Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

AUGUST 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(8)  665-750(2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(8) 665-750 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

Expression of mRNAs encoding tumor necrosis factor-a and its receptor-I in
buffalo ovary

669

      G P Madhusudan, R Dev, M K Sharma & Dheer Singh

 

 

 

In vitro effects of steroid hormones on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal of fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of breeding cycle

676

      L Yanthan & B B P Gupta

 

 

 

Effect of lecithin with vitamin-B complex and tocopheryl acetate on long term effect of ethanol induced immunomodulatory activities

683

      Subir Kumar Das, Geetanjali Gupta, D N Rao & D M Vasudevan

 

 

 

Factors affecting the presentation of exogenous Hepatitis B virus core antigen

689

      Mercy Devasahayam

 

 

 

Preliminary studies on antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

696

      Prachi Anand, Murali K Y, Vibha Tandon, Ramesh Chandra & P S Murthy

 

 

 

Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris (L.) on carbon tetrachloride-induced
oxidative stress in rats

702

      Malgorzata Kujawska, Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert, Malgorzata Ewertowska &
Teresa Adamska

 

 

 

Effects of dextromethorphan on dopamine dependent behaviours in rats

712

      R V Gaikwad, R K Gaonkar, S A Jadhav, V M Thorat, J H Jadhav & J J Balsara

 

 

 

Pro-convulsant effect of cefazolin sodium against pentylenetetrazol- or picrotoxin-induced convulsions in mice

720

      Kiran Kumar Akula, Ashish Dhir & S K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model

726

      Siddhartha Debnath & Debjani Guha

 

 

Cell adhesion by aqueous extract of human placenta used as wound healer

732

      Sangeeta Nath & Debasish Bhattacharyya

 

 

 

Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. in experimentally induced diabetic rats

739

      B Shivananda Nayak, Lexley Pinto Pereira & Dale Maharaj

 

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Basilicum polystachyon (L) Moench

744

      D Chakraborty, S M Mandal, J Chakraborty, P K Bhattacharyaa, A Bandyopadhyay, A Mitra & K Gupta

 

 

 

Author Index

Adamska Teresa

702

Akula Kiran Kumar

720

Anand Prachi

696

Balsara J J

712

Bandyopadhyay A

744

Bhattacharyaa P K

744

Bhattacharyya Debasish

732

Chakraborty D

744

Chakraborty J

744

Chandra Ramesh

696

Das Subir Kumar

683

Debnath Siddhartha

726

Dev R

669

Devasahayam Mercy

689

Dhir Ashish

720

Ewertowska Malgorzata

702

Gaikwad R V

712

Gaonkar R K

712

Guha Debjani

726

Gupta B B P

676

Gupta Geetanjali

683

Gupta K

744

Jadhav J H

712

Jadhav S A

712

Jodynis-Liebert Jadwiga

702

Kujawska Malgorzata

702

Kulkarni S K

720

Madhusudan G P

669

Maharaj Dale

739

Mandal S M

744

Mitra A

744

Murali K Y

696

Murthy P S

696

Nath Sangeeta

732

Nayak B Shivananda

739

Pereira Lexley Pinto

739

Rao D N

683

Sharma M K

669

Singh Dheer

669

Tandon Vibha

696

Thorat V M

712

Vasudevan D M

683

Yanthan L

676

 

 

Keyword Index

AA-NAT

676

Androgens

676

Antidiabetic activity

696

Antimicrobial activity

744

Antioxidant enzymes

702

Anti-b1 integrin

732

Apomorphine

712

Aquilegia vulgaris

702

Basilicum polystachyon

744

Brassica nigra

696

Buffalo

669

Caffeic acid

744

Catalepsy

712

CCl4

702

Cefazolin

720

Cell adhesion

732

Convulsions

720

Corticosteroids

676

Cytokines

683

Dexamphetamine

712

Dextromethorphan

712

Diabetes mellitus

696

Diabeticp

739

Diazepam

720

Enterochromaffin cell

726

Estrogens

676

Ethanol

683

Excision wound

739

Expression

669

Fish

676

GABA

720

Glucose tolerance test

696

Glutathione

683

Glutathione

702

Haloperidol

712

Hela

689

Hepatitis B virus

689

Human placental extract

732

Hydroxyproline

739

Incision wound

739

Interleukin

683

Lecithin

683

Liver

683

MHC

689

Microsomal lipid peroxidation

702

Moringa oleifera

726

mRNA

669

Ondansetron

726

Ovary

669

Pentylenetetrazol

720

Picrotoxin

720

Pineal organ

676

Rat

712

RDG peptide

732

Rosmarinic acid

744

RT-PCR

669

Serotonin

726

Stereotypy

712

TAP

689

TNFRI

669

TNF-a

669

Ulceration

726

Virosomes

689

Vitamin-B complex

683

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 669-675

 

