Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

JULY 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(7)  575-664 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 7

JULY 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(7) 575-664 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Bioactive molecules from amphibian skin: Their biological activities with reference to therapeutic potentials for possible drug development

579

      Antony Gomes, Biplab Giri, Archita Saha, R Mishra, Subir C Dasgupta, A Debnath & Aparna Gomes

 

 

 

Papers

 

An enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

594

      A Mishra, T K Goswami & D C Shukla

 

 

 

Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigens ES-31, ES-43 and EST-6 of diagnostic interest from Tubercle Bacilli by affinity chromatography

599

      Vijay Upadhye, Santa Saha-Roy, Niraj Shende, Satish Kumar & B C Harinath

 

 

 

Chronic maternal dietary iodine deficiency but not thiocyanate feeding affects maternal reproduction and postnatal performance of the rat

603

      S Bala Tripura Sundari, L Venu, Y Sunita & M Raghunath

 

 

 

Evaluation of antidepressant-like activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. Fruits in mice

610

      Dinesh Dhingra & Rekha Valecha

 

 

 

Hypolipidemic activity of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. leaf extract in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats

617

      R Dhandapani

 

 

 

Role of Rubia cordifolia Linn. in radiation protection

620

      Yamini Bhusan Tripathi & Ajita Vikram Singh

 

 

 

Reversal of hepatotoxin-induced pre-fibrogenic events by Emblica officinalis — A histological study

626

      A I Mir, B Kumar, S A Tasduq, D K Gupta, S Bhardwaj & R K Johri

 

 

 

Responses of succinate dehydrogenase and non-specific alkaline phosphatases and mortality of tilapia to ambient pH stress in a sewage-fed aquaculture pond

630

      Sonia Mukherjee, Debashree Golder, Sukanta Rana & B B Jana

 

 

Comparative interaction of few antihypertensive drugs with Cyclosporine-A in rats

638

      N Prem Kumar, M N Inamdar & B V Venkataraman

 

 

 

Effect of withdrawal of diazepam or morphine treatment on gastric motility (charcoal meal test) in mice: Possible role of different central and peripheral receptors

642

      S K Kulkarni, Anupama Kaushal & Ashish Dhir

 

 

 

Polyamines in inflammation and their modulation by conventional anti-inflammatory drugs

649

      Lagishetty Chakradhar V & Suresh Ramnath Naik

 

 

 

Involvement of p38 MAPkinase in attenuation of antinociceptive effect of morphine in diabetic mice

654

      Neeraj Gilhotra, Ajay Sharma, Manjeet Singh & Dinesh Dhingra

 

 

 

Biosorption of Cr(VI) with Trichoderma viride immobilized fungal biomass and cell free Ca-alginate beads

657

      Narsi R Bishnoi, Rajendra Kumar & Kiran Bishnoi

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Bhardwaj S

626

Bishnoi Kiran

657

Bishnoi Narsi R

657

 

 

Chakradhar Lagishetty V

649

 

 

Dasgupta Subir C

579

Debnath A

579

Dhandapani R

617

Dhingra Dinesh

610, 654

Dhir Ashish

642

 

 

Gilhotra Neeraj

654

Giri Biplab

579

Golder Debashree

630

Gomes Antony

579

Gomes Aparna

579

Goswami T K

594

Gupta D K

626

 

 

Harinath B C

599

 

 

Inamdar M N

638

 

 

Jana B B

630

Johri R K

626

 

 

Kaushal Anupama

642

Kulkarni S K

642

Kumar B

626

Kumar Rajendra

657

Kumar Satish

599

 

Mir A I

626

Mishra A

594

Mishra R

579

Mukherjee Sonia

630

 

 

Naik Suresh Ramnath

649

 

 

Prem Kumar N

638

 

 

Raghunath M

603

 

 

Rana Sukanta

630

 

 

Saha Archita

579

Saha-Roy Santa

599

Sharma Ajay

654

Shende Niraj

599

Shukla D C

594

Singh Ajita Vikram

620

Singh Manjeet

654

Sundari S Bala Tripura

603

Sunita Y

603

 

