Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2007

CODEN : IJEB (A6) 45(2) 129-216(2007)

ISSN : 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

 

Self-assembled surfactant nano-structures important in drug delivery: A review

133

      Giddi Hema Sagar, M A Arunagirinathan & Jayesh R Bellare

 

 

 

Application of nanotechnology in biomedicine

160

      Rajshri M Navalakhe & Tarala D Nandedkar

 

 

 

Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols

166

      A R Patel & P R Vavia

 

 

 

Papers

 

Comparative neurochemical changes associated with chronic administration of typical and atypical neuroleptics: Implications in tardive dyskinesia

175

      Mahendra Bishnoi, Anil Kumar, Kanwaljit Chopra & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Neuroprotective effects of vitamin E in cold induced cerebral injury in guinea pigs

180

      Prerna Badhe, Jayant Thorat, Batuk D Diyora, Ravikrishna Mamidanna, Parag Sayal, Suvarna Badhe & Alok K Sharma

 

 

 

Effect of KATP channel openers on myogenic and neurogenic responses in goat urinary bladder

185

      C Vijayakumar, K Kathirvel, K K Sardar & S C Parija

 

 

 

Protective effect of hesperidin on nicotine induced toxicity in rats

194

      Annida Balakrishnan & Venugopal P Menon,

 

 

 

Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of Streptomyces sampsonii GS 1322

203

      Praveen Kumar Jain & P C Jain

 

 

 

Verotoxic Escherichia coli (STEC) from beef and its products

207

      R A Hazarika, D K Singh, K N Kapoor, R K Agarwal, A B Pandey & Purusottam

 

 

 

Evaluation of immune response to bovine rotavirus following oral and intraperitoneal inoculation in mice

212

      Ravinder Rathi, S K Kadian, Bharat Khurana, Y P Grover & B R Gulati

 

 

 

 

 

 

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. On of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)    After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)    The heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)    Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

 

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Erratum

Contents, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol.45, January 2007, pp.7. The title of the article at serial no.four may be read as 滴emorheological changes in microcirculation: Their mechanism and measurement technique.

 

Author Index

Agarwal R K

207

Arunagirinathan M A

133

Badhe Prerna

180

Badhe Suvarna

180

Balakrishnan Annida

194

Bellare Jayesh R

133

Bishnoi Mahendra

175

Chopra Kanwaljit

175

Diyora Batuk D

180

Grover Y P

212

Gulati B R

212

Hazarika R A

207

Jain P C

203

Jain Praveen Kumar

203

Kadian S K

212

Kapoor K N

207

Kathirvel K

185

Khurana Bharat

212

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

175

Kumar Anil

175

Mamidanna Ravikrishna

180

Menon Venugopal P

194

Nandedkar Tarala D

160

Navalakhe Rajshri M

160

Pandey A B

207

Parija S C

185

Patel A R

166

Purusottam

207

Rathi Ravinder

212

Sagar Giddi Hema

133

Sardar K.K

185

Sayal Parag

180

Sharma Alok K

180

Singh D K

207

Thorat Jayant

180

Vavia P R

166

Vijayakumar C

185

 

Keyword Index

Animal products

207

Antifungal activity

203

Antioxidant

180

Atypical anti-psychotics

175

Beef

207

Bioadhesive nanoparticles

166

Bovine rotavirus

212

Cancer

160

Candida albicans

203

Cellular

212

Diagnosis

 

Drug delivery

133, 166

Electrical Field Stimulation

185

Escherichia coli

207

Free fatty acids

194

Goat urinary bladder

185

Head injury

180

Hesperidin

194

Humoral

212

Immune response

212

Inhalation aerosols

166

KATP channels openers

185

Lipid peroxidation

194

Lipids

194

Mouse

212

Nanoparticles

160

Nanosuspension

166

Nanotoxicity

160

Neuroprotection

180

Neurotransmitters

175

Nicotine

194

Polyene

203

Self assembled surfactant
 nano-structure

 

133

Smart particle aerosols

166

STEC

207

Streptomyces sampsonii

203

Tardive dyskinesia

175

Therapy

160

Trojan particles

166

Verotoxin

207

Vitamin E

180

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 133-159

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

Self-assembled surfactant nano-structures important in drug delivery: A review

Giddi Hema Sagar M A Arunagirinathan & Jayesh R Bellare

 

Role of self assembled structures as a vehicle is significant over the years. Their applications have been found for all routes of drug delivery. These micro and nano structures are containers loaded with drugs, ideal for targeted and sustained release of the drug. Drug efficacy depends on the drug loaded into the vehicle, temperature, drug solubility, pH, release characteristics, additives and most significantly, the vehicle morphology. This in turn suggests that the same vehicle cannot be used with high efficiency for all types of drugs and locations where the drug delivery has to take place. The status of various self assembled structures and their applications in drug delivery is reviewed in this communication.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 160-165