 

 

 

Expression of mRNAs encoding tumor necrosis factor-α and its receptor–I
in buffalo ovary

G P Madhusudan, R Dev, M K Sharma & Dheer Singh

Received 16 October 2006; revised 17 April 2007

The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation process and acts through its receptor (TNFRI). The present investigation describes the expression of mRNAs encoding TNF-α and TNFRI in relation to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) and β-actin as control genes, using RT-PCR, in granulosa cells, intact follicles and luteal tissues from buffalo ovary. There was significant higher expression of mRNAs encoding TNF-α in granulosa cells from medium follicles and TNFRI expression increased with increase in size of follicles. Post-ovulatory structures (corpus luteum and corpus albicans) exhibited significantly higher expression of TNFRI mRNAs as compared to that obtained in intact follicles suggesting its immediate and critical role just after ovulation, for mediating TNF-α action on these tissues. Though the expression of TNF-α mRNA was stimulated by treatment of granulosa cells with FSH during culture, the expression of TNFRI mRNA did not change. The FSH alongwith IGF-I did not exert any effect. These results suggested an important role of TNF-α and its receptor in buffalo ovarian functions.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 676-682

 

 

In vitro effects of steroid hormones on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
(AA-NAT) activity in the pineal of fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of breeding cycle

L Yanthan & B B P Gupta

 

Received 25 October 2006; revised 4 May 2007

In vitro effects of gonadal hormones (testosterone, 17β-estradiol, estriol and estrone) and corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) were studied on arylalklyamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during quiescent, progressive, breeding and regressive phases of its annual breeding cycle. The pineals were collected under dim red light, maintained in organ culture for 7 hr and incubated with three concentrations
(10-6, 10-5 and 10-4 M) of hormones for 6 hr. The treatments with gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones inhibited pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases of the breeding cycle. AA-NAT activity was comparatively more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the gonadal hormones during the regressive phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. Further, the enzyme activity was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) during the breeding phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. These findings seem to suggest that gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones have direct inhibitory influence on AA-NAT activity and, hence melatonin synthesis in the photoreceptive pineal organ of C. gariepinus.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 683-688

 

 

Effect of lecithin with vitamin-B complex and tocopheryl acetate on long term
effect of ethanol induced immunomodulatory activities

Subir Kumar Das, Geetanjali Gupta, D N Rao & D M Vasudevan

 

Received 22 November 2006; revised 11 April 2007

 

The alcoholic liver disease usually causes overall immunological alterations which might be attributed to hepatic disease, to ethanol action, and/or to malnourishment. In the present study, efficacy of lecithin with vitamin-B complex to treat ethanol induced immunomodulatory activity was compared with the effect of lecithin alone and tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E). Ethanol (1.6 g/kg body wt/day for 12 weeks) exposure increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level, while decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in whole blood hemolysate of 8-10 week-old male BALB/c mice (weighing 20-30 g). The activities of transaminase (AST and ALT) enzymes, interleukin (IL)-10 and gamma interferon (IFN-g) elevated, while IL-2 and IL-4 reduced in mice serum due to ethanol exposure. These suggested that oxidative stress and immunomodulatory activities were interdependent and associated with ethanol induced liver damage. Lecithin treatment significantly reduced AST (32.44%), ALT (32.09%), IL-10 (25.63%) activities and TBARS content (12.76%) compared to ethanol treated group. However, lecithin with vitamin-B complex treatment, significantly reduced AST (62.83%); ALT (61.96%); IL-10 (35.88%); IFN-g (22.55%) activities and TBARS content (31.58%), while significantly elevated GSH content (36.49%) and SOD activity (61.21%). Tocopheryl acetate treatment significantly reduced AST (62.83%); ALT (61.54%); IL-10 (36.35%); IFN-g (23.28%) activities and TBARS content (35.84%), while significantly elevated GSH content (28.76%) and SOD activity (62.42%) compared to ethanol treated group. These findings persuasively argued that lecithin with vitamin-B complex was a new promising therapeutic approach in controlling ethanol induced immunomodulatory activities involving liver damage processes. Prevention of oxidative stress with correction of nutritional deficiency caused alteration in the ethanol-induced immunomodulatory activities and associated liver diseases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 689-695

