Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

MAY 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(5)  399-486 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 5

MAY 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(5) 399-486 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Biological activities of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil — An overview

403

      Surender Singh, Manish Taneja & Dipak K Majumdar

 

 

 

Papers

 

GC-rich heterochromatin in silver stained nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) fluoresces with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining in three species of teleostean fishes (Pisces)

413

      Jayanta Kumar Das & Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

 

 

 

Mechanism of spasmolytic activity of a fraction of Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight

419

      P Suresh Kumar, K Soni, S R Jadhav, N S Doshi &  M N Saraf

 

 

 

Neuroprotective evaluation of standardized extract of Centella asciatica in monosodium glutamate treated rats

425

      M Ramanathan, S Sivakumar, P R Anandvijayakumar, C Saravanababu &
P Rathinavel Pandian

 

 

 

Effects of paraquat on anti-oxidant system in rats

432

      Sanhita Ray, Arnab Sengupta & Amitabha Ray

 

 

 

Involvement of adenosinergic receptors in anxiety related behaviours

439

      Shrinivas K Kulkarni, Kulwinder Singh & Mahendra Bishnoi

 

 

 

Effect of simvastatin on fracture healing—An experimental study

444

      S K Saraf, Ajit Singh, R S Garbyal & Vakil Singh

 

 

 

Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis Gaertn

450

      K R Anilakumar, N S Nagaraj & K Santhanam

 

 

 

Influence of alignment of the pyramid on its beneficial effects

455

      Surekha Bhat, Guruprasad Rao, K Dilip Murthy & P Gopalakrishna Bhat

 

 

 

Honey as a natural preservative of milk

459

      N S A Krushna, A Kowsalya, S Radha & R B Narayanan

 

 

 

Inhibition of selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in rats by diethyldithiocarbamate: Effect of pre-administration of a-tocopherol

465

      H Ramachandra Prabhu & M Nandini

 

 

 

Effects of cadmium on photoreceptors and ganglionic cells of retinal layer in mice embryo—An ultrastructural study

469

      A Roozbehi, S Almasi-Tork, A Piryaee & Y Sadeghi

 

 

 

Movement and bioaccumulation of chromium in an artificial freshwater ecosystem

475

      Jignesh Ramoliya, Ashish Kamdar & Rahul Kundu

 

 

 

In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of Annona species

480

      R Baskar, V Rajeswari & T Sathish Kumar

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Protective effects of tea on human health

486

      Annie Shirwaikar

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Almasi-Tork S

469

Anandvijayakumar P R

425

Anilakumar K R          

450

 

 

Baskar R

480

Bhat P Gopalakrishna

455

Bhat Surekha

455

Bishnoi Mahendra

439

 

 

Das Jayanta Kumar

413

Doshi N S

419

 

 

Garbyal R S

444

 

 

Jadhav S R

419

 

 

Kamdar Ashish

475

Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur
 Rahman

 

413

Kowsalya A

459

Krushna N S A

459

 

 

Kulkarni Shrinivas K

439

Kumar T Sathish

480

Kundu Rahul

475

 

 

Majumdar Dipak K

403

Murthy K Dilip

455

 

 

Nagaraj N S

450

Nandini M

465

Narayanan R B

459

 

 

Pandian P Rathinavel

425

Piryaee A

469

Prabhu H Ramachandra

465

 

 

Radha S

459

Rajeswari V

480

Ramanathan M

425

Ramoliya Jignesh

475

Rao Guruprasad

455

 

 

Ray Amitabha

432

Ray Sanhita

432

Roozbehi A

469

 

 

Sadeghi Y

469

Santhanam K

450

Saraf M N

419

Saraf S K

444

Saravanababu C

425

Sengupta Arnab

432

Shirwaikar Annie

486

Singh Ajit

444

Singh Kulwinder

439

Singh Surender

403

Singh Vakil

444

Sivakumar S

425

Soni K

419

Suresh Kumar P

419

 

 

