enterotoxic

221

Estuarine fish

256

Ferulic acid

216

Frenchbean rhizobia

250

Gallic acid

216

Genotoxicity

233

Glucose oxidase-peroxidse method

254

l-Glutaminase

256

Granulosa cell

189

Gross and histopathology

203

Haemagglutinin protease

221

Histopathology

228

In vitro methods

233

Inflammation

221

Isoproterenol

209

Jugular Vein

183

Legume hosts

250

Lipid peroxides

209

Mangiferin

209

Marker enzymes

209

Metaphase

233

Methylene Blue

183

Mouse embryo

189

MTT assay

233

Myocardial infarction

209

Neonatal jaundice

254

New Zealand white rabbits

203

Nitrile hydratase

240

Nocardia globerula NHB-2

240

Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae

221

Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae

221

Oxidative stress

246

PAPS

171

Pesticide

228

Platinum drugs

216

PMNL

193

Proanthocyanidins

246

Protein-malnourishment

228

Rat

183

Reduced glutathione

254

Rhus oxyacantha

246

Streptomyces

256

Substrate binding region

171

Sulfotransferases

171

Symbiotic efficiency

250

Sulfoconjugation

171

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 171-182

 

 

 Review Article

Cytosolic sulfotransferases

Deepthi Nimmagadda, Ganesh Cherala & Srinivas Ghatta

 

Sulfoconjugation (Sulfation or Sulfonation) is an important reaction in the phase II biotransformation of a wide number of endogenous and foreign chemicals, including: drugs, toxic chemicals, hormones, and neurotransmitters. The reaction is catalyzed by the members of the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) superfamily, consisting of ten functional genes in humans. Sulfation reaction in living cells is reversed by sulfatase, which hydrolyses the sulfonated conjugates. It has a major role in regulating the endocrine status of an individual by modulating the activity of steroid hormones, their biosynthesis, and the metabolism of catecholamines. Sulfonation is a key reaction in the body's ‘chemical’ defense against xenobiotics. Although the primary function of sulfoconjugation is to permit detoxification of the compound, it also results in the activation of chemical procarcinogens, such as certain dietary and environmental agents into carcinogens. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the structure of mammalian cytosolic sulfotransferases and their role in human steroid associated cancers and in the bioactivation of chemical carcinogens.

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 183-188

 

 

Catheter related bacteremia in rats: A preliminary report on
the effect of methylene blue coated catheter

Augustine T Peter, Janusz Steczko , Stephen R Ash, Carol A Dowell , Ching C Wu  & Gregory W Stevenson

 

Received 23 July 2005; revised 14 October 2005

The safety and efficacy of methylene blue (MB) coated indwelling jugular vein/cranial vena cava catheter made up of polyurethane material was tested in a rat model, receiving bacterial culture suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Daily blood samples were collected from the catheter and peripheral vein for bacterial culture. The clinical parameters (rectal temperature, respiratory rate, total white blood cell count, and loss in body weight) were not different between the groups. All the rats became bacteremic with similar changes in the number of colony forming units in the catheter and peripheral samples. Histopathological lesions were not different between the groups. The findings suggest that rats receiving MB coated catheters behaved similar to non-coated catheters. Based on the results it can be concluded that for this type of gross contamination, catheter coating alone may not eliminate infection/bacteremia.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 189-192

 

 

Comparison of conditioned medium and direct co-culture of human granulosa cells on mouse embryo development

Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah, Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam & Saeed Musavi Daraka

 

