Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(11) 923-1008 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Review Articles

 

Pathophysiology and genetics of obesity

929

      Neena Srivastava, Ram Lakhan & Balraj Mittal

 

 

 

Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture — A review

937

      H C Chaturvedi, Madhu Jain & N R Kidwai

 

 

 

Papers

 

Aprotinin reverses ECG abnormalities induced by Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock venom in adult rats

949

      Ratna Pandey & Shripad B. Deshpande

 

 

 

Neuroprotective effects of zinc on antioxidant defense system in lithium treated rat brain

954

      Punita Bhalla, Vijayta Dani Chadha, Rakesh Dhar & D K Dhawan

 

 

 

Free radical induced damages to rat liver subcellular organelles: Inhibition by Andrographis paniculata extract

959

      Rakshamani Tripathi & J P Kamat

 

 

 

Scavenging effect of Indian grape polyphenols on 2,2´-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by electron spin resonance spectrometry

968

      Shrirang S Pakhale, Goudar S Karibasappa, Asha G Ramchandani, Brij Bhushan & Arun Sharma

 

 

 

Anti-stress and anti-oxidant effects of roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum
(Santa Pau & Fernandes)

974

      R K Kenjale, R K Shan & S S Sathaye

 

 

 

Antioxidant modulation in response to heavy metal induced oxidative stress in Cladophora glomerata

980

      K Murugan & S R Harish

 

 

 

a1 and a2 adrenoceptor mediated melanosome aggregatory responses in vitro in Oreochromis mossambica (Peters) melanophores

984

      L. Shobha Kumari Acharya & M. Ovais

 

(Contd)

A non-invasive technique for rapid extraction of DNA from fish scales

992

      Ravindra Kumar, Poonam Jayant Singh, N S Nagpure, Basdeo Kushwaha,
S K Srivastava & W S Lakra

 

 

 

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and capsule borer

998

      A Josephrajkumar, R Chakrabarty & G Thomas

 

 

 

Short Communication

 

Angiotensin converting enzyme from sheep mammary, lingual and other tissues

1003

      N Mallikarjuna Rao & E G Padmanabha Udupa

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Developmental genetics

1007

R N K Bamezai

 

 

 

Announcements

 

National Conference on Marine Biology to Marine Biotechnology, Current status, challenges and opportunities;

926

National Symposium on Ecofriendly Insect Pest Management; Society for Free Radical Research–India (SFRR–India) Satellite Meeting; SERC School in Neurosciences

1008

 

 

 

Acharya L. Shobha Kumari

984

Bamezai R N K

1007

Bhalla Punita

954

Brij Bhushan

968

Chadha Vijayta Dani

954

Chakrabarty R

980

Chaturvedi H C

937

Deshpande Shripad B.

949

Dhar Rakesh

954

Dhawan D K

954

Harish S R

980

Jain Madhu

937

Josephrajkumar A

980

Kamat J P

959

Karibasappa Goudar S

968

Kenjale R D

974

Kidwai N R

937

Kushwaha Basdeo

992

Lakra W S

992

Mittal Balraj

929

Murugan K

980

Nagpure N S

992

Ovais M

984

Pakhale Shrirang S

968

Pandey Ratna

949

Ram Lakhan

929

Ramchandani Asha G

968

Rao N Mallikarjuna

1003

Ravindra Kumar

992

Sathaye S S

974

Shah R K

974

Sharma Arun

968

Singh Poonam Jayant

992

Srivastava Neena

929

Srivastava S K

992

Thomas G

980

Tripathi Rakshamani

959

Udupa E G Padmanabha

1003

 

 

 

 

Adaptogen

974

Andrographis paniculata

959

a1-adrenoceptors

984

a2-adrenoceptors

984

Angiotensin converting

 

  enzyme

1003

Antioxidant

 

959, 968,
974, 980

Aprotinin

949, 998

Arrhythmia

949

 

 

Body mass index

929

Body tissues

1003

 

 