Taneja Manish            403

403

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Adenosine

439

Ag-NOR

413

Amla

450

Analgesic

403

Annona species

480

Antibacterial

403

Antibacterial activity

459

Anticoagulant

403

Antiinflammatory

403

Antioxidant

403

Antioxidant

480

Antioxidant enzymes

450

Anti-oxidants

432

Anti-resorptive factor

444

Antiulcer

403

Asclepiadaceae

419

 

 

Bioaccumulation

475

 

 

Cadmium

475

Caffeine

439

Calcium channel
 antagonism

 

419

Centella asiatica

425

Chromomycin A3 banding

413

Cortisol

455

Cr (VI)

475

 

 

Dextromethorphan

419

Diethyldithiocarbamate

465

 

 

Dual-inhibitor

403

 

 

Ecosystem

475

Excitotoxicity

419

 

 

w-3-Fatty acid

403

Fish organs

475

Fracture healing

444

Free radicals

480

 

 

Gabapentine

419

G-C rich region

413

Glutathione

432

Glutathione

455

Growth factors

444

 

 

Hemibagrus menoda

413

Hexachlorocyclohexane

450

Honey

459

Hydrogen peroxide

459

 

 

Karyotype

413

 

 

a-Linolenic acid

403

Lipid peroxidation

480

Lipid peroxides

450

 

 

Mastacembelus armatus

413

Mice

475

Monosodiumglutamate

419

 

 

Neurodegeneration

419

North-south

455

 

 

Oxidative stress

432

Oxidative stress

450

 

 

Paraquat

432

Preservative

459

Pyramid model

455

 

 

Rat liver

450

Rat tissues

432

Retina

475

 

 

Sacrostemma brevistigma

419

Selenium dependent
 glutathione peroxidase

 

465

Smooth muscle relaxant

419

Sperata seenghala

413

Statin

444

Stress

455

Superoxide dismutase

465

 

 

TBARS

455

TEM

475

a-Tocopherol

465

 

 

Ultrastructure

475

 

 

Zero maze

439

 

 

 

——————

 

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. On of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)         After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)         Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)         Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

—————————

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 403-412

 

Biological activities of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil—An overview

Surender Singh, Manish Taneja & Dipak K Majumdar

 

Seeds of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae; popularly known as ‘Tulsi’ in Hindi and ‘Holy Basil’ in English) contain a pale yellow colored fixed oil. The oil possesses antiinflammatory activity due to dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism supplemented by antihistaminic activity. The antiinflammatory activity is not dependent on the pituitary adrenal axis. The oil possesses antipyretic activity due to prostaglandin inhibition and peripherally acting analgesic activity. The oil has been found to be effective against formaldehyde or adjuvant induced arthritis and turpentine oil induced joint edema in animals. Lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory activities of the oil contribute towards antiulcer activity. The oil can inhibit enhancement of vascular capillary permeability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory stimulus. The LD50 of the oil is 42.5 ml/kg and long-term use of oil at 3 ml/kg dose does not produce any untoward effects in rats. The oil contains α-linolenic acid, an ω-3 fatty acid, which on metabolism produces eicosapentaenoic acid and the same appears to be responsible for the biological activity. The oil has hypotensive, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory activities. Antioxidant property of the oil renders metabolic inhibition, chemoprevention and hypolipidaemic activity. Presence of linolenic acid in the oil imparts antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The oil alone or in combination with cloxacillin, a β-lactamase resistant penicillin, has been found to be beneficial in bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disorder resulting from staphylococcal infection. Existence of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities in single entity i. e.fixed oil appears to be unique.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 413-418

 

 

GC- rich heterochromatin in silver stained nucleolar organizer regions
(NORs) fluoresces with Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining in three
species of teleostean fishes (Pisces)