 

 

Factors affecting the presentation of exogenous Hepatitis B virus core antigen

Mercy Devasahayam

 

Received 24 November 2006; revised 11 April 2007

Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) plays a critical role in terminating acute Hepatitis B virus infection and may be used as a potential vaccine candidate. The cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 molecules are thought to be involved in the presentation of HBcAg. Surface MHC class 1 HLA A2 heavy chain (HC) and trimeric molecules were characterized on transfected Hela cells used as antigen presenting cells (APC) for the presentation of HBcAg. The results show that antibodies against HC HLA A2 and trimeric HLA-A2 molecules resulted in increased activation of HBcAg 18-27 minimal peptide specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), while the addition of exogenous b2-microglobulin decreased the activation of HBcAg specific CTLs. Further, specific CD8+ T cells were activated only when Hela cells as APCs were primed with HBcAg (peptide, soluble or embedded on virosomes) at pH 6.5.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 696-701

 

 

Preliminary studies on antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Prachi Anand, Murali K Y, Vibha Tandon, Ramesh Chandra & P S Murthy

 

Received 26 October 2006; revised 3 April 2007

In the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated separately with aqueous, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts of the seeds of B. nigra, the increase in serum glucose value between 0 and 1 hr of glucose tolerance test (GTT) was the least (29 mg/dl) in aqueous extract treated animals while it was 54, 44 and 44mg/dl with chloroform, acetone and ethanol extracts respectively. In further studies carried out with aqueous extract, the effective dose was found to be 200 mg/kg body weight in GTT. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract to diabetic animals daily once for one month brought down fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels while in the untreated group FSG remained at a higher value. In the treated animals the increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids was much less when compared with the levels in untreated diabetic controls. These findings suggest that further studies with the aqueous extract of B. nigra seeds on its antidiabetic activity would be useful.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 702-711

 

 

Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris (L.) on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats

Malgorzata Kujawska, Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert, Malgorzata Ewertowska & Teresa Adamska

 

and

Irena Matlawska & Wieslawa Bylka

 

Received 24 January 2007; revised 17 May 2007

The ethyl ether extract of A. vulgaris inhibited in vitro microsomal lipid peroxidation (IC50 58.8 µg/ml) and showed moderate ability to scavenge superoxide radicals and to chelate iron ions. The extract (100 mg/kg body weight, po) decreased uninduced and enzymatic microsomal lipid peroxidation in the liver of male rats pretreated with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) by 27 and 40%, respectively. Activity of antioxidant and related enzymes (catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) inhibited by CCl4 was significantly restored after administration of the extract. The extract itself significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase activity. There was no effect of the extract on hepatic glutathione level and cytochrome P450 content, both were decreased by CCl4. Neither CCl4 nor the tested extract affected activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and two monooxygenases, aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine n-demethylase. It can be concluded that the protective effect of the A. vulgaris extract in CCl4-induced liver injury is mediated by inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and restoring activity of some antioxidant and related enzymes.

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 712-719

  

Effects of dextromethorphan on dopamine dependent behaviours in rats

R V Gaikwad, R K Gaonkar, S A Jadhav, V M Thorat, J H Jadhav & J J Balsara

 

Received 19 December 2006; revised 4 May 2007

Dextromethorphan, a noncompetitive blocker of N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor, at
7.5-75 mg/kg, ip did not induce oral stereotypies or catalepsy and did not antagonize apomorphine stereotypy in rats. These results indicate that dextromethorphan at 7.5-75 mg/kg does not stimulate or block postsynaptic striatal D2 and D1 dopamine (DA) receptors. Pretreatment with 15 and 30 mg/kg dextromethorphan potentiated dexamphetamine stereotypy and antagonised haloperidol catalepsy. Pretreatment with 45, 60 and 75 mg/kg dextromethorphan, which release
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), however, antagonised dexamphetamine stereotypy and potentiated haloperidol catalepsy. Apomorphine stereotypy was not potentiated or antagonised by pretreatment with 7.5-75 mg/kg dextromethorphan. This respectively indicates that at 7.5-75 mg/kg dextromethorphan does not exert facilitatory or inhibitory effect at or beyond the postsynaptic striatal D2 and D1 DA receptors. The results are explained on the basis of dextromethorphan (15-75 mg/kg) – induced blockade of NMDA receptors in striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta. Dextromethorphan at
15 and 30 mg/kg, by blocking NMDA receptors, activates nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and thereby potentiates dexampetamine stereotypy and antagonizes haloperidol catalepsy. Dextromethorphan at 45, 60 and 75 mg/kg, by blocking NMDA receptors, releases 5-HT and through the released 5-HT exerts an inhibitory influence on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons with resultant antagonism of dexampetamine stereotypy and potentiation of haloperidol catalepsy.