 

Tasduq S A

626

Tripathi Yamini Bhusan

620

 

 

Upadhye Vijay

599

 

 

Valecha Rekha

610

Venkataraman B V

638

Venu L

603

 

 

Keyword Index

Affinity chromatography

599

Alkaline phosphatase

630

Ammonia toxicity

630

Amphibians

579

Antidepressant

610

Antinociception

654

Antioxidant

620

 

 

Biosorption

657

Buffaloes

594

 

 

Calcium alginate

657

Carbon tetrachloride

626

Cholesterol

617

Chromium (VI)

657

Cyclosporin-A

638

 

 

Dexamethasone

649

Diabetes

654

Diazepam

642

Diclofenac

649

Diltiazem

638

DSS antigens

599

 

 

Eclipta prostrata

617

ELISA

594, 599

Emblica officinalis

626

Enalapril

638

 

 

FR-167653

654

Fibrogenic

626

Fish mortality

630

Flumazenil

642

Forced swim test

610

Frog skin

579

 

 

Gastrointestinal mortility

642

Goitrogens

603

Growth hormone

594

 

 

Histology

626

Hyperlipidemia

617

Hypertension

638

Hypothyroidism

603

 

 

Immobilized

657

Iodine deficiency

603

 

 

Losartan

638

 

 

Medicinal application

579

Micronuclei

620

Milk

594

Models of inflammation

649

Morphine

642, 654

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

599

 

 

Naloxone

642

 

 

p38MAPKinase

654

pH

630

Polyamines

649

Propranolol

638

Pulmonary tuberculosis

599

 

 

Radiation protection

620

Reproduction

603

Reserpine

610

Rubia cordifolia

620

 

 

Serum

594

Skin bioactive molecules

579

Stress

630

Succinate dehydrogenase

630

 

 

Tail suspension test

610

Terminalia bellirica

610

Therapeutic potential

579

Thioacetamide

626

Thiocyanate

603

Thoracic aorta

638

Toad skin

579

Trichoderma viride

657

Triglyceride

617

 

 

Valdecoxib

649

 

Withdrawal symptoms

642

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 579-593

 

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Bioactive molecules from amphibian skin: Their biological activities with reference to therapeutic potentials for possible drug development

Antony Gomes, Biplab Giri, Archita Saha, R Mishra,

Subir C Dasgupta, A Debnath & Aparna Gomes

 

 

The amphibian skin contains various bioactive molecules (peptides, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, opiods) that possess potent therapeutic activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, analgesic and sleep inducing properties. Research on amphibian skin derived biomolecules can provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various pathophysiological conditions. An overview on the bioactive molecules of various amphibian skins has been discussed.

 

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 594-598

 

 

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

A Mishra, T K Goswami & D C Shukla

 

Received 16 May 2006; revised 27 February 2007

An indirect Sandwich ELISA to measure growth hormone level in serum and milk of buffaloes was developed. The assay was based on purified anti rbST IgG raised in rabbits and chicken and rabbit anti chicken IgG horseradish peroxidase. The assay was validated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and recovery. Parallelism was demonstrated between the standard curve and serially diluted serum, milk and pituitary derived growth hormone. Sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/ml. Recovery of exogenous bovine somatotropin from serum and milk ranged from 90 to 102% and 96 to 108% respectively. The intra and inter assay variations to measure growth hormone in serum and milk were 3.36 to 8.81% and 6.01 to 12.31% respectively. Statistical analysis for parallelism and cross-reactivity of rbST with serum of other species confirmed the reproducibility of the assay.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 599-602

 

 

Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein antigens ES-31, ES-43 and EST-6 of diagnostic interest from Tubercle Bacilli by affinity chromatography

Vijay Upadhye, Santa Saha-Roy, Niraj Shende, Satish Kumar & B C Harinath

 

