Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

JUNE 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(6)  487-574 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

Total visitors: 922  since 06-06-07

 

VOLUME 45

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(6) 487-574 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Review Article

 

Dendritic cells and antigen trapping technology —A revolution in vaccine/
immunotherapy strategy

491

      Chiranjib Pal, Dipyaman Ganguly, Kausik Paul & Srijib Pal

 

 

 

Papers

 

Contribution f EDRF and EDHF to restoration of endothelial function following dietary restrictions in hypercholesterolemic rats

505

      M Zahid Ashraf, Maram K Reddy, M Ejaz Hussain, Eugene A Podrez &
Mohammad Fahim

 

 

 

Chelation therapy and vanadium: Effect on reproductive organs in rats

515

      Sadhana Shrivastava, Anjana Jadon, Sangeeta Shukla & Ramesh Mathur

 

 

 

Protective effect of Withania somnifera Dunal on the behavioral and biochemical alterations in sleep-disturbed mice (Grid over water suspended method)

524

      Anil Kumar & Harikesh Kalonia

 

 

 

Antinociceptive effect of amitriptyline in mice of acute pain models

529

      Keshab Raj Paudel, Balbhadra Prasad Das, G P Rauniar, Himal Sangraula,
Satish Deo & S K Bhattacharya

 

 

 

Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium

532

      N C Mohire, V R Salunkhe, S B Bhise & A V Yadav

 

 

 

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Clerodendrum serratum L.

538

      S M Vidya, V Krishna, B K Manjunatha, K L Mankani, Manzoor Ahmed &
S D Jagadeesh Singh

 

 

 

Influence of kynurenines in pathogenesis of cataract formation in tryptophan-deficient regimen in Wistar rats

543

      T N Raju, V Rajani Kanth, P Uma Maheswara Reddy, J Srinivas & J Sobhanaditya

 

 

 

Thyroid dysfunction modulates glucoregulatory mechanism in rat

549

      Sudipta Chakrabarti, Srikanta Guria, Ipsita Samanta & Madhusudan Das

 

 

 

Effect of Bt-cotton on chrysopids, ladybird beetles and their prey: Aphids and whiteflies

554

      M A Mellet & A S Schoeman

 

 

 

Iron mediated regulation of growth and siderophore production in a diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrical

563

      Ruchika Raghuvanshi, Surendra Singh & Prakash Singh Bisen

 

 

 

Detection of pathogenic leptospires in animals by PCR based on lipL21 and lipL32 genes

568

      P S Cheema, S K Srivastava, R Amutha, S Singh, H Singh & M Sandey

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Comparative Biomechanics—Life’s Physical Word

574

      Megha Singh

 

 

 

Call for nominations for BRSI Awards—2006

490

 

 

——————

 

 

 

 

Call for Nominations for BRSI Annual Awards—2006

 

The Biotech Research Society of India [BRSI] invites nominations for the following BRSI Annual Awards–2006 1. Young Scientist Medal; Any researcher/academician of
35 years or below as on 31st December 2006 involved in Biotech R&D for his/her outstanding contribution would be eligible; 2. Woman Scientist Medal: Any woman researcher/academician below the age of 45 years as on 31st December 2006 involved in Biotech R&D for her outstanding contribution carried out in India. 3. BRSI Life Time Medal: Any researcher/academician above the age of 55 years as on 31st December 2006 involved in Biotech R&D for his/her life time contribution to the field of Biotechnology;
4. BRSI Industrial Medal: Any researcher involved in Biotech R&D for his/her outstanding contribution, which has resulted in commercialisation of a product/process; 5. Fellow of BRSI: Members of BRSI having long-standing and significant contribution to the field as well as eminent scientists/technologists working in various areas of biotechnology shall be considered to be elected as Fellow of BRSI (FBRS).

