Indian J Exp Biol (Monthly)

SEPTEMBER 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  45(8)  751-838 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

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VOLUME 45

NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2007

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 45(9) 751-838 (2007)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Activation of macrophages with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine: Involvement of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase

755

      Anju Shrivastava

 

 

 

Effect of chlorophyll and aqueous extracts of Bacopa  monniera and Valeriana wallichii on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice

764

      Ashish K, Rehni, Hardeep S Pantlya, Richa Shri & Manjeet Singh

 

 

 

Effects of angiotensin II and captopril on rewarding properties of morphine

770

      Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Sharifi, Hojatallah Alaei, Mohammad Naser Shafei &  Habib Allah Nemati Karimooy

 

 

 

Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Indian bay leaf, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.–Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm using rat brain synaptosomes as model system

778

      S Lakshmi Devi, S Kannappan & C V Anuradha

 

 

 

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: A comparative study with T. terrestris (Caltrop)

785

      W H El-Tantawy & L A Hassanin

 

 

 

Antischistosomal and liver protective effects of Curcuma longa extract in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

791

      Afaf K EL-Ansary, Samia A Ahmed & Sanaa A Aly

 

 

 

Effects of monosodium glutamate on food acceptance and toxicity of selenium in rats

802

      R K Prashad & J K Natt

 

 

 

In vivo interactive effect of garlic oil and vitamin E against stavudine induced genotoxicity in Mus musculus

807

      Pushpindar Kaur & Rattan Singh

 

 

 

Non-chemical method of DNA recovery and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using IS 900 PCR

812

      S V Singh, P K Singh, A V Singh, J S Sohal, Swati Subodh & K Narayanasamy

 

 

 

Pathogenicity, antibiotic susceptibility and genetic similarity of environmental and clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae

817

      D Immanual Gilwax Prabhu, R Selvaraj Pandian & P Thirumalai Vasan

 

Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks

824

      T Sharma, M Modgil & M Thakur

 

 

 

Short Communications

 

 

 

Differential affinity of the natural haemagglutinin of Macrobrachium rosenbergii towards vertebrate erythrocytes: Effect of sex, size and moult stage on haemagglutination titre

830

      Pramoda K Sahoo, Bindu R Pillai, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Jaya Kumari, Swagatika Mohanty & Bibudhendra K Mishra

 

 

 

Infertility associated with sub clinical salmonellosis

834

      Bhoj Raj Singh, Mudit Chandra, Ravikant Agrawal & N Babu

 

 

 

Book Review

 

 

 

Vector Biology— Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vector Biology

837

      U S N Murty

 

 

 

Announcements

 

 

 

International Conference on Environmental Parasitology and Community Health Care Initiatives

National Symposium on Biomarkers; 34th Indian Immunology Society Conference and International Symposium on HIV Immunology


754

838

 

Author Index

Agrawal Ravikant

834

Ahmed Samia A

791

Alaei Hojatallah

770

Aly Sanaa A

791

Anuradha C V

778

Babu N

834

EL-Ansary Afaf K

791

El-Tantawy W H

785

Hassanin L A

785

Hosseini Mahmoud

770

Jaya Kumari

830

Kannappan S

778

Kaur Pushpindar

807

Lakshmi Devi S

778

Mishra Bibudhendra K

830

Modgil M

824

Mohanty Jyotirmaya

830

Mohanty Swagatika

830

Mudit Chandra

834

Murty U S N

837

Narayanasamy K

812

Natt J K

802

Pandian R Selvaraj

817

Pantlya Hardeep S

764

Pillai Bindu R

830

Prabhu D Immanual Gilwax

817

Prashad R K

802

Rehni Ashish K

764

Richa Shri

764

Sahoo Pramoda K

830

Shafei Mohammad Naser

770

Sharifi Mohammad Reza

770

Sharma T

824

Shrivastava Anju

755

Singh A V

812

Singh Bhoj Raj

834

Singh Manjeet

764

Singh P K

812

Singh Rattan

807

Singh S V

812

Sohal J S

812

Subodh Swati

812

Thakur M

824

Vasan P Thirumalai

817

 

