Total visitors: since 08-01-04

Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

APRIL 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(4)  311-398 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 


Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

VOLUME 45

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2007

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 45(4) 311-398 (2007)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

 

Diagnostics and therapy of Alzheimer’s disease

315

      Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Paweł Szymański & Elżbieta Żurek

 

 

 

Microbial diversity – Biotechnological and industrial perspectives

326

      CKM Tripathi, Divya Tripathi, Vandana Praveen & Vinod Bihari

 

 

 

Papers

 

Galanin stimulates hCG induced testicular steroidogenesis in adult but not in immature male rats

333

      Manisha Arora Pandit & R N Saxena

 

 

 

Effect of T3 treatment on glutathione redox pool and its metabolizing enzymes in mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions of adult rat testes

338

      Dipak K Sahoo, Anita Roy, Sutapa Chattopadhyay & G B N Chainy

 

 

 

Long-term caffeine-induced inhibition.of EAC cell progression in relation to gonadal hormonal status

 

347

      Anup Mandal, Sandip K Batabyal & Mrinal K Poddar

 

 

 

Effect of tannic acid on brush border disaccharidases in mammalian intestine

353

      Ayesha Chauhan, Shiffalli Gupta & Akhtar Mahmood

 

 

 

Impediment of diethylnitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in male Balb/c mice by pretreatment with aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract

359

      Ashwani Koul, Gursonika Binepal & Subhash Chander Gangar

 

 

 

Dietary fish oil as hepatoprotective agent in Mus musculus

367

      R Roy, D Chandrasekhar & P Pujari

 

 

 

Protective effect of ascorbic acid against oxidative stress induced by inorganic arsenic in liver and kidney of rat

 

371

      Sohini & S V S Rana

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Butea monosperma Lam.

 

376

      Manish S Lavhale & S H Mishra

 

 

 

Effect of cadmium on chlorophyll biosynthesis and enzymes of nitrogen assimilation in greening maize leaf segments: Role of 2-oxoglutarate

385

      Meeta Jain, Monika Pal, Priyanka Gupta & Rekha Gadre

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of microsomal ω-6-desaturase gene (fad2-1) from soybean

390

      K Kishore, S K Sinha, R Kumar, N C Gupta, N Dubey & A Sachdev

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Plant Biotechnology

398

      P Anand Kumar

 

 

 

Announcement

 

XXXI Annual Conference of The Ethological Society of India and National Symposium on Women in Agriculture

314

 

Announcement

 

XXXI Annual Conference of The Ethological Society of India

and

National Symposium on Women in Agriculture

 

10-12 April 2007, Bangalore

 

Sponsored by the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, and the Ethological Society of India, the Conference will have following themes: social behaviour, chronobiology, reproductive and sexual behaviour, foraging, animal communication, neuroethology, learning and memory, physiology of behaviour, behavioural ecology, applied behaviour, biodiversity, problems in zoos and sanctuaries, and pest control. The Symposium will cover the following themes: drudgery reduction, need for improvement in rural infrastructure, better access to resources, women’s co-operative movement, capacity development etc for rural women, and gender friendly policies for women agricultural scientists and extension experts. For further details, please contact: Dr Shakunthala Sridhara, Convenor & Organizing Secretary, XXXI Annual Conference of ESI & National Symposium on Women in Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April 2007, pp. 315-325

 

 

Diagnostics and therapy of Alzheimer’s disease

Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Paweł Szymański & Elżbieta Żurek

 

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is described as a degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by a noticeable cognitive decline defined by a loss of memory and learning ability, together with a reduced ability to perform basic activities of daily living. In the brain of an AD patients is the dramatic decrease in cholinergic innervation in the cortex and hippocampus due to the loss of neurons in the basal forebrain. The above findings led to the development of the cholinergic hypothesis, which proposes that the cognitive loss associated with AD is related to decreased cortical cholinergic neurotransmission. In brain of Alzheimer’s patient’s one ascertained presence of neuritic plaques containing the beta-amyloid peptide and protein tau. Biochemical and genetics studies implicated a central role for beta-amyloid in the pathological cascade of events in AD.

The most therapeutic strategies in AD have been directed to two main targets: the beta-amyloid peptide and the cholinergic neurotransmission. The first approach is to act on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. The second main approach is to slow of decline of neuronal degeneration or increasing cholinergic transmission.