Further details and application form can be obtained from Prof. Ashok Pandey, President-BRSI, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (formerly Regional Research Laboratory), CSIR, Trivandrum 695 019; Telephone: 0471-2515279/2495949;
Fax 0471-2491712; E-mail: ashokpandey56@yahoo.co.in; pandey@csrrltrd.ren.nic.in

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Amutha R

568

Anil Kumar

524

Ashraf M Zahid

505

 

 

Bhattacharya S K

529

Bhise S B

532

Bisen Prakash Singh

563

 

 

Chakrabarti Sudipta

549

Cheema P S

568

 

 

Das Balbhadra Prasad

529

Das Madhusudan

549

Deo Satish

529

 

 

Ganguly Dipyaman

491

Guria Srikanta

549

 

 

Hussain M Ejaz

505

 

 

Jadon Anjana

515

 

 

Kalonia Harikesh

524

Krishna V

538

 

 

Manjunatha B K

538

Mankani K L

538

Manzoor Ahmed

538

Mathur Ramesh

515

Mellet M A

554

Mohammad Fahim

505

Mohire N C

532

 

 

Pal Chiranjib

491

Pal Srijib

491

Paudel Keshab Raj

529

Paul Kausik

491

Podrez Eugene A

505

 

 

Raghuvanshi Ruchika

563

Rajani Kanth V

543

Raju T N

543

Rauniar G P

529

 

 

Reddy Maram K

505

Reddy P Uma Maheswara

543

 

 

Salunkhe V R

532

Samanta Ipsita

549

Sandey M

568

Sangraula Himal

529

Schoeman A S

554

Shrivastava Sadhana

515

Shukla Sangeeta

515

Singh H

568

Singh Megha

574

Singh S

568

Singh S D Jagadeesh

538

Singh Surendra

563

Sobhanaditya J

543

Srinivas J

543

Srivastava S K

568

 

 

Vidya S M

538

 

 

Yadav A V

532

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetylcholine

505

Acute pain

529

Adenosine

505

Amitriptyline

529

Anabaena cylindrica

563

Antinociception

529

Antioxidant enzymes

543

Anxiety

524

 

 

Bacillus thuringiensis

554

Biological control

554

Blood glucose

549

 

 

Cancer

491

Cataract

543

Clerodendrum serratum

538

Cyanobacterium

563

 

 

Dendritic cell

491

Digoxin

532

 

 

Endothelium

505

 

 

Glycogen

549

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity

538

5-Hydroxytryptamine

505

Hypercholesterolemia

505

Hyperthyroid

549

Hypothyroid Liver

549

 

 

IFHP

532

Immunotherapy

491

Infectious diseases

491

Iron

563

 

 

Kynurenines (Kyn)

543

 

 

Leptospira

568

Lipoic acid

515

Locomotor activity

524

 

 

Mice

529

 

 

Outer membrane proteins

568

Oxidative stress

524

 

 

P. marsupium

532

Phenylephrine

505

Polymerase chain reaction

568

 

 

Predator-prey interactions

554

Protein carbonyls

543

 

 

Rat

505

Root extract

538

 

 

Selenium

515

Serotonin

505

Siderophore

563

Sleep disturption

524

 

 

Therapeutic window

532

Tiron

515

Transgenic cotton

554

Tryptophan (Trp)

543

Tryptophan fluorescence

543

 

 

Ursolic acid

538

 

 

Vaccine

491

Vanadyl sulphate

515

Viral Diseases

491

Vitamin E

515

 

 

Withania somnifera

524

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 491-504

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Dendritic cells and antigen trapping technology ¾ A revolution in vaccine/immunotherapy strategy

Chiranjib Pal, Dipyaman Ganguly, Kausik Paul & Srijib Pal

 

 

Vaccines based on dendritic cells—the immune system’s key responders to foreign invaders— grabbed the spotlight of this decade. Scientists have devised a dozen different ways to make dendritic cell vaccines. They have linked dendritic cells with all kinds of antigens, including peptides derived from gene mutations, tumor/pathogen RNA, viral vectors, and with whole pathogen/tumor lysate. And they are adding cytokines such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor or interleukin 4 during dendritic cell growth or maturation or at the site of vaccination to try to boost response. We are still learning the best way to generate the dendritic cells, load them with the antigen and send them to the right place in the body, and use of the biological stage of development of dendritic cells that is best suited to stimulate a response. In the present review attempts have been made to present a comprehensive synopsis of the history, development and ramifications of evolving knowledge on dendritic cell biology and the prospects for being developed as a rational immunotherapeutic tool. Further clinical studies are warranted.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 505-514

 

Papers

Contribution of EDRF and EDHF to restoration of endothelial function following dietary restrictions in hypercholesterolemic rats

M. Zahid Ashraf, Maram K. Reddy, M. Ejaz Hussain, Eugene A Podrez & Mohammad Fahim

 