Received 1 April 2005; revised 3 August 2005

Although numerous investigations have demonstrated the beneficial effects of co-culture system of different somatic cells on in vitro development of embryos, the effects of conditioned-media of co-culture cells have not been well documented. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of human granulosa cells co-culture system and its conditioned medium on the developmental rate of mouse embryos in vitro. Two sets of experiments were undertaken; in the first one 317 mouse one-cell embryos were cultured in human granulosa cell co-culture system (GC), Ham’s F10 medium conditioned with granulosa cells (CM) and non-conditioned Ham’s F10 for 120 h. In the second experiment, 391 late two-cell embryos were cultured in the 3 fore-mentioned culture treatments for 72 h. Embryos were obtained from NMRI mice. Granulosa cells were collected from patients undergoing an IVF program during oocyte pickup. In the first set of experiments, 23.6, 14.5 and 11.1% of one-cell embryos passed two-cell block and continued growing to 4-cell in GC, CM and HF, respectively. This index in GC was significantly different from two other treatments. Also significantly more embryos reached blastocyst stage in GC compared with two other treatments. The blastocyst rate was not significantly different between CM and HF. In the second set of experiments the proportion of blastocyst stage was significantly higher in CM than that in HF and lower than that in GC. In conclusion, although human granulosa cell-conditioned medium has beneficial effects on mouse embryo development, it was not as effective as co-culture of these cells.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 193-202

 

 

Impaired cell motility in chronic myeloid leukemic granulocytes related to altered cytoskeletal pattern

M G Kamble, S H Advani  & A N Bhisey

 

Received 14 March 2005; revised 29 November 2005

The bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) against infection stimulates cytoskeletal changes accompanied with alteration in adhesion and locomotion. Microfilaments, the motile apparatus is known to regulate these changes by polymerization of monomeric G-actin to fibrous F-actin. PMNL from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients have been reported to be defective in locomotion in response to synthetic peptide, n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) but the mechanism leading to defective locomotion and their spatial reorganization remains unclear. Therefore, in order to study the cause of defective motility of PMNL from CML patients the spatial distribution and reorganization of microfilaments and microtubules in response to fMLP have been examined by transmission electron (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under SEM, the PMNL-CML surface appeared smoother with reduced ruffling resulting in rounding off cells with lesser polarized morphology. Unstimulated PMNL from normal as well as CML subjects showed shorter and fewer microtubules and evenly distributed microfilaments as compared to fMLP stimulated PMNL. It is proposed that the cause of defective locomotion was due to reduced surface activity as a consequence of altered cytoskeletal configuration. This phenomenon seems to be related to impaired functional appendages and as a whole led to the defective cell motility and hence reduced chemotaxis in PMNL from CML patients.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 203-208

 

 

Induction and evaluation of atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits

B G Madhumathi, M V Venkataranganna, S Gopumadhavan, Mohd. Rafiq & S K Mitra

 

Received 31 May 2005; revised 23 November 2005

Atherosclerosis was experimentally induced in New Zealand white rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet for 12 weeks for screening of drugs against atherosclerosis. After 12 weeks, blood was collected from ear vein for evaluation of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels, then the animals were sacrificed to collect the livers for estimation of cholesterol, and aorta for gross and histopathological evaluations. The elevated levels of serum and liver parameters accompanied by gross and histopathological changes like accumulation of foam cells, atheromatous plaque formation and replacement fibrosis supported the successful induction of atherosclerosis in New Zealand white rabbits.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 209-215

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of mangiferin on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

S Prabhu, Mallika Jainu, K E Sabitha & C S Shyamala Devi

 

Received 24 June 2005; revised 23 November 2005

Isoproterenol (ISPH) induced myocardial infarction was confirmed by disturbances in serum and heart tissue marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phospho kinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), increased level of lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes in the heart of ISPH administered rats. Pretreatment with mangiferin (10 mg/100 g body weight) for 28 days was found to ameliorate the effect of ISPH-induced pathological changes, reduced the lipid peroxide formation and retained the myocardial marker enzyme activities at near normal level. The above results indicate the cardioprotective effect of mangiferin against ISPH-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 216-220

 

 

Inhibitory effect of cinnamoyl compounds against human malignant cell line

M A Indap, S Radhika, Leena Motiwale & K V K Rao

 

Received 14 July 2005; revised 7 December 2005

In the present study, anti-proliferative effects of dietary polyphenolic compounds have been observed and demonstrated the strong anticancer efficacy of curcumin (CMN), an active constituent of dietary spice (turmeric) using human leukemia cancer cell line. CMN inhibited the proliferation of K562 leukemic cells by induction of apoptosis. The current study demonstrated synergy with combination of drug therapy, and suggested that combination of ferulic acid and cisplatin synergistically inhibited cellular proliferation. Cytotoxic synergy was observed independent of the sequence of addition of two drugs to cultured cells. The synergized growth inhibitory effect with cisplatin was probably associated with G2-M arrest in cell cycle progression. These findings suggested that among the cinnamoyl compounds, CMN was most potent and FER appeared to be a better modulating agent on human malignant cell line.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 221-227