Diagnosis of AD is very difficult and to date no specific diagnostic tests of the disease are available. Intellectual function testing to determine the degree of cognitive status during routine medical examination is a useful supplementary method of diagnosing dementia. The permissible result, come down from radiopharmacy, which is an integral part of a nuclear medicine. A radiopharmaceutical may be defined as a pharmaceutical substance containing radioactive atoms. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are capable of mapping the distribution of radionuclides in three dimensions, producing maps of brain biochemical and physiological processes. The techniques are reasonably sensitive and specific in differentiating AD from other dementias.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April 2007, pp. 326-332

 

 

Microbial diversity – Biotechnological and industrial perspectives

C K M Tripathi, Divya Tripathi, Vandana Praveen & Vinod Bihari

 

Biodiversity is an addition sum of the studies on genetic, taxonomic commercial and ecosystem aspects of living systems. All the living individuals of a species contain a distinct combination of genes and the intrinsic interaction among the gene pool influences evolution, survival and phenotypic/genotypic changes of the part of the biodiversity i.e. community. The amount of genetic diversity within population varies tremendously and much of modern conservation biology is concerned with the maintenance of genetic diversity within the population of plants, animals and microbes. Germplasm, obtained with the vast biodiversity, provides a major source of biological material for the development of medicines, vaccines, pharmaceutical products, improved crop and animal varieties and for other environmental applications. Industrialized nations, who have the technology and resources to patent and develop commercial biological products, are having the benefits of biodiversity through the collected and conserved germplasm flowing through the international research centers. In fact a particular genetic contribution usually represents only a small percentage of the total value of the eventual products. In addition, the research and development process required to commercialize a particular product requires enormous technical efforts. The principle of patenting genes is the morally or ethically correct is a matter of intense debate. However, geneticists, having conceived of the technologies with vast and immediate therapeutic, food and environmental values must try to bring to the material to market as soon as possible

 

 

 

 

 

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 333-337

 

Galanin stimulates hCG induced testicular steroidogenesis in adult but not in immature male rats

Manisha Arora Pandit & R N Saxena

Received 17 February 2006; revised 20 November 2006

 

The present study was undertaken to understand the role of galanin on testosterone secretion. Leydig cells from adult (60-80 days old) and immature (21-30 days old) rat testis were incubated with galanin (100 nM), galantide (100 nM) and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, 25 I.U.) alone or in combinations and testosterone release was measured. It was observed that in adults, galanin failed to alter the basal testosterone release from the dispersed Leydig cells but potentiated the hCG induced testosterone release significantly. While galantide, prevented this galanin potentiating effect, but it did not alter the hCG alone induced testosterone release. On the other hand, the Leydig cells obtained from immature male rats were sensitive to hCG alone but not to galanin or galantide, both of which failed to alter the hCG induced testosterone release from these cells. Based on these results it can be postulated that galanin`s role at the level of the male gonad is age dependent since its potentiating effects on hCG induced testosterone release were visible only in the adult and not in the immature male rats.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 338-346

 

 

 

Effect of T3 treatment on glutathione redox pool and its metabolizing enzymes
in mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions of adult rat testes

Dipak K Sahoo, Anita Roy, Sutapa Chattopadhyay & G B N Chainy

Received 4 July 2006; revised 12 January 2007

 

T3 (3,3¢, 5-triiodo-L-thyronine; 20 mg /100 g body weight/day in 0.01 N NaOH, i.p for 1, 3 and 5 days) treatment modulated reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione contents along with the activities of its metabolizing enzymes (such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase) in the testis of Wistar rats. However, the magnitude and nature of changes in the above biochemical parameters in response to T3 treatment were noticed to be different between mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions. This was accompanied with elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxide and ascorbic acid in the crude homogenate of testis. The level of hydrogen peroxide in the post-mitochondrial fractions of testes did not change on first day, decreased on 3rd day and increased on 5th day of the hormone treatment when compared to respective controls. Nevertheless, its content in mitochondria was significantly elevated in response to all the three durations of the hormone treatment having the highest induction on 3rd day. The changes observed in the levels of GSH and GSSG and its metabolizing enzymes in response to T3 treatment reflect an alteration in the redox state of testis, which may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 347-352

 

Long-term caffeine-induced inhibition.of EAC cell progression in
relation to gonadal hormonal status