Jayanta Kumar Das & Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

Received 14 December 2005; revised 23 January 2007

In a bid to ascertain the molecular architecture of the silver positive regions (NORs) in chromosomes of three species of fish, namely, Hemibagrus menoda (Hamilton), Sperata seenghala (Sykes) (Fam: Bagridae) and Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepčde) (Fam: Mastacembelidae), an additional staining methodology using a fluorochrome dye (Chromomycin A3) was deployed along with the AgNO3 technique. The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) were located terminally at the shorter arms (Tp) of one pair of submetacentric chromosomes (No.3) in H. menoda (2n=58), at the longer arms (Tq) of one pair of submetacentric chromosomes (No.5) in S. seenghala (2n=50) and at the shorter arm (Tp) of one pair of homologous submetacentric chromosomes (No.6) in M. armatus (2n=48). Staining with Chromomycin A3 produced bright fluorescing zones in GC- rich heterochromatin of Ag-positive NORs. The results indicate a more general trend of existence of an overlapping region between NOR and GC- rich fluorescing zones, the active sites of rRNA genes (rDNA) in this primitive group of vertebrates although exceptions to this situation has been reported in a couple of extant fish species earlier. More data utilizing such combined methodologies are warranted to understand the structural organization of fish chromosomes more precisely.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 419-424

 

Mechanism of spasmolytic activity of a fraction of
Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight

P Suresh Kumar, K Soni, S R Jadhav, N S Doshi & M N Saraf

Received 1 August 2006; revised 12 January 2007

The effect of chloroform soluble fraction (F-A) of twigs of Sarcostemma brevistigma on contractions induced by KCl, histamine, and acetylcholine in the isolated guinea pig ileum and taenia coli smooth muscles has been evaluated. F-A
(19.5 µg/ml) significantly inhibited the contraction induced by 40 mM KCl to the extent of 87.6% in the isolated guinea pig ileum. In the isolated guinea pig ileum, F-A (64.3 and 59.2 µg/ml) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by acetylcholine and histamine to the extent of 85 and 83% respectively. In the isolated guinea pig taenia coli, F-A (65.2 µg/ml) significantly inhibited the contraction induced by 40 mM KCl to the extent of 96.0%. The inhibitory effect of F-A
(40 µg/ml) on the isolated guinea pig taenia coli was reduced by Bay K 8644 (10-6M) to the extent of 61.6 from 73.6%. These results suggest that the F-A may exhibit smooth muscle relaxant activity by blocking the Ca2+ channels.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 425-431

 

 

Neuroprotective evaluation of standardized extract of Centella asciatica in monosodium glutamate treated rats

M Ramanathan, S Sivakumar, P R Anandvijayakumar, C Saravanababu,
P Rathinavel Pandian

Received 1 May 2006; revosed 16 January 2007

The effect of chloroform: methanolic (80:20) extract of C. asiatica (CA; 100 and 200mg/kg), was evaluated on the course of free radical generation and excitotoxicity in monosodiumglutamate (MSG) treated female Sprague Dawley rats. The extract showed significant improvement in catalase, super oxide desmutase and lipid peroxides levels in hippocampus and striatum regions. Glutathione level was not altered with CA treatment. Similar observation was made with dextromethorphan. The general behavior, locomotor activity and CA1 a region of the hippocampus was significantly protected by CA indicating neuroprotective effect of CA in MSG induced excitotoxic condition. Hence it can be concluded that CA protected MSG induced neurodegeneration attributed to its antioxidant and behavioural properties. This activity of CA can be explored in epilepsy, stroke and other degenerative conditions in which the role of glutamate is known to play vital role in the pathogenesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 432-438

 

Effects of paraquat on anti-oxidant system in rats

 

Sanhita Ray, Arnab Sengupta & Amitabha Ray

 

Received 3 May 2006; revised 12 January 2007

The toxic effects of paraquat on the anti-oxidant defense system of male albino rats were evaluated, after administering either a single dose (1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight) or continuous daily doses (same as above, i.e., 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight) for 3 and 7 days. Glutathione levels in blood cells, liver, lung and kidney tissues decreased in a dose and time dependent manner. Glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased, whereas the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase increased in paraquat exposure. Malondialdehyde formation also increased in a dose and time dependent manner. The alterations of anti-oxidant system particularly glutathione can be utilized as biomarkers during management of paraquat poisoning.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 439-443

 

 