Received 2 June 2006; revised 16 February 2007

The mechanisms underlying the impairment of endothelium-mediated vasorelaxation induced by dietary hypercholesterolemia and the mechanisms of restoration of endothelial function following reintroduction of low cholesterol diet were evaluated. Feeding rats with high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolemia and high blood pressure. This was associated with reduced vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine, isoproterenol, and adenosine. At the same time, exaggerated contractile responses to serotonin and phenylephrine were observed. Reintroduction of a normal diet to cholesterol fed rats resulted in significant normalization of blood pressure, serum lipid profile, relaxation and contractile responses. The contributions of endothelial derived relaxing factors (EDRF), endothelial derived contractile factors (EDCFs)/prostanoids, and endothelial derived hyperpoalrising factor (EDHF) to the vasorelaxation in each group of animals were assessed. EDCFs constricting activity was increased in both cholesterol fed groups as compared to the control group. EDRF and EDHF were found to be the primary factors involved in the regulation of endothelium-mediated responsiveness. In control animals, EDRF was responsible for 70-90% of relaxation, depending on the agonist used. In cholesterol fed animals, EDRF was significantly reduced while EDHF was maintained or enhanced showing that EDHF had a significant role in maintaining the endothelial responses. Importantly, the restoration of vasorelaxation following reintroduction of normal diet was mediated not only by improvement of EDRF-dependent relaxation, but also to a significant extent by a further increase in EDHF-mediated relaxation. Taken together, the data showed that EDRF was attenuated during hypercholesterolemia and dietary interventions with low fat content restored these responses. However, EDHF-mediated responses were not reduced by hypercholesterolemia and subsequently improved their function after application of low cholesterol diet. The results implicate EDHF-mediated relaxation is also an important mechanism for restoration of endothelial function upon application of dietary restrictions for reduction of serum cholesterol level.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 515-523

 

 

Chelation therapy and vanadium: Effect on reproductive organs in rats

 

Sadhana Shrivastava, Anjana Jadon, Sangeeta Shukla & Ramesh Mathur

 

Received 12 July 2006; revised 23 January 2007

Present investigation was planned to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of chelating agents against vanadium intoxication on blood and reproductive organs of rats. Male and female albino rats were injected vanadyl sulphate (7.5 mg/kg, po, for 21 days, 5 days in a week). Chelating agents tiron (T) alone and in combination with lipoic acid (LA), vitamin E (vit E) and selenium (Se) were given for 2 days/week. With the administration of vanadyl sulphate to rats fructose level in seminal vesicles was significantly (P<0.05) declined. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase were also decreased, whereas glycogen content and acid phosphatase activity increased in testis, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus after toxicant exposure. Significant changes in serum transaminases, serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were recouped by chelation therapy. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione level and triglycerides levels altered significantly after exposure to vanadium in rats. The ultrastructural damage in spermatogenic stages in treated animals showed recovery pattern after therapy. Co-treatment with antioxidants restored these activities. The most effective combination was tiron + selenium followed by tiron + vitamin E, and tiron + lipoic acid.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 524-528

 

 

Protective effect of Withania somnifera Dunal on the behavioral and biochemical alterations in sleep-disturbed mice (Grid over water suspended method)

Anil Kumar & Harikesh Kalonia

 

Received 21 June 2006; revised 14 February 2007

Sleep disruption involves extensive changes in physiological function, including EEG, motor, metabolic, autonomic processes physiological homeostasis and psychological balance that are necessary for physical health. Benzodiazepines are the most widely used drugs for the sleep related problems in spite of their limitations and side effects. Objective of the study was to investigate the protective effect of W. somnifera on the behavioral and biochemical alterations in sleep-disturbed mice. Pretreatment with W. somnifera root extract (100, 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) significantly protected reduction in body weight, improved the reduced locomotor activity and anxiety levels in animals. Biochemical studies also revealed that W. somnifera (100 and 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) pretreatment for five days decreased significantly lipid peroxidation, nitrites levels and improved catalase, and reduced glutathione levels. Co-administration of W. somnifera (100 mg/kg) with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) improved significantly all the biochemical parameters as compared to their effect per se. Preliminary results suggest that Withania root extract can be used in the management sleep loss and associated oxidative stress.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 529-531

 

 

Antinociceptive effect of amitriptyline in mice of acute pain models

Keshab Raj Paudel, Balbhadra Prasad Das, G P Rauniar, Himal Sangraula, Satish Deo & S K Bhattacharya

 

Received 6 September 2006; revised 15 January 2007

Tricyclic antidepressant drugs induce antinociceptive effect and suggest that their analgesic action could be related to the monoaminergic activity of the drugs. The analgesic activity of amitriptyline was observed in mouse models of acute pain. Mice were divided into different groups and were given amitriptyline in different doses alone and in combination with morphine. Reaction time in Hot-Plate and Tail-Flick tests was observed. Results showed that amitriptyline had antinociceptive effect in acute pain state in experimental models. Amitriptyline in combination with morphine had better analgesic effect than the morphine alone in Hot-Plate test.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 532-537

 

 

Cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium.

