Indian Journal of Experimental Biology


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VOLUME 44

NUMBER 5

MAY 2006

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 44(5) 345-424(2006)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Review Articles

 

Lipid peroxidation in systemic lupus erythematosus

349

Biji T Kurien & R Hal Scofield

 

 

 

Nanotechnology based drug delivery system(s) for the management of tuberculosis

357

Rajesh Pandey & G K Khuller

 

 

 

Papers

 

Secretory factors of human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) and human glioblastoma (U87MG) cell lines induce neurite outgrowths in PC12 cells

367

Ravindra M Satpute, Rajpal S Kashyap, Rani Poonam Kainthla, Hemant J Purohit, Girdhar M Taori & Hatim F Daginawala

 

 

 

β–Adrenoceptor agonist treatment reverses denervation atrophy with augmentation of collagen proliferation in denervated mice gastrocnemius muscle

371

Rakesh Kumar, Surender S Katoch & Sushma Sharma

 

 

 

Hydrogen peroxide commences copper induced DNA damage isolated from human blood: In vitro study

377

Rajendra Prasad, Sheetal R Kumar & Sandeep Kumar

 

 

 

Differential acetylcholinesterase activity in rat cerebrum, cerebellum and hypothalamus

381

Rini Roy (Pal) & Aditi Nag Chaudhuri

 

 

 

Comparative evaluation of possible ocular photochemical toxicity of fluoroquinolones meant for ocular use in experimental models

387

T Velpandian, R Bankoti, S Humayun, A K Ravi, S S Kumari & N R Biswas

 

 

 

Development of biosensor based on immobilized L-glutamate oxidase for determination of monosodium glutamate in food

392

Anjan Kumar Basu, Parimal Chattopadhyay, Utpal Roychudhuri &Runu Chakraborty

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Hemideomus indicus R. Br. in rats

399

J R Baheti, R K Goyal & G B Shah

 

 

 

Antioxidant activity of Arthritin-A polyherbal formulation

403

D Chamundeeswari, V Vaijayanthi, S Umamaheswari, C Gandhimathi,S L Rajasekar Karna, E Meignanam & J Vasantha

 

 

Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 in relation to Rubisco gene expression in three C3 species

408

Vijai Pandurangam, Poonam Sharma-Natu, B Sreekanth & M C Ghildiyal

 

 

 

Short Communications

 

Modification of biochemical parameters of gentamicin nephrotoxicity by Coenzyme Q10 and green tea in rats

416

Aman Upaganlawar, Mamta Farswan, Shivkumar Rathod & R Balaraman

 

 

 

Cross infectivity of baculovirus, Spilarctia obliqua, nuclear polyhedrosis against mulberry pest, Porthesia xanthorrhoea Kollar

419

R Varatharajan, M Ingobi Singh & L Reeta

 

 

 

Analgesic activity of leaf extracts of Culcasia scandens P. Beauv

422

C O Okoli, P A Akah & O N Egbuniwe

 

 

 

 

 

Erratum/Addendum

 

Cytosolic sulfotransferases, by Deepthi Nimmagadda, Ganesh Cherala & Srinivas Ghatta, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol.44, March 2006, pp.171-182.

Under sub-head, Cytosolic sulfotransferases and human steroid associated cancers, (pp 177) paragraphs, “Reproductive organs are sex steroid-dependent-----human steroid-associated cancers” and “Mechanisms responsible for steroid-associated cancer------mediators of sex-steroid availability and signaling”, may be read as:

Sex steroids exert influence on the development of reproductive organs and hence it is logical to assume that malignancies of these tissues develop under abnormal steroid stimulation/exposure. Steroid action is mediated primarily via. ligand-inducible nuclear receptor binding and that in turn regulates gene transcription. Both sex hormone-dependent and independent cancers have active steroid receptors and hence can still respond to any type of hormonal stimulation. This section discusses various aspects of sulfotransferase-mediated steroid signaling in human steroid-associated cancers.

Sex hormones, such as estrogens, have been considered to mediate the progression of human female reproductive cancers owing to their natural function of promoting differentiation and proliferation of these tissues56. Classical endocrine therapy against steroid-associated cancers of reproductive tissues has, thus, aimed to deprive the tissues from growth-promoting steroids. Steroid-associated sulfotransferases could constitute the major defence system against steroid availability in human steroid-associated cancer development and progression.