Cardamom

998

Cardio-toxicity

949

Cerebellum

954

Cerebrum

954

Chlorophytum borivilianum

974

Chymotrypsin

998

Cladopora glomerata

980

Conogethes punctiferalis

998

DNA extraction

992

DPPH

968

Electron spin resonance (ESR)

968

Ex vitro growth

937

Fishes

992

Free radical scavenging activity

968

Genetics

929

Heavy metal

980

Herbal extract

959

Immobilisation stressor

974

In vitro cloning

937

Indian grapes

968

Indian red scorpion

949

Kinins

949

Lipid peroxidation

974

Lithium

954

Medicinal plants

937

Melanophore

984

Membrane damage

959

Micropropagation

937

Myocardial ischaemia

949

Non-invasive

992

Obesity

929

Oreochromis mossambica

984

Oxidative stress

954, 980

Polymorphism

929

Polyphenols

968

ROS scavenging

959

Scales

992

Sheep

1003

Single nucleotide polymorphism

929

Trypsin

998

Zinc

954

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 929-936

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

 

Pathophysiology and genetics of obesity

Neena Srivastava, Ram Lakhan & Balraj Mittal

 

 

Obesity, a global problem, is a multifactorial disorder. The factors are environmental, metabolic and genetic and their interaction with each other regulates the body weight. Imbalance in either of the factors may be responsible for weight gain. With advancement of research techniques in the last decade, genetic studies have been undertaken for several different causative mutations involving obesity loci on different chromosomes. Monogenic and polygenic obesity has been observed however, polygenic forms are more common. So far more than 200 genes in mouse and more than 100 genes in humans have been identified which result in phenotypes that affect body weight  regulation. In spite of this knowledge, the field of obesity has still not been explored extensively. There remain a lot of lacuna regarding causes and treatment of obesity. Challenges are still there to identify the exact cause of weight gain and the use of current knowledge for development of anti-obesity drugs targeted for body weight regulation. In this review, we have explained neuropathophysiologic regulation of feeding behaviour and some aspects of obesity-genetics especially with single nucleotide polymorphism of selected candidate genes and their functional aspects mainly in monogenic obesity.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 937-948

 

 

Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture ¾ A review

H C Chaturvedi, Madhu Jain & N R Kidwai

 

In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants.

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 949-953

 

 

Aprotinin reverses ECG abnormalities induced by Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock venom in adult rats

Ratna Pandey & Shripad B. Deshpande

 

Received 20 April 2007; revised 9 August 2007

The kinins are implicated in the pathogenesis of scorpion envenomation. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the involvement of kinins for the ECG abnormalities induced by M. tamulus concanesis, (BT) venom in anaesthetized rats. ECG was recorded using needle electrodes with limb lead II configuration. The PR interval, QRS wave pattern, QRS duration, ST segment and heart rate were examined in saline only, venom alone, and venom after aprotinin groups. BT venom (5 mg/kg) produced heart block of varying degree and ischemia-like changes in ECG wave pattern and the animals died within 30 min after exposure to venom. In aprotinin pretreated animals, the initial ECG changes produced by venom persisted, but after 15 min the ECG pattern improved and the animals survived for the entire period of observation (120 min). The results indicate that aprotinin protected the rats against the cardiotoxicity induced by BT venom.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 954-958

 

 

 

Neuroprotective effects of zinc on antioxidant defense system in
lithium treated rat brain

Punita Bhalla, Vijayta Dani Chadha, Rakesh Dhar & D K Dhawan

 

Received 6 June 2006; revised 20 February 2007

With a view to find out whether zinc affords protection against lithium toxicity the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation profile were determined in the cerebrum and cerebellum of lithium treated female Sprague Dawley rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in both the cerebrum and the cerebellum of animals administered with lithium for a total duration of 4 months as compared to the normal control group. On the contrary, the activities of catalase and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) were significantly reduced after 4 months of lithium treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased in the cerebrum after 4 months lithium administration, whereas in the cerebellum the enzyme activity was unaffected. No significant change in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) was found in either cerebrum or cerebellum after 2 months of lithium treatment. However, 4 months lithium treatment did produce significant changes in GSH levels in the cerebrum and in the cerebellum. Zinc supplementation for 4 months in lithium-treated rats significantly increased the activities of catalase and GST in the cerebellum, showing that the treatment with zinc reversed the lithium induced depression in these enzyme activities. Though, zinc treatment tended to normalize the SOD activity in the cerebrum yet it was still significantly higher in comparison to normal levels. From the present study, it can be concluded that the antiperoxidative property of zinc is effective in reversing the oxidative stress induced by lithium toxicity in the rat brain.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 959-967

 

 

Free radical induced damages to rat liver subcellular organelles: Inhibition by Andrographis paniculata extract

Rakshamani Tripathi  & J P Kamat

 

Received 21 February 2007; revised 1 August 2007

Aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata was examined for antioxidant activity using rat liver subcellular organelles as model systems. The study deals with two important biological oxidative agents, ascorbate-Fe+2 and AAPH generating hydroxyl and peroxyl radical, respectively. Oxidative damage was examined against the inhibition of membrane peroxidation, protein oxidation and restoration in decreased SOD and catalase activity. The antimutagenic activity of Ap was examined following inhibition in AAPH induced strand breaks in plasmid pBR322 DNA. Extract was a potent scavenger of DPPH, ABTS radicals, exemplified by ESR signals, O-.2, .OH and H2O2, displayed excellent reducing power, FRAP potentials to reduce Fe (III) ®Fe (II) and had considerable amount of phenolics/ flavonoids contents, an effective antioxidant index. The observed antioxidant effect might be primarily due to its high scavenging ability for ROS. Effect was confirmed ex vivo following inhibition in peroxidation, restoration in SOD enzyme, SOD band intensity and protein degradation in Ap fed liver homogenate. Based on these results, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of Andrographis paniculata might emerge as a potent antiradical agent against various pathophysiological oxidants.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 968-973

 

 

Scavenging effect of Indian grape polyphenols on 2,2¢-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical by electron spin resonance spectrometry

Shrirang S. Pakhale, Goudar S. Karibasappa & Asha G. Ramchandani

and

Brij Bhushan & Arun Sharma

 

Received 19 December 2006; revised 23 July 2007

Antioxidant potency of Indian grape cultivars varying in their skin color, seed and polyphenol content (Bangalore blue, Pandhari sahebi, Sharad seedless and Thompson seedless) and their components (whole grapes, pulp with skin and seeds) was examined as 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity using electron spin resonance spectrometry. The total polyphenols in Indian grapes ranged between 3-51%. Extracted polyphenols caused a concentration dependent and significant loss in DPPH radical signal, similar to known antioxidants¾Vitamin C, catechin and procyanidin B3 used as references.  Among seedless cultivars, polyphenols from Sharad was more potent as antioxidant than Thompson, showing IC50 values of 1250 ± 30 and 2650 ± 125 µg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of polyphenols from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of seeded variety. The results indicate that polyphenols extracted from Indian grapes/ components (with /without seeds) exhibited free radical scavenging activity and their chemopreventive properties need to be exploited by in vivo model system.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 974-979

 

 

 

Anti-stress and anti-oxidant effects of roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum
(Santa Pau & Fernandes)

R D Kenjale, R K Shah & S S Sathaye

 

Received 12 March 2007; revised 25 July 2007

The aqueous extract of C. borivilianum (250 mg/kg for 7 days) significantly reverted the elevated levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and serum corticosterone and also reduced the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight more as effectively as the standard drug (diazepam) in rats. At 125 mg/kg po, it showed a mild anti-stress activity. Under in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) free radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation assay the extract considerably inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the levels of DPPH· free radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively thus showing significant antioxidant property. The results suggested that it could be used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced disorders.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 980-983

 

 

Antioxidant modulation in response to heavy metal induced oxidative stress in Cladophora glomerata

K Murugan & S R Harish

 

Received 13 December 2006; revised 24 August 2007

The present investigation was carried out to study the induction of oxidative stress subjected to heavy metal environment. Lipoperoxides showed positive correlation at heavy metal accumulation sites indicating the tissue damage resulting from the reactive oxygen species and resulted in unbalance to cellular redox status. The high activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase probably counter balance this oxidative stress. Glutathione and soluble phenols decreased, whereas dehydroascorbate content increased in the algae from polluted sites. The results suggested that alga responded to heavy metals effectively by antioxidant compounds and scavenging enzymes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 984-991

 

 

α1 and α2 adrenoceptor mediated melanosome aggregatory responses in vitro in Oreochromis mossambica (Peters) melanophores

L. Shobha Kumari Acharya & M. Ovais

 

Received 8 July 2005; revised  7 August 2007

Effects of specific and non-specific adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists were examined on the isolated scale melanophores of O. mossambica in physiological Ringer solution. The responses were recorded as melanophore size index. It was observed that adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, phenylpropanolamine, clonidine and phenylepherine induced melanosome aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. Denervation of the fish melanophores increased the sensitivity of the melanophores to adrenaline but not to nor-adrenaline. Phentolamine (3.55´10-5 M), prazosin (2.38´10-5 M) and yohimbine (2.821´10-5 M) significantly inhibited the aggregatory responses of the fish melanophores to adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, clonidine and phenylepherine. The blocking effect of yohimbine was significantly higher than that of prazosin. It is concluded that the effect of adrenaline is directly mediated through the receptors and a2 adrenoceptors are predominantly involved in the aggregatory responses of this fish melanophores, while a1 adrenoceptors presence has been indicated.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 992-997

 

 

 

A non-invasive technique for rapid extraction of DNA from fish scales

Ravindra Kumar, Poonam Jayant Singh, N S Nagpure, Basdeo Kushwaha, S K Srivastava & W S Lakra

 

Received 14 August 2006; revised 13 July 2007

DNA markers are being increasingly used in studies related to population genetics and conservation biology of endangered species. DNA isolation for such studies requires a source of biological material that is easy to collect, non-bulky and reliable. Further, the sampling strategies based on non-invasive procedures are desirable, especially for the endangered fish species. In view of above, a rapid DNA extraction method from fish scales has been developed with the use of a modified lysis buffer that require about 2 hr duration. This methodology is non-invasive, less expensive and reproducible with high efficiency of DNA recovery. The DNA extracted by this technique, have been found suitable for performing restriction enzyme digestion and PCR amplification. Therefore, the present DNA extraction procedure can be used as an alternative technique in population genetic studies pertaining to endangered fish species. The technique was also found equally effective for DNA isolation from fresh, dried and ethanol preserved scales.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 998-1002

 

 

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and capsule bore

A Josephrajkumar, R Chakrabarty & G Thomas

 

Received 19 October 2006; revised 3 July 2007

An elastase-like chymotrypsin was purified by aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography from the midgut extract of cardamom shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis. The purified enzyme had a Vmax of 687.6 ± 22.1 nmole pNA released/min/mg protein, Km of 0.168 ± 0.012 mM with SAAPLpNA as substrate and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 72.1 kDa. Casein zymogram revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity, which corresponded to the band obtained with SDS-PAGE indicating that this could be a single-polypeptide enzyme.

 

 

Short Communication

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 1003-1006

 

 

 

Angiotensin converting enzyme from sheep mammary, lingual and other tissues

N Mallikarjuna Rao & E G Padmanabha Udupa

 

Received 27 February 2007; revised 18 June 2007

Occurrence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in mammary gland and tongue taste epithelium was demonstrated for the first time. Six times higher ACE activity in lactating mammary gland, than non-lactating mammary gland, suggested pregnancy and lactation hormonal dependent expression of ACE in female mammals. ACE activity was highest in choroid plexus, less in spinal cord and moderate in cerebrum, medulla, cerebellum and pons. Distribution of ACE in different regions of skin, kidney and among other tissues was different. Presence of ACE in adrenal glands, pancreas, bone marrow and thyroid gland indicated functions other than blood pressure homeostasis for this enzyme.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 1007

 

 

Book Review

 

Developmental genetics

R N K Bamezai

 

 

 

Announcements

 

National Conference on Marine Biology to Marine Biotechnology, Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities

 

18-20 January 2008, Mumbai

 

Organized by the Departments of Zoology and Botany, The D. G. Ruparel College, Mahim, Mumbai 400 016, the Conference will cover following topics: (i) Marine ecology and microbiology, (ii) Marine natural products, (iii) Material sciences and bioenergy, (iv) Aquaculture and fisheries, (v) Conservation and bio-invasion, (vi) Biofouling and bioremediation, and (vii) Molecular biology and bioinformatics. For details, please contact, Dr. Madhavi Indap, Convener, MBC 2008, The D. G. Ruparel College, Mahim, Mumbai 400 016. Telephone: 022-24303081-Extn. 229. Mobiles: 9820400675 (Dr Indap); 9821211769 (Dr Reena Pandit); 9869775820 (Mr Aditya Akerkar). E-mail: mbc2008@ruparel.edu. Website: http://www.ruparel.edu/MBC2008

 

 

——————

 

 

National Symposium on Ecofriendly Insect Pest Management

7 and 8 February, 2008, Loyola College, Chennai

 

            The Symposium aims to discuss the developments in the field of ecofriendly insect pest management. The topics to be discussed are (i) Preparation and application methods of new formulations of botanical and microbial pesticides, (ii) Mass rearing techniques, field evaluation and conservation of biocontrol agents, (iii) Cultural control measures, (iv) Vector control, (v) Genetic techniques, and (vi) Pheromones attractants and repellents. For further details, please contact Dr S. Ignacimuthu, s.j., Director, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034, India. Telephone: 044-28174644, E-mail: eri_lc@hotmail.com, website: www.entomology-loyolo.com.

 

——————

 

Society for Free Radical Research–India (SFRR–India) Satellite Meeting

11 and 12 February 2008, AIIMS, New Delhi

 

            Organized by the Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences,
New Delhi, the theme of the meeting is Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Human Health, Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction. It will cover following topics: (i) Cardiovascular diseases, (ii)·Herbal and natural antioxidants, (iii) Oxidative stress in cancer, diabetes, liver, (iv) Neuronal and digestive diseases, (v) Free radicals and apoptosis, (vi) Inflammation, immunity and infectious diseases, (vii) Redox signalling, (viii) Radiation, radioprotection
& xenotoxicity, (ix) Free radicals in food sciences, environmental biology and
human reproduction, (x) Bioinformatics and free radical biology, (xi) Methodology and
recent developments in laboratory, (xii) Techniques, (xiii) Microbes and oxidative stress,

and (xiv) Drug delivery and targeting. For details please contact Prof. D. N. Rao,
Organizing Secretary, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029. E-mail: sfrrsatellite@gmail.com; Telephone: 91-11-26593545 (O),
91-11-26195609; Fax : 91-11-26588641; Mobile: 9868592706; website: www.aiims.ac.in (please see conference and workshops).

 

——————

 

SERC School in Neurosciences

27 January–10 February 2008, Nagpur

 

            Sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi, the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) School in Neuroscienes will be conducted at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R T M Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033. The School aims at imparting intense training (courses as well as laboratory work) in the field of Structural Neurosciences. In addition to some of the most renowned workers from India, outstanding scientists from abroad will serve as faculty at the School. Intending participants (young researchers, Ph.D. students and faculty members) in the universities and colleges may contact Prof. N K Subhedar at the above address. Telephone: +91-712-2237638; Mobile: 09373195118; Fax: +91-712-2500355; e-mail: nksubhedar@hotmail.com