N C Mohire, V R. Salunkhe, S B Bhise & A V Yadav.

 

Received 21 August 2006; revised 16 January 2007

The present study was undertaken to evaluate cardiotonic activity of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium. This plant species contains 5,7,2-4 tetrahydroxy isoflavone 6-6 glucoside which are potent antioxidant and are believed to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Cardiotonic effect of aqueous extract of heartwood of P. marsupium was studied by using isolated frog heart perfusion technique (IFHP). Calcium free Ringer solution was used as vehicle for administration of aqueous extract of P. marsupium as a test extract and digoxin as a standard. A significant increase in height of force of contraction (positive inotropic effect) and decrease in heart rate (negative chronotropic effect) at a very low concentration (0.25 mg/ml) was observed with test extract as compared to the same dose of a standard digoxin. The present results indicated that a significant increase in height of force of contraction with decrease in heart rate was observed as the dose of test extract increased. The test extract produced cardiac arrest at 4 mg/ml, a higher concentration, as compared to standard, digoxin (0.5 mg/ml). Compared to digoxin, a drug with narrow therapeutic window, P. marsupium showed wide therapeutic window.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 538-542

 

 

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Clerodendrum serratum L.

S M Vidya, V Krishna, B K Manjunatha, K L Mankani, Manzoor Ahmed & S D Jagadeesh Singh

a

Received 7 June 2005; revised 21 December 2006

The ethanol extract of C. serratum roots and ursolic acid isolated from it were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in male Wistar strain rats. The parameters studied were estimation of liver function serum markers such as serum total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities. The ursolic acid showed more significant hepatoprotective activity than crude extract. The histological profile of the liver tissue of the root extract and ursolic acid treated animal showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration as similar to the controls. The results when compared with the standard drug silymarin, revealed that the hepatoprotective activity of the constituent ursolic acid is significant as similar to the standard drug.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 543-548

 

 

 

Influence of kynurenines in pathogenesis of cataract formation in
tryptophan-deficient regimen in Wistar rats

T N Raju, V Rajani Kanth & P Uma Maheswara Reddy

 

and

J Srinivas & J Sobhanaditya

 

Received 22 June 2006; revised 20 February 2007

L-Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid and its deficiency is involved in various pathologies. In this present investigation an attempt was made to study the role of tryptophan and its metabolites in cataract formation in wistar rats. Rats were divided and maintained in 3 groups, Group A- control; Group B-marginal-tryptophan and Group C- Tryptophan-deficient diet for 3 months. Slit lamp microscope observations indicated lenticular opacities in Group-C (tryptophan-deficient) rats. In the rats that were maintained on tryptophan deficient diet, a decrease in protein content, kynurenines, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-tranferase (GSTs) and tryptophan-fluorescence intensities and an increase in lipid peroxidation indicative of oxidative stress have been observed. The above changes were normalized in the rats on supplementation of 0.05% tryptophan (Group-B) in their diets. These results suggest that tryptophan-deficiency in the diet leads to an overall significant decrease in kynurenines and levels of antioxidant enzymes (except SOD) in ocular tissue with a concomitant lenticular opacification. The results suggest that diet with adequate tryptophan has protective influence and is of immense benefit in mitigating the changes that may otherwise contribute to the lenticular opacities.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 549-553

 

 

 

Thyroid dysfunction modulates glucoregulatory mechanism in rat

Sudipta Chakrabarti, Srikanta Guria, Ipsita Samanta & Madhusudan Das*

 