 

 

Histopathological changes in experimental cholera with a non toxigenic non- O1 non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strain isolated from Kolkata, India

D R Saha, A Pal, K Rajendran & P Dutta

 

Received 31st January 2005; revised 23 November 2005

This study was conducted to understand the pathophysiological changes in experimental rabbit ileal loop model using the Vibrio cholerae strain non-O1non-O139, isolated as sole pathogen from clinically diagnosed cholera patients in Kolkata. Significant amount of haemorrhagic fluid accumulation was observed in all the test loops of rabbit model where the strain of V.cholerae was inoculated as compared to control loops. Microscopic examination of the accumulated fluid showed the presence of erythrocytes and pus cells. Histology revealed structural alteration of the villous epithelium with inflammatory cells infiltration in all the layers of the gut mucosa including the nerve plexus region. Preliminary observation with a haemagglutinin protease extracted from the non-O1 non-O139 strain, was also studied in different concentrations in the same animal model which showed similar type of macroscopic and microscopic response in the ileal loops as seen with the original strain. The results highlight that along with other pathways, inflammatory cells and the enteric neurons have an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhoea and the isolated protease may be the probable virulence factor in initiating the disease process in this non-O1non-O139 strain induced cholera.

  

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 228-232

 

 

Histopathological changes in liver, kidney and muscles of  pesticides exposed malnourished and diabetic rats

Nidhi Benjamin, Ameeta Kushwah, R K Sharma & A K Katiyar

 

Received 7 March 2005; revised 18 November 2005

Histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney and muscles of normal, protein-malnourished, diabetic as well as both protein-malnourished and diabetic albino rats when exposed to a mixture of monocrotophos, hexachloro-cyclohexane and endosulfan at varying intervals. The examination revealed hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and muscular necrotic effects in pesticides exposed rats. Toxicity was aggravated in protein-malnourished and diabetic animals and more so, if the animals were both diabetic and protein-malnourished.

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 233-239

 

 

In vitro cytogenetic studies of cypermethrin on human lymphocytes

Suman G, Rambabu Naravaneni & Kaiser Jamil

 

Received 6 April 2005; revised 18 November 2005

Assessment of cytotoxicity and response to external factors like pesticides were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) or MTT assay, which measures mitochondrial metabolism in the entire cell culture and provides information about the percentage of cell survival. Utilizing the MTT assay, the cytotoxicity of cypermethrin was determined on lymphocyte cultures from human peripheral blood samples, the short-term lymphocyte cultures were incubated with various aliquots of the cypermethrin and the LC50 was found to be 33.6 mM. Lymphocytes treated with low-doses (1/10 of LC50) of cypermethrin showed an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and found to be significant. Karyotype analysis revealed more satellite associations and chromosomal breaks in cypermethrin treated samples. Low-doses of the pesticide also induced single-strand breaks in the DNA as assessed by comet assay. The pesticide caused increase in the comet tail length with increase in pesticide concentration, implicating genotoxicity in somatic cells. It is concluded that In vitro assays could give important information of the mechanism of toxicity at low dosages and impact on genetic material of human origin.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 240-245

 

 

Constitutive acetonitrile hydrolysing activity of Nocardia globerula
NHB-2: Optimization of production and reaction conditions

H Kumar, S Prasad, J Raj & T C Bhalla

 

Received 24 June 2005; revised 7 December 2005

Nocardia globerula NHB-2 exhibited an intracellular acetonitrile hydrolysing activity (AHA) when cultivated in nutrient broth supplemented with glucose (10.0 g/l) and yeast extract (1.0 g/l), at pH 8.0, 30°C for 21 hr. Maximum AHA was recorded in the culture containing 0.1 M of sodium phosphate buffer, (pH 8.8) at 45°C for 15 min with 600 μmol of acetonitrile and resting cells of N. globerula NHB-2 equivalent to 1.0 ml culture broth. This activity was stable up to 40°C and was completely inactivated at or above 60°C. About five-fold increase in AHA was observed after optimization of culture and reaction conditions. Under the optimized conditions, this organism hydrolyzed various nitriles and amides such as propionitrile, benzonitrile, acetamide, and acrylamide to corresponding acids. This nitrile/amide hydrolysing activity of N. globerula NHB-2 has potential applications in enzymatic synthesis of organic acids and bioremediation of nitriles and amides contaminated soil and water system.