Anup Mandal, Sandip K Batabyal & Mrinal K Poddar

Received 20 January 2006; revised 27 October 2006

Inhibitory action of caffeine (a tri-methylxanthine alkaloid) on progression or pathogenesis of lung, breast and ovarian cancer including Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell development has been reported. This information led the authors to study the effect of long-term administration of caffeine (20mg/kg/day; po for 22-27 consecutive days) on the development of EAC cells in relation to serum gonadal hormones (LH, FSH, 17-OH-β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone) in adult Swiss albino female mice. Measurement of gonadal hormones in serum using RIA showed that (a) long-term caffeine treatment significantly increased LH (except for 27 consecutive days) and decreased FSH (except for 24 and 27 consecutive days) and both E2 and progesterone (except for 22 and 24 consecutive days) levels, (b) development of EAC cell for 10-15 days, significantly increased LH but decreased FSH, E2 and progesterone levels and (c) long-term caffeine consumption during the development of EAC cell (i) restored the EAC cell- or caffeine-induced induction of LH and reduction of FSH level to their normal levels and (ii) withdrew/reduced the EAC cell-induced reduction in only E2 but not progesterone level. These results therefore, suggest that prolonged caffeine exposures may inhibit the development of EAC cell through the reduction or restoration of EAC cell-induced disruption of ovarian hormonal status to their normal status via the modulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 353-358

 

 

Effect of tannic acid on brush border disaccharidases in mammalian intestine

Ayesha Chauhan, Shiffalli Gupta & Akhtar Mahmood

 

Received 20 June 2006; revised 21 December 2006

Tannic acid is a glucoside (penta-m-digallolyl-glucose), which exhibits a wide variety of physiological functions. Around neutral pH, 0.4 mM tannic acid produced 84% inhibition of rat brush border sucrase activity, but 35-40% enzyme inhibition was observed in the rabbit intestine at 0.08 mM concentration. In the mice, 74-77% enzyme inhibition was observed at 0.05 mM concentration of tannic acid. The observed inhibition was reversible in rat intestine. Tannic acid (0.2 mM) also inhibited lactase (18% in adult and 71% in suckling animals), maltase (76%) and trehalase (88%) activities in rat intestine. pH versus activity curves showed that 0.2 mM tannic acid inhibited enzyme activity in rat by 91% at pH 5.5 which was reduced to 14% at pH 8.5 compared to the respective controls. In the rabbit 18-60% enzyme inhibition was noticed below pH 7.0, however at pH 8.5, it was of the order of 38%. Kinetic analysis revealed that tannic acid is a competitive inhibitor of rat brush border sucrase at pH 6.8. Effect of tannic acid together with various –SH group reacting reagents revealed that the enzyme inhibition is additive in nature, suggesting the distinct nature of binding sites on the enzyme for these compounds. The results suggest that tannic acid is a potent inhibitor of intestinal brush border disaccharidases, and could modulate the intestinal functions

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 359-366

 

 

 

Impediment of diethylnitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in male Balb/c mice by pretreatment with aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract

 

Ashwani Koul, Gursonika Binepal & Subhash Chander Gangar

 

Received 17 October 2006; revised 14 December 2006

Considering the hepatoprotective properties of Azadirachta indica, the present study was designed to evaluate its preventive effects against diethylnitrosamine (NDEA) induced hepatotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. Exposure of NDEA caused a significant increase in micronucleated cell score, lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) contents and activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was also observed upon NDEA treatment, whereas their activities of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 showed non-significant alterations. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (AAILE) pretreatment showed protective effects against NDEA induced toxicity by decreasing the frequency of micronucleated cell, levels of LPO and LDH activity. Also, a decreased activity of GST, cytochrome P450 and an increased activity of cytochrome b5, GSH contents was observed when AAILE pretreated mice were injected with NDEA. Only AAILE treatment caused a noticeable decrease in the frequency of micronuclei, activity of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5, but a significant increase in the activity of GST and GSH contents, whereas, non significant alterations were observed in the activity of LDH and levels of LPO. Significance of these observations with respect to hepatoprotective efficacy of A. indica has been discussed in the present manuscript.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp.367-370

 

 

Dietary fish oil as hepatoprotective agent in Mus musculus

 

R Roy, D Chandrasekhar & P Pujari

 