Received 3 January 2006; revised 21 February 2007

The role of the thyroid gland in glucose homeostasis remains incompletely understood. To get a better insight hypo- and hyperthyroid conditions were experimentally induced in rat and found severe defects in glucose homeostasis. While blood glucose level returned to normal level after 2.5 hr of oral glucose challenge in control rats the blood glucose level remained high even after 24 hr of glucose load in both hypo- and hyperthyroid rats. These experimentally manipulated rats displayed higher levels of liver glycogen (10.45-22.8-fold) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (1.48-9.8-fold). Liver histology of hyperthyroid treated rats revealed hepatotoxicity. From the results it can be concluded that thyroid gland plays an important role in glucose homeostasis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 554-562

 

 

 

Effect of Bt-cotton on chrysopids, ladybird beetles and their prey:
Aphids and whiteflies

 

M A Mellet & A S Schoeman

 

Received 20 September 2005; revised 28 January 2007

The effect of Bt-cotton, i.e. genetically modified cotton that contain genes expressing d-endotoxin, on aphid, whitefly, chrysopid and coccinellid populations was determined with a two-year field study at a cotton farm near Marble Hall, South Africa. Although Bt-cotton is lepidopteran specific, non-lepidopteran arthropod populations may be indirectly influenced by the endotoxin. Abundance of aphid, whitefly, chrysopid and coccinellid populations and predator-prey interactions were used as measures to determine possible effects on the populations under investigation. The cultivation of Bt-cotton had no effect on aphid, whitefly, chrysopid or coccinellid abundance. Positive density dependent interactions occurred between aphids and coccinellids which were not influenced by Bt-cotton. A significant relationship between whitefly and coccinellid abundance, i.e. predator-prey reaction, occurred in the control and sprayed non-Bt cotton fields but was absent from the Bt-cotton fields.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 563-567

 

 

 

Iron mediated regulation of growth and siderophore production in a diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica

Ruchika Raghuvanshi & Surendra Singh

 

and

Prakash Singh Bisen

 

Received 27 October 2006; revised 27 February 2007

Iron mediated regulation of growth and siderophore production has been studied in a diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica. Iron-starved cells of A. cylindrica exhibited reduced growth (30%) when the cells were growing under N2-fixing conditions. In contrast, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+ and urea grown cells exhibited almost 50% reduction in their growth in the absence of iron as compared to their respective counterparts cultured in the presence of iron. However, at 60 μM of iron, A. cylindrica cells exhibited almost equal growth regardless of the nitrogen source available. Siderophore production in
A. cylindrica was started after day 2nd of the cell growth and attained its optimal level on day 5th when the cells were at their mid-log phase. No siderophore production was, however, recorded on day 2nd at all the concentrations of iron tested. The production of siderophore in A. cylindrica further increased with increase in iron concentration and attained its optimum level on day 5th at 60 μM iron. A. cylindrica cells took at least 3 days for initiation of siderophore production and produced about 60% siderophore on  day 5th even under iron-starved condition. A. cylindrica produced dihydroxamate type of siderophore.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 568-573

 

 

 

Detection of pathogenic leptospires in animals by PCR based on lipL21 and
lipL32 genes

P S Cheema, S K Srivastava, R Amutha, S Singh, H Singh & M Sandey

 

Received 31 March 2006; revised 8 February 2007

Efficacy of primers capable of amplifying conserved outer membrane protein (OMP) genes i.e., lipL21 and lipL32 of Leptospira strains was tested for rapid and early diagnosis of the leptospirosis using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These OMP genes were found to be conserved in various leptospiral serovars viz., Canicola, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pyrogenes, Sejroe, Grippotyphosa, Ballum and Tarassovi as PCR products of 561 bp and 756 bp were obtained by PCR employing lipL21 and lipL32 based primers, respectively, in all these serovars. Absence of such amplicons in DNA extracted from Pasteurella, Campylobacter and Brucella confirmed the specificity of the primers. Serum and tissue samples collected from cattle, buffaloes and experimentally infected guinea pigs and calves were subjected to PCR using above primers as well as conventionally used primers G1/G2. All the sera and tissue samples, whether field samples or collected from experimentally infected animals, found positive for G1/G2 specific PCR were also positive for lipL21 and lipL32 specific PCR. The present study indicated that lipL21 and lipL32 based primers could be used for PCR based diagnosis of leptospirosis. Since G1/G2 primers are known not to amplify the DNA of Grippotyphosa, the use of primers employed in the present study could have an additional advantage in detection of cases of the disease.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 45, June, 2007, pp 574

 

 

Book Review

 

Comparative Biomechanics ¾ Life’s Physical World

 

Megha Singh