Received 29 May 2006; revised 26 March 2007

Immunodiagnostically useful M. tuberculosis H37Ra protein antigens ES-31, ES-43 and EST-6 were isolated from detergent soluble sonicate (DSS) antigen using monospecific antibodies by affinity chromatography and compared with similar antigens isolated from M. tuberculosis culture filtrate for seroreactivity in tuberculosis sera by Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Recovery of affinity purified ES-31, ES-43 and EST-6 antigen from DSS antigen was approximately 3, 3.5 and 4% respectively, compared to 10, 9 and 6.3% from culture filtrate. Affinity purified ES-31, ES-43 and EST-6 antigens from both culture filtrate as well as DSS antigen showed similar seroreactivity with overall sensitivity 85, 80 and 75% respectively and specificity of 85% at optimum concentration of 50 pg protein of each antigen. The results suggest that DSS antigen may be a promising antigen source for isolating antigens of diagnostic interest obviating the need for cumbersome, time-consuming culture techniques of mycobacteria.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 603-609

 

 

Chronic maternal dietary iodine deficiency but not thiocyanate feeding affects maternal reproduction and postnatal performance of the rat

S Bala Tripura Sundari, L Venu, Y Sunita & M Raghunath

 

Received 3 August 2006; revised 20 February 2007

Iodine deficiency disorders affect reproductive performance in the afflicted populations. Environmental iodine deficiency (ID) and goitrogens are important in their aetiology. We observed earlier that chronic maternal dietary ID but not goitrogen feeding altered the blood-brain barrier nutrient transport in adult rats. Whether similar differences exist in their effects on reproduction of dams and postnatal performance of the offspring has been assessed. Inbred, female, weaning WNIN rats were rendered hypothyroid by feeding for 8-12 weeks, a low iodine test diet or a control diet with added potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) (@ 25 mg/rat/day). Following mating with control males, they continued on their respective diets till their pups were weaned. Indices of reproductive performance such as percentage of conception, mortality of dams during pregnancy and parturition, litter size, and survival of pups till weaning were affected markedly by ID but not thiocyanate feeding. Neither ID nor thiocyanate feeding from conception or parturition affected their reproductive performance. Nevertheless, postnatal weight gain of pups was less in all the three ID groups but not thiocyanate fed dams. Rehabilitation of chronically ID pregnant dams from conception or parturition did not improve their pregnancy weight gain, litter size or birth weight of pups but decreased abortion and mortality of mothers during pregnancy and parturition. Rehabilitation improved the pups’ postnatal weight gain but the effect was only moderate. Based on the results of the present study it may be suggested that maternal ID but not thiocyanate feeding affects reproductive performance and postnatal performance of their offspring.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 610-616

 

 

Evaluation of antidepressant-like activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. fruits in mice

Dinesh Dhingra & Rekha Valecha

 

Received 19 December 2006; revised 28 March 2007

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. bellirica on depression in mice using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The extracts were administered orally for
10 successive days in separate groups of Swiss young male albino mice. Aqueous extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner and ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time of mice in both FST and TST. The extracts were without any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The efficacies of aqueous extract
(200 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) were found to be similar to that of imipramine (15 mg/kg, po) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, po) administered for 10 successive days. Both extracts reversed reserpine-induced extension of immobility period of mice in FST and TST. Prazosin (62.5
mg/kg, ip; an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, ip; a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, ip; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) significantly attenuated the aqueous and ethanolic extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Thus, both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. bellirica elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect in mice by interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic systems.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 617-619

 

 

Hypolipidemic activity of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. leaf extract in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats

R. Dhandapani

 

Received 17 November 2006; revised 28 February 2007

In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with the aqueous extract of the leaves of E. prostrata showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein and elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol.The aqueous extract of E. prostrata was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that E. prostrata leaf extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations is an excellent lipid-lowering agent.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 620-625

 

 

Role of Rubia cordifolia Linn. in radiation protection

Yamini Bhusan Tripathi & Ajita Vikram Singh

 