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 720-725

 

 

 

Pro-convulsant effect of cefazolin sodium against pentylenetetrazol-
or picrotoxin-induced convulsions in mice

Kiran Kumar Akula, Ashish Dhir & S K Kulkarni

 

Received 9 February 2007; Revised 12 April 2007

Cefazolin injection (3000 mg/kg, iv) in mice showed several behavioral excitations such as wild running, jumping, rolling, and finally undergoing severe convulsions followed by death.  It’s lower doses (500-2000 mg/kg, iv) were unable to produce any convulsions or behavioral excitations in mice. However, cefazolin (500 or 1000 mg/kg, i.v.) when administered before different doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 40 or 60 mg/kg, ip) or picrotoxin (PTX; 4 or 8 mg/kg, ip.), it produced severe tonic-clonic convulsions in mice. The convulsions or behavioral excitations produced by 3000 mg/kg, iv cefazolin was also reversed by different doses of diazepam (0.5-2 mg/kg, ip) further proving the GABAergic modulatory effect of cefazolin. The results conclude the pro-convulsant action of cefazolin on PTZ- or PTX-induced convulsions, and further confirm the clinical reports.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 726-731

 

 

 

Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model

Siddhartha Debnath & Debjani Guha

 

Received 8 August 2005; revised 9 April 2007

The present study has been undertaken to observe the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera (MO) leaf (300mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) content of ulcerated gastric tissue. Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, po), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold stress. In all cases increased mean ulcer index in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content. Pretreatment with MO for 14 days decreased mean ulcer index, increased both EC cell count and 5-HT content in all ulcerated group, but treatment with ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, along with MO pretreatment increased mean ulcer index, decreased 5-HT content without any alteration in EC cell count. The results suggest that the protective effect of MO on ulceration is mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels which may act via 5-HT3 receptors on gastric tissue.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 732-738

 

 

Cell adhesion by aqueous extract of human placenta used as wound healer

Sangeeta Nath & Debasish Bhattacharyya

 

Received 3 January 2007

Aqueous extract of human placenta, used as wound healer, has shown significant cell adhesion property on mouse peritoneal macrophages and P388D1 cultured macrophage cell line. This property was offered primarily by fibronectin type III like peptide present in the extract and is comparable to fibronectin on a molar basis. The peptide induce adhesion of cell through cell surface receptors having Kd = 2.8±0.9 ´ 10-5 M suggesting weak binding. This is in support of integrins receptors that typically exhibit low affinities. Cell adhesion was partially inhibited by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide, anti-β1 integrin suggesting that integrin β1 receptors have roles to play in the process.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 739-743

 

 

Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. in experimentally induced
diabetic rats

B Shivananda Nayak, Lexley Pinto Pereira & Dale Maharaj

 

Received 28 September 2006; revised 16 April 2007

The aqueous extract of C. papaya fruit (100 mg kg-1 day-1 for 10 days) was evaluated for its wound healing activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using excision and dead space wound models. Extract-treated animals exhibited 77% reduction in the wound area when compared to controls which was 59%. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelize faster as compared to controls. The wet and dry granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content increased significantly when compared to controls. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against the five organisms tested. Carica papaya promotes significant wound healing in diabetic rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, August 2007, pp. 744-748

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Basilicum polystachyon (L) Moench

D Chakraborty, S M Mandal, J Chakraborty, P K Bhattacharyaa, A Bandyopadhyay, A Mitra & K Gupta

 

Received 8 August 2006; revised 23 April 2007

Phenolic extract of leaves of Basilicum polystachyon (L) Moench was tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against five bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus leuteus) and three fungi (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium oryzae). Efficacy of organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, as agents for extraction was compared with acidic water (2M; HCl). High-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) data showed that acidic extraction (2M; HCl) resulted in higher yield of caffeic acid (0.437 mg g-1) and rosmarinic acid (0.919 mg g-1). Acidic extract showed high activity against Gram (+) ve bacteria, but was less active against Gram (-) ve bacteria. Amongst the tested fungi, maximum activity was exhibited against Aspergillus niger. This is the first report on the phenolic constituents and bioactivity of B. polystachyon.