 

 

Application of nanotechnology in biomedicine

Rajshri M Navalakhe & Tarala D Nandedkar

 

 

Nanotechnology is the development of engineered devices at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular level in nanometer range. Nanoparticles have potential application in medical field including diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanotechnology devices are being developed for diagnosis of cancer and infectious diseases which can help in early detection of the disease. Advances in nanotechnology also proved beneficial in therapeutic field such as drug discovery, drug delivery and gene/protein delivery. Nanoparticles can be constructed by various methodology so that effect can be targeted at desired site. In this review, some of the applications of nanoparticles in medicine as diagnostics and therapeutics which can be employed safely at the clinical level have been described. On other hand, as the particles become generally smaller their likehood of causing harm to the lung increases. Therefore, there is a need to study safety of nanoparticles.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 166-174

 

 

Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols

A R Patel & P R Vavia

 

Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology痴 continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 175-179

 

Papers

 

 

Comparative neurochemical changes associated with chronic administration of typical and atypical neuroleptics: Implications in tardive dyskinesia

Mahendra Bishnoi, Anil Kumar, Kanwaljit Chopra & Shrinivas K Kulkarni

 

Received 26 June 2006; Revised 28 September 2006

An important goal of current neuroleptic research is to develop antipsychotic compounds with the low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. The therapeutic success and less side-effect of atypical anti-psychotics such as clozapine and risperidone has focused the attention on the role of receptor systems other than dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of neuroleptics-associated extrapyramidal side effects. The present study compares the effect of chronic administration of typical and atypical antipsychotics on neurochemical profile in rat forebrain. The study was planned to study changes in extracellular levels of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in forebrain region of brain and tried to correlate them with hyperkinetic motor activities (vacuous chewing movements (VCM痴), tongue protrusions and facial jerking) in rats, hall mark of chronic extrapyramidal side-effect of neuroleptic therapy tardive dyskinesia. Chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) and chlorpromazine (5 mg/kg) resulted in significant increase in orofacial hyperkinetic movements where as clozapine and risperidone showed less significant increase in orofacial hyperkinetic movements as compared to control. There were also significant decrease in the extracellular levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in fore-brain as measured by HPLC/ED after chronic administration of haloperidol and chlorpromazine. Chronic administration of atypical neuroleptics clozapine and risperidone resulted in the decrease in extracellular concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine but the effect was less significant as compared to typical drugs. However, treatment with atypical neuroleptics resulted in 3 fold increase in serotonin levels as compared to forebrain of control rats. Typical and atypical neuroleptics showed varying effects on neurotransmitters, especially serotonin which may account for the difference in their profile of side effects (Tardive dyskinesia).

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 180-184

 

 

Neuroprotective effects of vitamin E in cold induced cerebral injury
in guinea pigs

Prerna Badhe, Jayant Thorat, Batuk D Diyora, Ravikrishna Mamidanna, Parag Sayal, Suvarna Badhe & Alok K Sharma

 

Received 7 July 2005; revised 5 September 2006

Significant reduction in hemorrhage (10 v/s 13), necrosis (2 v/s 4), cavitations (7 v/s 13), neuronal degeneration, perivascular and parenchymal inflammatory infiltrate (7 v/s 11) were observed in Vitamin E treated cold induced head injury in guinea pigs, evaluated post injury using the modified Benderson痴 scale. The results suggest that Vitamin E is highly effective in promoting clinical and histopathological recovery in cold induced head injury in guinea pigs.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 185-193

 

 

Effect of KATP channel openers on myogenic and neurogenic responses in
goat urinary bladder

C Vijayakumar, K Kathirvel, K K Sardar & S C Parija

 