Involvement of adenosinergic receptors in anxiety related behaviours

Shrinivas K Kulkarni, Kulwinder SinghŞ & Mahendra Bishnoi

Received 14 September 2006; revised 22 November 2006

In the present study, the effect of adenosine (A1 and A2 receptor agonist), caffeine (A2A receptor antagonist), theophylline (A2A receptor antagonist) and their combination was studied in anxiety related behaviours using elevated zero maze and elevated plus maze paradigms and compared their various behavioural profiles. Adenosine (10, 25, 50,100 mg/kg) significantly showed anxiolytic effect at all the doses, whereas caffeine (8, 15, 30, 60 mg/kg) and theophylline (30, 60 mg/kg) showed psychostimulatory action at lower doses and anxiogenic effect at higher doses. Pretreatment with caffeine (8, 15, 30 mg/kg) and theophylline (30 mg/kg) reversed the anxiolytic effect of adenosine. The study suggested the involvement of adenosinergic receptor system in anxiety related behaviours.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 444-449

 

Effect of simvastatin on fracture healing—An experimental study

 

S K Saraf, Ajit Singh, R S Garbyal & Vakil Singh

 

Received 19 June 2006; revised 16 January 2007

Left femur was osteotomized and fixed with K wire in 21 rabbits. One group was fed simvastatin (120 mg/kg body wt/day) orally, whereas another group without medication served as control. Both groups were assessed radiologically, morphologically, histologically and biomechanically at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. An analysis of various parameters of study showed that simvastatin treated group had improved bone healing at 4 and 8 weeks of follow up, however, the difference was not significant statistically at 12 weeks. So it is concluded that Simvastatin favourably hastened the process of fracture healing in the rabbits at earlier phases.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 450-454

 

 

Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis Gaertn

K R Anilakumar, N S Nagaraj & K Santhanam

Received 24 March 2006; revised 09 October 2006

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH abuse resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities with an elevation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and g -glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). On the other hand, the HCH-induced impairment in hepatic catalase, G-6-PDH and SOD activities were modulated by amla at the 10% level of intake. Prefeeding of amla at 5 and 10% levels appeared to reduce the HCH-induced raise in renal GGT activity. The results show the elevation of hepatic antioxidant system and reduction of cytotoxic products as a result of prefeeding of amla, which were otherwise affected by the HCH administration.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 455-458

 

Influence of alignment of the pyramid on its beneficial effects

Surekha Bhat, Guruprasad Rao, K Dilip Murthy & P Gopalakrishna Bhat

Received 2 February 2006; revised 21 November 2006

The present study was aimed to find out whether a change in the alignment of the pyramid from the north-south axis causes any variation in the effects produced by it on plasma cortisol levels and markers of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of  adult female Wistar rats. Plasma cortisol and erythrocyte TBARS levels were significantly lower whereas erythrocyte GSH was significantly higher in rats kept in pyramid that was aligned on the four cardinal pointsľnorth, east, south and west, as compared to normal control rats. Although there was a significant difference in the plasma cortisol level between normal control group and the group of rats kept in randomly aligned pyramid, there was no significant difference between these two groups for the other parameters. Erythrocyte TBARS levels in the group of rats kept in the randomly aligned pyramid was significantly  higher than that in the group kept in the magnetically aligned pyramid. The results suggest that the north-south alignment of the pyramid is crucial for its expected effects.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 459-464

 

Honey as a natural preservative of milk

N S A Krushna, A Kowsalya, S Radha & R B Narayanan

Received 31 August 2005; Revised 27 October 2006

The anti-bacterial property and preservative nature of honey has been studied by evaluating the role of hydrogen peroxide in these properties, against bacterial strains isolated and identified from pasteurized milk samples. The anti-bacterial property of honey examined by agar incorporation assay and turbidometry, indicated a concentration dependent inhibition of bacterial growth in all catalase negative strains in comparison with catalase positive strains, highlighting a probable role of hydrogen peroxide. Samples of commercial milk stored at 4°C in presence of honey were shown to inhibit opportunistic bacterial growth better compared to samples stored without honey. Due to the bactericidal property of hydrogen peroxide and its preservative nature, honey which is chiefly a combination of various sugars and hydrogen peroxide, can be used a preservative of milk samples.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 465-468

 

Inhibition of selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in rats by diethyldithiocarbamate: Effect of pre-administration of a-tocopherol

H Ramachandra Prabhu & M Nandini

Received 17 February 2006; revised 23 January 2007

Rats pre-administered with a-tocopherol (10 mgs/day) for 7 days afforded a significant protection at the tissue level against the lowering of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, especially the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase. The protective action of a-tocopherol in the diethyldithiocarbamate treated rats may be attributed to its antioxidant/free radical scavenging action. It is concluded that selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and a-tocopherol act in a complementary fashion to block free radical formation.