Received 16 November 2004; revised 20 February 2007

The radioprotective potential of alcoholic extract of root of R. cordifolia, was studied by survival, hemopoietic cell protection and micronucleus assay. The LD50 value for the alcoholic root extract was found to be 1200 mg/kg body weight at 72 hr post irradiation. A significant radiation protection (67%) as assessed by increased animal survival was observed when R. cordifolia (RC) extract was administered intraperitoneally, 90 min. before the radiation exposure. Besides, the extract also inhibited radiation induced lipid peroxidation measured by the inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The RC extract at a selected dose of 460 mg/kg body weight was effective in protecting the radiation induced suppression of endogenous colony forming units in spleen. A significant inhibition of radiation (2 Gy) induced micronuclei formation was observed when RC extract was administered 90 min prior to irradiation. Thus, it appears that the alcoholic root extract of R. cordifolia provides significant protection against radiation induced lipid peroxidation, hemopoietic injury and genotoxicity. The mechanism of action of RC extract appears to be through its anti-oxidant, metal chelation and anti-inflammatory property.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 626-629

 

 

Reversal of hepatotoxin-induced pre-fibrogenic events by
Emblica officinalis – A histological study

 

A I Mir, B Kumar, SA Tasduq, D K Gupta, S Bhardwaj & R K Johri



Received 20 November 2006; revised 12 April 2007

Efficacy of a herbal product of E. officinalis (fruit) (EO) has been evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacetamide (TAA) induced changes in rat liver. Chronic treatment of CCl4 and TAA revealed abnormal histopathology indicative of pre-fibrogenic events. EO reversed such alterations with significant regenerative changes suggestive of its preventive role in prefibrogenesis of liver.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 630-637

 

 

Responses of succinate dehydrogenase and non-specific alkaline phosphatases and mortality of tilapia to ambient pH stress in a sewage-fed aquaculture pond

 

Sonia Mukherjee, Debashree Golder, Sukanta Rana & B B Jana

 

Received 14 December 2005; revised 22 February 2007

The fish, tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) of 50-60 g body weight was experimentally exposed to effluent gradients of highly alkaline pH in a sewage-fed aquaculture farm for examining the pH stress-induced responses of mortality and the stress marker enzyme succinate dehydrogenase and the non-specific alkaline phosphatases of fish prior to death at different hours of intoxication. A second trial was performed after two months when water quality changed along the sewage effluent gradient. An in situ experiment was also performed for better understanding of the responses of enzymatic activities attributable to different levels of pH conditions. Time required for 100% mortality of fish tended to increase from 30 min in pH 11.6 to 22 hr in pH 10.2. There was no mortality of fish when water quality improved significantly (with pH ranging between 9.6 to 8.0) after two months. The activities of succinate dehydrogenase and intracellular alkaline phosphatases assayed in gills and liver prior to death of fish tended to reduce with increase in survival hour, following a pattern of decay curve. On the other hand, percent of enzymatic inhibition of the exposed fish over the control increased as the survival hour increased following a pattern of exponential curve. It appears that the highest water pH of 11.6, maximum ratio for ammonium to ammonium hydroxide (1: 21) and reduced level of dissolved oxygen (2.62 mg/l) were perhaps responsible for the 100% mortality of fish within 30 min of their exposure and the enzymatic activities in the gills and liver assayed prior to death of fish tended to reduce as the acclimatization period of fish increased and vice-versa.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 638-641

 

 

Comparative interaction of few antihypertensive drugs with Cyclosporine-A in rats

N Prem Kumar & M N Inamdar

and

B V Venkataraman

 

Received 27 September 2006; revised 28 March 2007

The maximal endothelial dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings to cumulative doses of acetylcholine was significantly decreased in the Cyclosporine-A (CSA, 20 mg kg-1 day-1) treated animals compared to olive oil (CSA vehicle) treated control. Administration of antihypertensive drugs like diltiazem, enalapril or propranolol to CSA treated animals augmented the endothelial damage induced by CSA. These drugs also increased the bioavailability of CSA. However, administration of losartan to CSA treated animals produced a significant increase in endothelial dependent relaxation as compared to CSA treated control but did not affect the bioavailability of CSA significantly. The results suggest that losartan is safer compared to other antihypertensives for the treatment of CSA induced hypertension.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 642-648

 

 