Address for correspondence:

Deepthi Nimmagadda, Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI48201

E-mail: deepti_pharm2002@yahoo.co.in

 

 

 

Author Index

Akah P A

422

Baheti J R

399

Balaraman R

416

Bankoti R

387

Basu Anjan Kumar

392

Biswas N R

387

Chakraborty Runu

392

Chamundeeswari D

403

Chattopadhyay Parimal

392

Daginawala Hatim F

367

Egbuniwe O N

422

Farswan Mamta

416

Gandhimathi C

403

Ghildiyal M C

408

Goyal R K

399

Humayun S

387

Kainthla Rani Poonam

367

Karna S L Rajasekar

403

Kashyap Rajpal S

367

Katoch Surender S

371

Khuller G K

357

Kumar Rakesh

371

Kumar Sandeep

377

Kumar Sheetal R

377

Kumari S S

387

Kurien Biji T

349

Meignanam E

403

Nag Chaudhuri Aditi

381

Okoli C O

422

Pandey Rajesh

357

Pandurangam Vijai

408

Prasad Rajendra

377

Purohit Hemant J

367

Rathod Shivkumar

416

Ravi A K

387

Reeta L

419

Roy (Pal) Rini

381

Roychudhuri Utpal

392

Satpute Ravindra M

367

Scofield R Hal

349

Shah G B

399

Sharma Sushma

371

Sharma-Natu Poonam

408

Singh M Ingobi

419

Sreekanth B

408

Taori Girdhar M

367

Umamaheswari S

403

Upaganlawar Aman

416

Vaijayanthi V

403

Varatharajan R

419

Vasantha J

403

Velpandian T

387

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetylcholinesterase activity

381

β-Adrenoceptor agonist

371

Alginate

357

Analgesic activity

422

Antigens

349

Antioxidant

416

Arthritin

403

Autoantibody

349

Autoimmunity

349

Baculovirus

419

Biosensor

392

Bovine vitreous

387

CCl4

399

Cerebellum

381

Cerebrum

381

CO2

408

Coenzyme Q10

416

Collagen

371

Conditioned medium

367

Copper

377

Culcasia scandens

422

Denervation

371

DNA damage

377

DNA fragmentation

377

Epitopes

349

Eye

387

Fluoroquinolones

387

Food sample analysis

392

Gastrocnemius

371

Gentamicin

416

L-Glutamate oxidase

392

Glutathione peroxidase

403

Green tea

416

Hemidesmus indicus

399

Hepatoprotective

399

HET-CAM-UV model

387

Hydrogen peroxide

377

Hypothalamus

381

Isoproterenol

371

Lipid peroxidase

403

Liposomes

357

Lupus

349

Microbial control

419

Monosodium glutamate

392

Mulberry pest

419

Nanoparticles

357

Nephrotoxicity

416

Neurites

367

Nuclear polyhedrosis virus

419

Oxidative stress

416

Paracetamol

399

Pheochromocytoma

367

Photosynthesis

408

Phototoxicity

387

Poly lactide-co-glycolide

357

Porthesia xanthorrhoea

419

Rat

381

rbcs

408

Rubisco

408

Saccharide

408

Spilarctia oblique

419

Stability

392

Superoxide dismutase

403

Tuberculosis

357

 

 

 

 

 

Review Articles

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 349-356

 

 

Lipid peroxidation in systemic lupus erythematosus

Biji T Kurien & R Hal Scofield

 

Lipid peroxidation is an important process in oxygen toxicity. Free radicals inflict this damage by attacking polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus setting off a deleterious chain reaction that ultimately results in their disintegration into malondialdehye, 4 hydroxy-2-nonenal and other harmful by-products. Peroxidation of lipids has been implicated in several diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is an autoimmune disorder with unknown aetiology, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to self-antigens. There is a significant increase in the production of free radicals like superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in SLE. Indices of lipid peroxidation, like conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha are significantly elevated in SLE. Increased ceruloplasmin levels and decreased transferrin levels in the sera of SLE patients have also been described. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and the amounts of the antioxidant reduced glutathione are also significantly altered in this disease. In addition, there are significant changes in the essential fatty acid profile in the sera of those affected with the disease. In animal models of the disease, immunization of mice with peptides derived from autoantigens induces SLE like disease. Immunization with an oxidatively modified autoantigen led to the rapid development of autoimmunity compared to immunization with the unmodified autoantigen. Thus, oxidative damage appears to play an important role in SLE pathogenesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 357-366