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 246-249

 

 

Antioxidant activity of extract of Rhus oxyacantha  root cortex

Olfa Tebourbi, Chiraz Trabelsi, Cherif Ben Nasr & Mohsen Sakly.

 

Received 18 January 2005; revised 18 July 2005

In the present study, the root extract of Rhus oxyacantha contained 25.33 mg of catechin equivalent per mg of fresh wt and was found rich in proanthocyanidins compared to vine shoot, grape pips and leaves. The chromatographic analysis of the extract suggested the presence of (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin -3-O-gallate as well as proanthocyanidinic oligomers and polymers. Root cortex inhibited the ascorbic acid oxidation by dioxygen. It also prevented DDT-induced thymocytes death in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested antioxidant property of root extract of Rhus oxyacantha which could be ascribed to its free radical scavenging nature.

  

 

 

Short Communications

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 250-253

Host range nodulation and adaptation in frenchbean rhizobia

B Dhar, Ashok Mishra & M K Singh

 

Received 27 June 2005; revised 18 November 2005

The host range nodulation efficiency of four genetically marked frenchbean rhizobial strains (HURR-3, Raj-2, Raj-5 and Raj-6) was studied with five legume hosts namely, frenchbean (Phageolus vulgaris L.), pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilezek.], urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril.]. Except soybean and pigeonpea, all other legume hosts were nodulated by two or more frenchbean rhizobial strains tested. Rhizobia were isolated from nodules produced by strains, HURR-3 and Raj-5, on main (frenchbean) and different (mungbean and urdbean) hosts. There was marked improvement in host range nodulation and nitrogen fixation efficiency of rhizobial strains, HURR-3 and Raj-5, after their isolation from chance nodules on different hosts. This is clearly evident from the ability of such isolates to form nodules on pigeonpea besides mungbean and urdbean, and higher nodulation in all the above three different hosts. The phage-susceptibility pattern and intrinsic antibiotic resistance (used as markers) of the two strains did not change after their passage through different hosts. The results indicate that frenchbean rhizobia had undergone some modification in symbiotic behaviour to adapt to wide host range during their passage through different (alternate?) hosts.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 254-255

 

 

Limitation of glucose oxidase method of glucose estimation in jaundiced neonates

Rupak Kr Chaudhuri, M Mukherjee, D Sengupta & S Mazumder

 

Received 13 January 2005; revised 22 November 2005

The most widely used method for estimation of plasma glucose is that adopted by Trinder’s using glucose oxidase-peroxidase (GOD-POD) system. This method gives much lower blood glucose values with blood samples of neonatal jaundice (plasma bilirubin level > 10 mg/dL) of age 10±5 days than with samples of neonates of the same age group without jaundice or older children suffering from other diseases like acute respiratory distress, septicemia.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, March 2006, pp. 256-258

 

 

Optimum conditions for L-glutaminase production by actinomycete strain
isolated from estuarine fish, Chanos chanos (Forskal, 1775)

K Sivakumar, Maloy Kumar Sahu, P R Manivel & L Kannan

 

Received 9 September 2005; revised 7 December 2005

Actinomycetes were isolated from skin, gills and gut contents of estuarine fish, Chanos chanos using Kuster’s agar medium. Out of 20 strains tested, the strain LG-10 which was tentatively identified as Streptomyces rimosus showed L-glutaminase activity. Optimum production of L-glutaminase enzyme (17.51 IU/ml) was observed after 96 h of incubation at 27° C, pH 9 and glucose and malt extract as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The present study indicated scope for the use of S. rimosus as an ideal organism for the industrial production of extracellular L-glutaminase.