Received 2 January 2006; revised 20 September 2006

Isolated goat detrusor muscle exhibited spontaneous contractility with an irregular amplitude and frequency. The spontaneity of detrusor muscle exhibited a mean amplitude as 11.99 ア 0.83 mm and frequency as 1.37 ア 0.16/min. KATP-channel openers namely, cromakalim or pinacidil (10-7-10-4 M) added cumulatively, elicited a concentration-related inhibition of both amplitude and rate of spontaneous contractions. The mean IC50 values for both amplitude and frequency for cromakalim were 3.3 ラ 10-6 M and 2.9 ラ 10-6 M, respectively; and for pinacidil were 2.0 ラ 10-5 M and 1.5 ラ 10-5 M, respectively. Glibenclamide, a KATP-channel blocker inhibited the cromakalim-induced concentration-related relaxation of spontaneous contractions with a significant increase in its mean IC50. ACh -induced concentration-related contractile response was inhibited in the presence of either cromakalim (10-4 M) or pinacidil (10-4 M). The mean EC50 value of ACh, in the presence of cromakalim (2.5 ラ 10-3 M) was significantly increased as compared to the control (1.2 ラ 10-6 M). In the presence of glibenclamide (10-5 M) the inhibitory effect of cromakalim was significantly reduced with consequent decrease in the EC50 value (1.9 ラ 10-5 M). Application of EFS (30 V and 5 ms) on goat urinary bladder strips at 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 Hz elicited frequency-related contractile responses. Both cromakalim and pinacidil caused a rightward shift in the frequency-related contractile response curve with significant increase in the mean EF25 and EF50 values, respectively. In the presence of glibenclamide (10-4M), the frequency-related inhibitory response curve was shifted to left with significant (P <0.001) increase in the mean EF25, EF50 and EF75. The present results suggest that in the goat detrusor muscle, agonist and EFS-induced contractile responses were more potently inhibited by cromakalim than pinacidil with activation of glibenclamide sensitive KATP channels.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 194-202

 

 

Protective effect of hesperidin on nicotine induced toxicity in rats

 

Annida Balakrishnan & Venugopal P Menon

 

Received 10 January 2006; revised 9 October 2006

Nicotine administration (2.5 mg/kg of body weight, sc, 5 days a week for 22 weeks) enhanced lipid peroxidative indices (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) accompanied by a significant increase in the marker enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids in Wistar rats. There was a significant protection by hesperidin administration at different doses (25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight) in nicotine-treated rats. However, the effect of hesperidin was more significant at 25mg/kg dose. The results suggest that hesperidin exerts the protective effects by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation. The results are supported by histopathological observations of lung, liver and kidney.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 203-206

 

 

Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of
Streptomyces sampsonii GS 1322

Praveen Kumar Jain & P C Jain

 

Received 3 March 2006; revised 3 October 2006

For new antifungal antibiotics from actinomycetes, a strain of Streptomyces GS 1322 was isolated from a sample of garden soil. The strain was found to possess antagonistic activity against four fungi i.e., Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton sp. The strain was identified as Streptomyces sampsonii and the antifungal compound produced by it was found to be the heptaene group of polyene antibiotics.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 207-211

 

 

Verotoxic Escherichia coli (STEC) from beef and its products

R A Hazarika, D K Singh, K N Kapoor, R K Agarwal, A B Pandey & Purusottam

 

Received 6 July 2006; revised 31 October 2006

In the present investigation, out of 27 (24.10%) strains of Escherichia coli isolated from 112 beef samples comprising raw meat (45), kabab (36) and kofta (31), 9 (33.33%) belonging to 7 different serotypes were verotoxic as tested by vero cell cytotoxic assay. Serotype O145 was the predominant STEC in raw meat. Interestingly, one STEC-O157 strain was also detected. All the STEC strains were positive for Stx genes by polymerase chain reaction showing stx2 (77.78%) to be most predominant followed by stx1 (22.22%). Phenotypic enterohaemolysin production on washed sheep blood agar supplemented with CaCl2 revealed 6 (66.67%) STEC strains to be positive. Presence of STEC in cooked beef products, viz., kabab and kofta appeared to be a matter of concern and potential threat to public health.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 212-216

 

 

Evaluation of immune response to bovine rotavirus following oral and intraperitoneal inoculation in mice

Ravinder Rathi, S K Kadian, Bharat Khurana, Y P Grover & B R Gulati

 

Received 8 January 2006; revised 9 October 2006

With a view to use mice as an experimental model for studying immune response to bovine rotavirus (BRV), the kinetics of humoral and cellular immune responses to BRV in mice were evaluated by immunizing through intraperitoneal and oral route with UK strain of BRV. Following immunization with BRV, anti-rotavirus antibodies was developed in mice. The mean log antibody titres as measured by ELISA in mice immunized by intraperitoneal route were significantly higher than those immunized by oral route. Significant cellular immune response was observed in BRV-immunized mice on stimulation with BRV antigen, as measured by lymphocyte proliferation assay. The thymidine uptake by splenic and mesenteric lymph-node cells of intraperitoneally immunized mice on stimulation with BRV was 213281225 and 73955 CPM, respectively. The splenic cells showed significantly higher stimulation (stimulation index 12.98) as compared to those of mesenteric cells (stimulation index 1.57). Foot pad inoculation test showed maximum virus-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reaction at 24 hr post-challenge following primary immunization and at 18 hr post-challenge following secondary immunization. The results indicate that BRV immunization by intraperitoneal route generates more efficient immune response in mice than by oral route and this route may be used for immune response studies involving BRV infection.