 

 

Nanotechnology based drug delivery system(s) for the management of tuberculosis

Rajesh Pandey & G K Khuller

 

The era of nanotechnology has allowed new research strategies to flourish in the field of drug delivery. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are suitable for targeting chronic intracellular infections such as tuberculosis. Polymeric nanoparticles employing poly lactide-co-glycolide have shown promise as far as intermittent chemotherapy in experimental tuberculosis is concerned. It has distinct advantages over the more traditional drug carriers, i.e. liposomes and microparticles. Although the experience with natural carriers, e.g. solid lipid nanoparticles and alginate nanoparticles is in its infancy, future research may rely heavily on these carrier systems. Given the options for oral as well as parenteral therapy, the very nature of the disease and its complex treatment urges one to emphasize on the oral route for controlled drug delivery. Pending the discovery of more potent antitubercular drugs, nanotechnology-based intermittent chemotherapy provides a novel and sound platform for an onslaught against tuberculosis.

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 367-370

 

 

 

Secretory factors of human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) and human glioblastoma (U87MG) cell lines induce neurite outgrowths in PC12 cells

Ravindra M Satpute, Rajpal S Kashyap, Rani Poonam Kainthla, Hemant J Purohit, Girdhar M Taori &
Hatim F Daginawala

 

Received 2 June 2005; revised 2 March 2006

Neurite outgrowth is essential for the communication of the nervous system. The rat Pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells are commonly used in the neuronal cell study. It is well known that exogenous stimuli such as Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) induce neurite outgrowth. In the present study it has been investigated whether or not the conditioned medium from human neuroblastoma cell line (IMR-32) and human glioblastoma cell line (U87MG) may augment neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PC12 were cultured with and without conditioned media of IMR-32 and U87MG. The result showed that both the conditioned media induce neurite outgrowth within 48 hr and stops further proliferation of PC12 cells. However no outgrowth was noted in PC12 cells incubated without conditioned medium. In conclusion, it is shown that both the conditioned media (IMR-32 and U87MG) have the potential to induce the neurite outgrowth in the PC12 cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 371-376

 

 

β–Adrenoceptor agonist treatment reverses denervation atrophy with augmentation of collagen proliferation in denervated mice gastrocnemius muscle

Rakesh Kumar, Surender S Katoch & Sushma Sharma

 

Received 23 February 2005; revised 15 December 2005

Daily oral administration of isoproterenol hydrochloride (60 mg/kg body weight; for 30 days) a b-receptor agonist to normal innervated and denervated adult male Swiss albino mice confirmed its ability to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and reverse denervation atrophy respectively. Measurement of total tissue proteins and dry muscle mass showed 15-17% increase with 6% rise of hypertrophy index in gastrocnemius muscle. Hydroxyproline assay employed to measure the total tissue collagen exhibited 45% increase in collagen in normal innervated gastrocnemius muscle in response to b agonist treatment. β-adrenoceptor agonist ameliorated denervation atrophy along with further increase in collagen content of denervated gastrocnemius muscle.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 377-380

 

 

Hydrogen peroxide commences copper induced DNA damage isolated from human blood: In vitro study

 

Rajendra Prasad, Sheetal R Kumar & Sandeep Kumar

 

Received 22 June 2005; revised 10 March 2006

The present study revealed the damaging effects of copper and hydrogen peroxide on DNA isolated from human blood in in vitro. Ultra violet spectral studies showed that copper and H2O2 alone (at 20 mM) caused destabilization of DNA structure. Notwithstanding, the effect was more prominent in combination of copper and H2O2. Further, agarose gel electrophoretic studies revealed that neither copper nor H2O2 alone had DNA fragmentation (up to 40 mM concentration), while copper and H2O2 together caused massive DNA fragmentation even at lower concentrations (4 mM copper + 4 mM H2O2). Therefore, it was concluded from the present study that the observed destabilization of DNA associated with alterations in configuration and subsequently massive DNA fragmentation was in response to copper and H2O2. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and TUNNEL assay will address destabilization and fragmentation of naked DNA more precisely.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 381-386