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 469-474

 

 

Effects of cadmium on photoreceptors and ganglionic cells of retinal layer in
mice embryo
ľ An ultrastructural study

A Roozbehi

S Almasi-Tork, A Piryaee & Y Sadeghi

Received 7 November 2005; revised 5 February 2007

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental contaminant and because of its non-decomposable character, it can damage nature. In this study, TEM was used in order to assess the ultrastructural effects of Cd on photorececptor and ganglionic cells of mouse retinal layer. Apoptotic nuclei, heterochromatic nuclei, deletion of nucleus membrane, invisible nucleolus, and apoptotic cells with mitochondrial changes were observed in mice embryo (days 15 of gestation) following CdCl2 injection to mothers on day 9 of gestation. Cadmium exposure caused apoptotic changes both in photoreceptors and ganglionic cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 475-479

 

Movement and bioaccumulation of chromium in an artificial freshwater ecosystem

Jignesh  Ramoliya, Ashish  Kamdar & Rahul  Kundu

Received 24 June 2005; revised 19 January 2007

In the present study, a small fresh water aquatic ecosystem was created into a small test tank to evaluate the movement and bioaccumulation of Cr (VI) through water, sediment, a macrophyte Hydrilla, small fish guppy, and few key organs of magur, Clarias batrachus. The Cr (VI) intoxication was imposed of as a single dose of 30 mg/l concentration for a wide range of exposure durations like 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. After 1 day of exposure the total Cr (VI) load was very high in the water and sediment samples (5.187 µg/ml and 23.332 µg/g respectively) which were decreased with increasing exposure durations over their respective controls.  In samples of macrophyte, Cr (VI) concentration showed a gradual increasing trend from 6.1797 µg/g in control to 21.1903 µg/g in 1 day exposure and reached up to 24.635 µg/g after 21 days exposure. In guppy, the Cr (VI) bioaccumulation showed an increasing trend but the rate was not statistically significant. However, in magur, the Cr (VI) uptake showed a significant gradual and increasing trend with increasing exposure durations in liver, brain, intestine and muscular tissues than gill and kidney over their respective controls. The movement of the Cr (VI) was found to be from sediment to water during pre-treatment phase, after intoxication, from water to macrophyte and to other phytoplankton and zooplankton. It then accumulated in the primary consumer guppy and finally moved to the secondary consumer the magur following the food web. The results reveal that the rate of movement and bioaccumulation of Cr (VI) varied from organism to organism and in C.  batrachus, from tissue to tissue. 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 480-485

 

 

In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of Annona species

R Baskar, V Rajeswari & T Sathish Kumar

Received 4 July 2006; revised 20 November 2006

Antioxidant potential of leaves of three different species of Annona was studied by using different in vitro models eg., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxy radical and lipid peroxidation. The ethanolic extract of A.muricata at 500 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (90.05%) of ABTS radical cation followed by the scavenging of hydroxyl radical (85.88%) and nitric oxide (72.60%) at the same concentration. However, the extract showed only moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In contrast, the extract of A.reticulata showed better activity in quenching DPPH (89.37%) and superoxide radical (80.88%) respectively. A.squamosa extract exhibited least inhibition in all in vitro antioxidant models excepting hydroxyl radical (79.79%). These findings suggest that the extracts of A. muricata possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to leaves of A. squamosa and A.reticulata suggesting its role as an effective free radical scavenger, augmenting its therapeutic value.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, May 2007, pp. 486

 

 

Book Review

Protective Effects of Tea on Human Health,

Annie Shirwaikar