Received 5 May 2006; revised 10 October 2006

The administration of galactosamine in omega-3 polyunsatu-rated fatty acid (PUFA) supplemented mice resulted in lesser amount of damage in the liver tissue compared to the mice without prior supplementation of fish oil. Only 50% elevation in the plasma total bilirubin was detected in omega-3 supplemented mice injected with galactosamine over those supplemented with omega-3 without galactosomine injection. The results suggest that very long chain omega-3 PUFA like eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid may act as preventive agent for hepatic cirrhosis in Mus musculus

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45,, April. 371-375

 

 

Protective effect of ascorbic acid against oxidative stress induced by
inorganic arsenic in liver and kidney of rat

Sohini & S V S Rana

 

Received 8 July 2006; revised 12 January 2007

Ascorbic acid treatment in arsenic trioxide treated rats increased arsenic excretion, inhibited lipid peroxidation, improved GSH status, regulated GSSG turnover and also restored glutathione-S-transferases activity in liver and kidney. Suitable mechanisms leading to ascorbic acid protection have been discussed. Upregulation of GSH dependent enzymes was found to be necessary for a protective effect. Protection is finally attributed to higher GSH levels observed in the liver and kidney of ascorbic acid and inorganic arsenic treated rats. It is also concluded that ascorbic acid protection is influenced by gender dependent factors. Arsenic poisoning is a global problem now. Gender differences need to be considered while applying therapeutic measures.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 376-384

 

Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Butea monosperma Lam.

Manish S Lavhale & S H Mishra

 

Received 12 October 2006; revised 2 January 2007

In the present study, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions derived from total methanol extract of Butea monosperma flowers were evaluated for radical scavenging activities using different in vitro models like reducing power assay, scavenging of 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and inhibition of erythrocyte hemolysis using 2, 2¢ azo-bis (amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Methanol extract along with its ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed potent free radical scavenging activity, whereas aqueous fraction was found to be devoid of any radical scavenging properties. The observed activity could be due to the higher phenolic content in the extracts (16.1, 25.29, and 17.74%w/w in methanol extract, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions respectively). HPTLC fingerprint profile of the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions were developed which would serve as reference standard for quality control of the extracts

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 385-389

 

 

Effect of cadmium on chlorophyll biosynthesis and enzymes of nitrogen assimilation in greening maize leaf segments: Role of 2-oxoglutarate

 

Meeta Jain, Monika Pal, Priyanka Gupta & Rekha Gadre

 

Received 31 August 2006; revised 5 December 2006

Supply of cadmium chloride (0.5 mM) inhibited chlorophyll formation in greening maize leaf segments, while lower concentration of Cd (0.01 mM) slightly enhanced it. Inclusion of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG, 0.1-10 mM) in the incubation mixture increased chlorophyll content in the absence as well as presence of Cd. Substantial inhibition of chlorophyll formation by Cd was observed at longer treatment both in the absence and presence of 2-OG. When the tissue was pre-incubated with 2-OG or Cd, the inhibition (%) of chlorophyll formation by Cd was lowered in the presence of 2-OG. Treatment with Cd inhibited ALAD activity and ALA formation and the inhibition (%) of ALA formation by Cd was strongly reduced in the presence of 2-OG. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was increased by the supply of Cd both in the absence as well as presence of 2-OG. In the presence of 2-OG, Cd supply significantly increased glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity and reduced inhibition (%) of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. The results suggested the involvement of the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) pathway of ammonia assimilation to provide the precursor, glutamate, for ALA synthesis under Cd toxicity and 2-OG supplementation.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 390-397

 

Isolation and characterization of microsomal ω-6-desaturase gene
(fad2-1) from soybean

K Kishore, S K Sinha, R Kumar, N C Gupta, N Dubey & A Sachdev

 

Received 19 June 2006; revised 8 December 2006

A genomic DNA sequence (fad2-1) encoding seed specific microsomal ω-6 desaturase was isolated from soybean (Glycine max. L cv. Pusa – 9702). A positive genomic clone of 1852 nucleotides containing a single uninterrupted 3¢ end exonic region with an ORF of 1140 bp encoding a peptide of 379 amino acids, a complete 3¢ UTR of 206 bp and 86 bp of 5¢ UTR interrupted by a single intron of 420 bp was obtained on screening the sub-genomic library of soybean. Southern blots revealed at least two copies of the gene per haploid genome. Analysis of the translated product showed the presence of three histidine boxes, with the general sequence HXXXH and five probable transmembrane segments reported to be involved in substrate specificity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, April, pp. 398

 

 

Book Review

Plant Biotechnology

 

Dr P Anand Kumar