 

 

Differential acetylcholinesterase activity in rat cerebrum, cerebellum and hypothalamus

Rini Roy (Pal) & Aditi Nag Chaudhuri

 

Received 14 March 2005: revised 26 December 2005

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been purified from three different regions of rat brain using Sephadex® G 200 column. SDS PAGE (6%) showed single band for the purified AChE fractions. Purified and lyophilized AChE from different (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fractions of three brain parts were utilized for in vitro enzyme kinetics using Dimethoate (Dmt) as inhibitor. Km values for cerebellum and hypothalamus were almost similar whereas cerebrum showed a different Km value compared to other two regions. With the drug Rivastigmine it was found that % G1 and G4 forms of AChE in three different parts of brain are different.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 387-391

 

 

Comparative evaluation of possible ocular photochemical toxicity of
fluoroquinolones meant for ocular use in experimental models

T Velpandian, R Bankoti, S Humayun, A K Ravi, S S Kumari & N R Biswas

 

Received 1 April 2005; revised 15 February 2006

Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are extensively used in bacterial keratitis and other intraocular infections. Since eye is constantly exposed to light, incidence of ocular phototoxicity due to commonly used FQs is of great interest for their safe use. Phototoxicity of commonly used FQs (ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin and gatifloxacin), has been evaluated by using HET-CAM-UV model (Photo Hen Egg Test-C Chorioallantoic Membrane model). This study was further extended by adding lomefloxacin dissolved in bovine vitreous (0.5ml) on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Using a standard scale, the phototoxic damage was assessed at different time intervals. Respective controls were kept in dark to distinguish the toxicity of the drugs per se. The results showed that the phototoxicity induced by lomefloxacin was very high followed by gatifloxacin and sparfloxacin and least for other drugs studied. Interestingly, lomefloxacin along with vitreous showed significantly low phototoxicity. This could be due to the antioxidant property of ascorbic acid present in the vitreous.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 392-398

 

 

Development of biosensor based on immobilized L-glutamate oxidase for determination of monosodium glutamate in food

Anjan Kumar Basu, Parimal Chattopadhyay, Utpal Roychudhuri & Runu Chakraborty

 

Received 8 July 2005; revised 1 March 2006

A monosodium glutamate (MSG) biosensor with immobilized L-glutamate oxidase (L-GLOD) has been developed and studied for analysis of MSG in sauces, soup etc. The immobilized enzymatic membrane was attached with oxygen electrode with a push cap system. The detection limit of the sensor was 1 mg/dl and the standard curve was found to be linear upto 20 mg/dl. Response time of the sensor was 2 min. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde in presence of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a spacer molecule has been used for immobilization. Optimization of the sensor was done with an increase in L-GLOD concentration (6.3-31.5 IU) and also with increase in loading volume of enzyme solution (5-20 ml). Optimization of pH and temperature was also studied. The permeability of O2 through different membrane was studied with and without immobilized L-GLOD. The enzymatic membrane was used for over 20 measurements and stability of the membrane was observed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 399-402

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. in rats

J R Baheti, R K Goyal & G B Shah

 

Received 6 May 2005; revised 18 January 2006

Treatment of rats with paracetamol and CCl4 produced a significant increase in the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and direct bilirubin. Rats pretreated with methanolic extract of roots of H. indicus (100-500 mg/kg body weight, po) exhibited rise in the levels of these enzymes but it was significantly less as compared to those treated with paracetamol or CCl4 alone. The results of methanolic extract of H. indicus were comparable with the standard hepatoprotective agent silymarin (100 mg/kg). Maximum hepatoprotective effect was found to be at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight in case of CCl4 induced hepatic damage while 500 mg/kg body weight in case of paracetamol induced hepatic damage. The results suggest that methanolic extract of H. indicus roots possesses a potential antihepatotoxic activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 403-407

 

 

Antioxidant activity of Arthritin-A polyherbal formulation

D Chamundeeswari, V Vaijayanthi, S Umamaheswari, C Gandhimathi,
S L Rajasekar Karna, E Meignanam & J Vasantha

 