Effect of withdrawal of diazepam or morphine treatment on gastric
motility (charcoal meal test) in mice: Possible role of different central
and peripheral receptors

S K Kulkarni, Anupama Kaushal & Ashish Dhir

 

Received 13 October 2006; revised 13 February 2007

Increased gastrointestinal motility in mice as one of the withdrawal symptoms of commonly abused drugs like diazepam or morphine and its possible mechanism of action was studied. Male Laka mice (20-25 g) were made addict to either diazepam (20 mg/kg, ip for 7 days) or morphine (10 mg/kg, sc for 9 days). Withdrawal symptoms were noted 24 hr after the last injection of diazepam or morphine. The animals were injected with Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) (1 mg/kg, ip) or naloxone (2 mg/kg, ip) in the respective group to precipitate the withdrawal symptoms. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed by charcoal-meal test. Animals developed tolerance to acute sedative effect of diazepam, and similarly to the acute nociceptive action of morphine. On abrupt cessation of these drugs after chronic treatment the animals showed hyperlocomotion and hyperreactivity in diazepam withdrawal group and hyperalgesia on hot plate in morphine withdrawal groups, respectively. Increase in gastrointestinal motility was observed in all the drug withdrawal groups. Treatment with respective antagonists, Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) and naloxone precipitated the withdrawal symptoms. The results suggest the involvement of both central and peripheral receptors of benzodiazepines and opioid (mu) receptors in the withdrawal symptoms of the benzodiazepines and morphine, respectively.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 649-653

 

 

Polyamines in inflammation and their modulation by conventional
anti-inflammatory drugs

Lagishetty Chakradhar V & Suresh Ramnath Naik

.

Received 23 January 2007; revised 12 April 2007

Significant increase in polyamines levels in inflamed tissue was observed in the experimental animal models of inflammation. Treatment with dexamethasone positively modulated the levels of polyamines whereas non-steroidal drugs, diclofenac and valdecoxib negatively modulated their levels.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 654-656

 

 

Involvement of p38 MAPkinase in attenuation of antinociceptive effect of morphine in diabetic mice

Neeraj Gilhotra, Ajay Sharma & Manjeet Singh 

 

and

Dinesh Dhingra

 

Received 5 December 2006; revised 27 February 2007

Experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin (200 mg/kg, ip) markedly decreased the antinociceptive effect of morphine and significantly increased the urinary nitrite concentration. Administration of FR-167653 (a selective p38MAPKinase inhibitor) in a dose of 4 mg/kg improved the antinociceptive effect of morphine and attenuated the increase in urinary nitrite concentration in diabetic mice. It may be concluded that diabetes-induced decrease in antinociceptive effect of morphine may be due to induction of p38 MAPKinase activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, July 2007, pp. 657-664

 

 

Biosorption of Cr (VI) with Trichoderma viride immobilized fungal biomass and cell free Ca-alginate beads

Narsi R Bishnoi, Rajender Kumar & Kiran Bishnoi

 

Received 13 November 2006; revised 22 February 2007

Ability of Cr (VI) biosorption with immobilized Trichoderma viride biomass and cell free Ca-alginate beads was studied in the present study. Biosorption efficiency in the powdered fungal biomass entrapped in polymeric matric of calcium alginate compared with cell free calcium alginate beads. Effect of pH, initial metal ion concentration, time and biomass dose on the Cr (VI) removal by immobilized and cell free Ca-alginate beads were also determined. Biosorption of Cr (VI) was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption was observed at pH 2.0. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 90 min. The maximum adsorption capacity of 16.075 mgg-1 was observed at dose 0.2 mg in 100 ml of Cr (VI) solution. The high value of kinetics rate constant Kad (3.73×10-2) with immobilized fungal biomass and (3.75×10-2) with cell free Ca-alginate beads showed that the sorption of Cr (VI) ions on immobilized biomass and cell free Ca-alginate beads followed pseudo first order kinetics. The experimental results were fitted satisfactory to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The hydroxyl (-OH) and amino (-NH) functional groups were responsible in biosorption of Cr (VI) with fungal biomass spp. Trichoderma viride analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer.