Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

OCTOBER 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(10)  839-922 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(10) 839-922 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis diagnosis and strain typing—Present status and future developments

843

      J S Sohal, S V Singh, Swati Subhodh, A V Singh, P K Singh, Neelam Sheoran, Komal Sandhu, K Narayanasamy & A Maitra

 

 

 

Papers

 

Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats

853

      Reshu Mandal & Patwant Kaur Dhaliwal

 

 

 

Effects of ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn) seed powder on pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic rats

861

      N Singh & M Gupta

 

 

 

Effects of ethanolic extract of root of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre on oxidative stress, behavioral and histopathological alterations induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and long-term hypoperfusion in rats

868

      Raghavendra M, Anshuman Trigunyat, R K Singh, S Mitra, R K Goel & S B Acharya

 

 

 

Effect of Curcuma longa or parziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni infacted mice liver—Histological and histochemical study

877

      Mahmoud A EI-Banhawey, Medha A Ashry, Afaf K EL-Ansary & Sanaa A Aly

 

 

 

Immunotoxicity of carbaryl in chicken

890

      B P Singh, Lokesh Singhal & R S Chauhan

 

 

 

Handling of ferric iron by branchial and intestinal epithelia of climbing perch

      (Anabas testudineus Bloch)

896

      M C S Peter, V Rejitha D G Dilip

 

 

 

Juvenile hormone activity in Dysdercus cingulatus Fabr by juvenile hormone esterase inhibitor, OTFP

901

      U Gayathri Elayidam & D Muraleedharan

 

 

 

Effect of glucocorticoid on protein and creatine content of inactivated muscle of rats

907

      Salil Kumar Mandal

 

 

 

Biomolecular changes during in vitro organogenesis of Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Ness— A medicinal herb

911

      J Panigrahi , M Behera, S Maharana & R R Mishra

 

 

 

Short Communication

 

Effect of Ovaprim doses and latency periods on induced spawning of Clarias batrachus: Observation on larval deformity

920

      S K Sahoo, S S Giri, S Chandra & A K Sahu

 

  

Author Index

Acharya S B

868

Aly Sanaa A

877

Ashry Madeha A

877

Behera M

911

Chandra S

920

Chauhan R S

890

Dhaliwal Patwant Kumar

853

Dilip D G

896

EL-Ansary Afaf K.

877

Elayidam U Gayathri

901

El-Banhaway Mahmoud A

877

Giri S S

920

Goel R K

868

Gupta M

861

Maharana S

911

Maitra A

843

Mandal Reshu

853

Mandal Salil Kumar

907

Mishra R R

911

Mitra S

868

Muraleedharan D

901

Narayanasamy K

843

Panigrahi J

911

Peter M C S

896

Raghavendra M

868

Rajitha V

896

Sahoo S K

920

Sahu A K

920

Sandhu Komal

843

Sheoran Neelam

843

Singh A V

843

Singh B P

890

Singh N

861

Singh P K

843

Singh R K

868

Singh S V

843

Singhal Lokesh

890

Sohal J S

843

Subhodh Swati

843

Trigunayat Anshuman           

868

 

 

Keyword Index

Acid phosphatase

877

Alkaline phosphatase

877

Alloxan diabetes

861

Anabas testudineus

896

Antifertility

853

Antigens

843

Asteracantha longifolia

911

Behavior

868

Carbaryl

890

Cerebral hypoperfusion

868

Clarias batrachus

920

Cognition

868

Creatine

907

Curcuma longa

877

Deformed larvae

920

Denervation

907

Dysdercus cingulatus

901

Enzyme activity

911

Ethanolic extract

861

Ferric iron

896

Fish

896

Gastrocnemious weight

907

Gill

896

Glucocorticoid

907

Glycogen

877

Granuloma

877

Immounotoxicity

890

Implantation losses

853

Intestine

896

Juvenile hormone esterase

901

K+-ATPase

896

Latency period

920

Macrophage

890

Matamorphosis

901

Melia azedarach

853

Mycobacterium avium
subspecies paratuberculosis

 

843

Na+

896

Newcastle disease

890

3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluropropan-
2-one (OTFP)

 

 

901

Organogenesis

911

Ovaprim

920

Oxidative stress

868

Pancreatic islets

861

Paraziquantel

877

Perch

896

Pongamia pinnata

868

Post-natal mortality

853

Prednisolone

907

Protein

907

Rat

853

Reperfusion injury

868

S. cumini

861

Schistosoma mansoni

877

SDS-PAGE

911

Seed extract

853

Shoot bud

911

Specific genetic markers

843

Tenotomy

907

Trifluropropanones

901

Uterus

853

Zymogram

911

 

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 843-852

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis diagnosis and strain typing—Present status and future developments

J S Sohal, S V Singh, Swati Subhodh, A V Singh, P K Singh, Neelam Sheoran, Komal Sandhu, K Narayansamy & A Maitra

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic gastroenteritis of ruminants and has zoonotic importance. We present here a review of MAP with respect toľ(i) present diagnostic techniques and important developments; and (ii) MAP strain-typing tools. A summary of the findings to date is presented, and advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods are compared and discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 853-860

 

Papers

 

Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female
albino rats

Reshu Mandal & Patwant Kaur Dhaliwal

 

Received 12 September 2006; revised 3 July 2007

In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg-1 body wt day-1. Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg-1 body wt day-1 for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 861-867

 

 

Effects of ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn) seed powder on pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic rats

N Singh & M Gupta

 

Received 29 May 2006; revised 02 July 2007

The ethanolic extract of seeds of S. cumini increased body weight and decreased blood sugar level in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Level of significance for decrease in blood sugar after feeding alcoholic extract of S. cumini seeds in various doses was highly significant. The extract feeding showed definite improvement in the histopathology of islets. The most important finding is that the blood sugar level, which once dropped to normal levels after extract feeding was not elevated when extract feeding was discontinued for 15 days.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 868-876

 

 

Effect of ethanolic extract of root of Pongamia pinnata (L) pierre on oxidative stress, behavioral and histopathological alterations induced by cerebral ischemia–reperfusion and long-term hypoperfusion in rats

Raghavendra M, Anshuman Trigunayat, R K Singhc, S  Mitra, R K Goel & S B Acharya

Received 25 August 2006; revised 3 July 2007

Possible effect of an ethanolic root extract of Pongamia  pinnata (L) Pierre (P. pinnata) on oxidant-antioxidant status and histopathological changes in acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat forebrain have been investigated. Further, its effect was also assessed on long-term cerebral hypoperfusion-induced changes in anxiety, cognitive and histopathological parameters.  Cerebral post-ischemic reperfusion is known to be associated with generation of free radicals. In the present study, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min followed by 45 min reperfusion produced increases in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a fall in the total tissue sulfhydryl (T-SH) levels. The ethanolic extract of roots of P. pinnata (50 mg kg-1, po for 5 days) attenuated the ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in lipid peroxidation, SOD activity and a fall in T-SH levels. The extract also ameliorated histopathological changes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the frontoparietal region of the rat brain.  The extract (50 mg kg-1, po for 15 days) was also found to alleviate the long-term hypoperfusion-induced anxiety and listlessness (open field paradigm).  There was an improvement of learning and memory deficits (Morris’ water maze testing). It also attenuated reactive changes in forebrain histology like gliosis, lymphocytic infiltration, astrocytosis and cellular edema. Results suggest protective role of P. pinnata in ischemia-reperfusion injury and cerebrovascular insufficiency states.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 877-889

 

 

Effect of Curcuma longa or parziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni infected mice liver ľ Histological and histochemical study

Mahmoud AEl-Banhawey

Madeha A.Ashry

Afaf K.EL-Ansary &  Sanaa A.Aly,

Received 9 December 2005;

 

Effect of drug praziquantel (PZQ) and C. longa extract on S. mansoni infected mice is reported. The level of glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatases (ALP and ACP respectively), and body weight, liver weight and liver weight/body weight ratio were studied in mice infected with S.mansoni. ALP level was increased after infection. C. longa treated mice showed marked reduction in ALP level more than after PZQ-treatment. C. longa enhanced the concentration of glycogen after being reduced by infection, while PZQ-treatment revealed more reduction. C. longa caused enhancement in body weight while PZQ treatment had no effect. The formation of granuloma around schistosome eggs in the liver produced inflammation. C.longa extract and PZQ were effective in reducing granuloma size in infected mice.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 890-895

 

 

Immunotoxicity of carbaryl in chicken

B P Singh, Lokesh Singhal & R S Chauhan

 

Received 17 November 2006; revised 8 June 2007

Effect of methyl carbonate pesticide, carbonyl, was studied on macrophage functions, lymphocyte proliferation and delayed type hypersensitivity response. Sixteen adult chicken, vaccinated against Newcaslte disease, were procured and randomly divided in two experimental groups. Chicken of group I served as control, while group II birds were given carbaryl at 20 ppm (No observable effect level, NOEL) in feed for 3 months. To measure the functional activity of phagocytic cells, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test was performed on peripheral blood leucocytes. Concanvalin A (Con-A) and lipopolysaccharide stimulated proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was assessed using MTT dye method. At the end of experiment, the phagocytic capacities of macrophages were significantly reduced in carbaryl treated group. Lymphocyte proliferation responses to Con-A and LPS were (23 and 28%, respectively lower) in chicken fed with carbaryl. Delayed hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculin was reduced to 77% of control values indicating inhibition of cell mediated immune response. The present study suggested of immunosuppressive effect of (NOEL dose carbaryl) in chicken.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 896-900

 

 

Handling of ferric iron by branchial and intestinal epithelia of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch)

M C S Peter, V Rejitha & D G Dilip

 

Received 2 April 2007; revised 10 July 2007

With a view to test how the branchial and intestinal tissues of fish, the two sites of metal acquisition, utilize the water-borne ferric [Fe(III)] iron and whether the accumulation of this form of iron influences cellular Na/K gradient in these tissues, the gills and intestines of climbing perch adapted to freshwater (FW) and acclimated to dilute seawater (20 ppt; SW) were analyzed for ouabain-sensitive Na+, K+-ATPase activity, Fe and electrolyte contents after loading a low (8.95 µM) or high dose (89.5 µM) of Fe(III) iron in the water. The SW gills showed higher levels of total Fe after treating with 8.95 µM of Fe(III) iron which was not seen in the FW gills. Na+, K+-ATPase activity, reflecting Na/K pump activity, showed an increase in the FW gills and not in the SW gills. Substantial increase in the branchial Na and K content was observed in the SW gills, but the FW gills failed to show such effects after Fe(III) loading. The total Fe content was declined in the FW intestine but not in the SW intestine. Water-borne Fe(III) iron decreased the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase in the SW intestine while not changing its activity in the FW intestine. The Na and K content in the FW intestine did not respond to Fe(III) iron exposure but showed a reduction in its Na levels in the SW intestine. The moisture content in the gills and intestines of both the FW and SW perch remained unaffected after Fe(III) loading. In FW fish, the plasma Na levels were decreased by a low dose of Fe(III) iron, though a high dose of Fe(III) iron was required in the SW fish for such an effect. Overall, the results for the first time provide evidence that gills act as a major site for Fe(III) iron absorption and accumulation during salinity acclimation which depends on a high cellular Na/K gradient.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 901-906

 

 

Juvenile hormone activity in Dysdercus cingulatus Fabr by juvenile hormone esterase inhibitor, OTFP

U Gayathri Elayidam & D Muraleedharan

 

Received 1 February 2007; revised 10 July 2007

Application of juvenile hormone esterase inhibitor 3-octylthio-1,1,1- trifluropropan-2-one (OTFP) to 5th instar nymphs and virgin females of D. cingulatus revealed the profound role played by juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) in metamorphosis and reproduction. The ability of OTFP to cause delay and the formation of malformed nymphs, suggests that inhibition of JHE in vivo maintains a higher than normal hemolymph JH titer. It is obvious that OTFP does inhibit in vivo JHE activity in late instar nymphs. Further, the application of JHE inhibitor, OTFP to virgin females demonstrates that substituted trifluropropanones can indirectly stimulate egg development by inhibiting JHE activity in virgin females.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 907-910

 

 

Effect of glucocorticoid on protein and creatine content of
inactivated muscle of rats

Salil Kumar Mandal

 

Received 13 July 2006; revised 5 June 2007

In denervation, there was loss of protein in gastrocnemius muscles and this loss of was more in prednisolone treated animals. There was significant change of protein loss between tenotomy and tenotomy with prednisolone treatment. The reduction of protein in denervation and denervation with prednisolone treatment were also highly significant. Significant loss of muscle creatine was observed in denervation with prednisolone treatment. It was about 50% of the normal control group and about 40% when compared to other limb. In denervation alone, the creatine loss was about 24%. In tenotomy and in tenotomy with prednisolone treatment, the loss of creatine was also significantly high. All these figures regarding the reduction of muscle creatine in different experiments were highly significant. The reduction of muscle weight, protein and creatine content of muscle in denervation were due to inactivation of the muscle and due to trophic changes caused by loss of motor supply to the muscle. But in tenotomy, the reductions were only due to inactivation.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 911-99

 

 

Biomolecular changes during in vitro organogenesis of Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees ľ A medicinal herb

J Panigrahi, M Behera, S Maharana & R R Mishra

 

Received 14 December 2006; revised 4 June 2007

High frequency plant regeneration in A. longifolia (L.) was achieved from leaf explant implanted on MS basal medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 mg/l) + BA (2.0 mg/l) through intervening callus phase. Well-developed shoots (>3cm) were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l). Protein and total soluble sugar contents were maximum during organogenesis and multiple shoot induction phase compared with non-organogenic callus and root induction phase. Esterase and catalase activities were maximum during organogenic differentiation, while activities were minimum at non-differentiated callus stages. Peroxidase activities were higher during rhizogenesis. Contradiction to peroxidase activity, acid phosphatase activities were high during organogenesis and declined during rhizogenesis. SDS-PAGE analysis of total soluble proteins revealed expression of non-organogenic callus (97.9 kDa), organogenic callus (77.2, 74.1, 21.9 kDa), multiple shoot induction phase (106.6, 26.9, 11.6 kDa) and root induction phase (15.9 kDa) specific polypeptides. Esterase zymogram revealed one band (Rm 0.204) appeared in both organogenic callus and multiple shoot induction phase. Peroxidase zymogram detected two stage specific bands, one band (Rm 0.42) was specific to root induction phase, while another (Rm 0.761) was specific to multiple shoot induction. Catalase and acid phosphatase zymogram resolved one band (Rm 0.752 and 0.435, respectively) in differentiated stages including both multiple shoot induction phase and root induction phase, but absent in undifferentiated phases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, October 2007, pp 920-922

 

 

Short communication

Effect of Ovaprim doses and latency periods on induced spawning of Clarias batrachus: Observation on larval deformity

S. K. Sahoo, S. S. Giri, S. Chandra &A. K. Sahu

 

Received 15 December 2005; revised 3 July 2007

Induced spawning of C. batrachus was conducted at different Ovaprim dose and latency period combinations to observe the deformed larvae among the hatchlings. For the purpose, four doses of Ovaprim (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ml/kg body weight) and five latency periods (11, 14, 17, 20 and 23 hr) were considered in 20 different combinations. There were no deformed larvae in the females injected with all four doses and stripped at 11 hr latency, as the eggs did not hatch. The percentage of deformed larvae (4-7%) did not vary significantly at 1.0-2.0 ml dose level in combination with 14-17 hr latency periods. While increasing the latency period beyond 17 hr at 1-1.5 ml dose level, the percentage of deformed larvae increased significantly and touched as high as 11%. The results indicated that 1-1.5 ml dose in combination with 14-17 hr latency are suitable to reduce the deformed larvae among the hatchlings during induced spawning of C. batrachus.