Received 3 May 2005, revised 17 January 2006

In complete freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in male albino rats, a significant increase in serum lipid peroxidase besides increase in paw swelling and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total reduced glutathione levels were observed. Arthritin produced a marked reversal of these enzyme levels, besides a significant reduction in paw swelling. The results suggest that, the polyherbal formulation ‘Arthritin’ exerts its effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing anti-oxidant and detoxifying enzyme systems.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 408--415

 

 

Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 in relation to
Rubisco gene expression in three C3 species

Vijai Pandurangam, Poonam Sharma-Natu, B Sreekanth & M C Ghildiyal

 

Received 21 September 2005; revised 10 March 2006

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. DL 1266-5), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. var. MSFH 17) and mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. P 9072] were grown in field under atmospheric (360±10 cm3 m-3, AC) and elevated (650±50 cm3 m-3, EC) CO2 concentrations in open top chambers for entire period of growth and development. Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 was examined by comparing photosynthesis rate (Pn), Pn/Ci curves, leaf contents of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), change in the transcripts of Rubisco small subunit (SSU) gene and leaf carbohydrate constituents in AC and EC grown plants. The study indicated that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration in wheat occurred because of down regulation of Rubisco, through limitation imposed on Rubisco SSU gene expression, as a consequence of sugar accumulation in the leaves. Leaf starch accumulators, sunflower and mungbean, showed no down regulation of Pn under EC. The Rubisco contents (%) in leaf soluble protein and rbcS transcript levels were not significantly affected in EC plants compared to AC plants of sunflower and mungbean. The study indicated that accumulation of excess assimilates in the leaves as starch was less inhibitory to Pn and would, therefore, be an important trait for sustenance of Pn not only under EC, but also under AC, where Pn inhibited by end products.

 

Short Communications

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 416-418

 

Modification of biochemical parameters of gentamicin nephrotoxicity by Coenzyme Q10 and green tea in rats

Aman Upaganlawar, Mamta Farswan, Shivkumar Rathod & R Balaraman

 

Received 26 December 2005; revised 27 February 2006

The present study was designed to investigate the possible potential protective role of coenzymeQ10 (CoQ10; 10mg/kg/day, ip) and/or green tea (GT; 25mg/kg/day, po) against gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity. Marked increase in the level of serum urea, creatinine and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content was found after administration of gentamicin (80mg/kg/day, ip) for eight days along with significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) as well as brush border enzymes (Na+/K+ ATPase, Mg+2ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase).Treatment with CoQ10 or green tea alone with GM showed significant decrease in serum urea, creatinine and tissue LPO content and significant increase in antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes. Combined treatment with CoQ10 and green tea was more effective in mitigating adverse effect of GM nephrotoxicity. The present work indicated that CoQ10 and green tea due to their antioxidant activity modified the biochemical changes occurred during gentamicin nephrotoxicity and thus had a potential protective effect.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 419-421

 

 

Cross infectivity of baculovirus, Spilarctia obliqua nuclear polyhedrosis virus against mulberry pest, Porthesia xanthorrhoea Kollar

R Varatharajan, M Ingobi Singh & LReeta

 

Received 8 November 2005; revised 3 March 2006

Spilarctia obliqua nucleopolyhedrosis virus (SoNPV) has been found effective against S. obliqua (Walker) as well as Porthesia xanthorrhoea Kollar. LC50 concentration of S. obliqua SoNPV against S. obliqua and P. xanthorrhoea was 2.5´104 and 3.7´104 POBs/ml, respectively. LT50 of SoNPV against S. obliqua was 5.73 days, while it was 6.98 days for P. xanthorrhoea. Cross infectivity of SoNPV against P. xanthorrhoea and ease of its mass production may make it an ideal biopesticide.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 44, May 2006, pp 422-424

 

 

Analgesic activity of leaf extracts of Culcasia scandens P. Beauv

C O Okoli, P A Akah & O N Egbuniwe

 

Received 19 May 2005; revised 7 March 2006

Analgesic activity of methanol leaf extract of C. scandens obtained by column chromatography and its graded solvent fractions, was evaluated in mice using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin-induced paw licking. The extract and fractions significantly inhibited abdominal writhing and two phases of formalin-induced paw licking in mice, indicating that antinociceptive activity may involve inhibition of pain by peripheral and central mechanisms.