Keyword Index

Activation

755

Adensoine deaminase

791

Affinity

830

Alcoholic extract

785

AMP-deaminase

791

Angiotensin II

770

Antibiotic susceptibility

817

Antiradical property

778

Apple rootstocks

824

Bacopa monniera

764

Captopril

770

Cerebral injury

764

Chlorophyll

764

Comet assay

807

CPP

770

Curcuma longa

791

Diabetes

778

Diabetic rats

785

DNA

807

fMLP

755

Food consumption

802

Garlic oil

807

Genetic similarity

817

Genotoxicity

807

Glucose

791

Glucose-6-phopsphatase

791

Guinea pigs

834

Haemagglugtinin

830

Hypoglycemic

785

Hypolipidemic

785

In vitro rooting

824

Indian bay leaf

778

Infertility

834

Johne’s disease

812

Lipid peroxidation

778

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

830

Monosodium glutamate

802

Morphine

770

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

812

Oxidative stress

778

P 388D-1

755

Pathogenicity

817

PCR

812

Peritoneal macrophage

755

PKC

755

Praziquantel

791

Propagation

824

Protein

791

PTK

755

RAPD

817

Rat

770, 802

S. Abortusequi

834

Salmonella

834

Schistosoma mansoni

791

Schistosomiasis

791

Self-administration

770

Sodium selenite

802

Stavudine

807

Synaptosomes

778

Toxicity

802

Tribulus alatus

785

Tribulus terrestris

785

Valeriana wallichii

764

Vertebrate erythrochytes

830

Vibrio cholerae

817

Vitamin E

807

   

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 755-763

 

 

Activation of macrophages with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine: Involvement of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase

Anju Shrivastava

 

Received 22 February 2007; revised 13 June 2007

N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) a potent chemotactic peptide stimulates immune responses by activating macrophages and other cells of the immune system. The present study reports inhibition of fMLP-induced activation of murine peritoneal and P388D-1 macrophage cell line by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H-7 and chelerythrine chloride. Similarly, tumoricidal activity was also downregulated by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors genestein and lavendustin A. Further, fMLP increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in murine macrophages, which were inhibited in presence of genestein and lavendustin A. These findings suggest the involvement of PKC and PTK in the activation of murine macrophages with fMLP.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 764-769

 

 

Effect of chlorophyll and aqueous extracts of Bacopa monniera and Valeriana wallichii on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice

Ashish K Rehni, Hardeep S Pantlya, Richa Shri & Manjeet Singh

 

Received 27 October 2006; revised 17 May 2007

Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced significant cerebral infarction and impaired short-term memory, motor co-ordination and lateral push response. Individual pretreatments with chlorophyll and aqueous extracts of B. monniera and V. wallichii markedly attenuated ischaemia-reperfusion induced cerebral injury in terms of decreased infarct size, increase in short-term memory, motor in coordination and lateral push response. The results suggest that chlorophyll and aqueous extracts of B. monniera and V. wallichii prevent ischaemia-reperfusion induced cerebral injury with comparable potency.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 770-777

 

 

Effects of angiotensin II and captopril on rewarding propreties of morphine

Mahmoud Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Sharifi,, Hojatallah Alaei, Mohammad Naser Shafei,
Habib Allah Nemati Karimooy

 

Received 24 January 2007; revised 26 June 2007

The effects of captopril and Ang II on morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and morphine self- administration in male Wistar rat were investigated. In CPP experiment, injection of captopril before test significantly decreased the difference of the time spent in compartment A between pre- and post-conditioning compared to morphine group. In self- administration experiment number of active lever pressing was significantly greater than passive in morphine group. In captopril group number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than morphine group however, there was not significant difference between active and passive lever pressed number. The results showed that captopril significantly decreased morphine-induced conditional place preference and morphine self-administration but the effect of Ang II was not significant. It can be concluded that RAS may have a role in rewarding properties of morphine.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 778-784

 

 

Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of Indian bay leaf, Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. -Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm using rat brain synaptosomes as model system

S Lakshmi Devi, S Kannappan & C V Anuradha

 

Received 23 January 2007; revised 22 June 2007

The study investigated the perturbation of oxidant-antioxidant balance in brain synaptosomes of diabetic rats and determined the antioxidant and free radical-scavenging property of the Indian bay leaf. Brain synaptosomes were isolated from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and oxidative stress parameters were assayed. A methanolic extract of bay leaf (BLE) was tested for the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity by in vitro assays. A significant increase in the levels of lipids and lipid peroxidation products and a decline in antioxidant potential were observed in diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. The total polyphenolic content of BLE was found to be 6.7mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g. BLE displayed scavenging activity against superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, BLE showed inhibition of Fe2+-ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in both control and diabetic rat brain synaptosomes. Maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation, radical scavenging action and reducing power of BLE were observed at a concentration of 220 mg GAE. These effects of BLE in vitro were comparable with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT), a synthetic antioxidant. It can be concluded that synaptosomes from diabetic rats are susceptible to oxidative damage and the positive effects of bay leaf in vitro, could be attributed to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 785-790

 

 

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of alcoholic extract of
Tribulus alatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: A comparative
study with T. terrestris (Caltrop)

W H El-Tantawy & L A Hassanin

 

Received 9 February 2007; revised 15 June 2007

The extracts of both T. alatus and T. terrestris significantly decrease fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. After 4 and 6 hr, T. alatus extract showed significant reduction in glucose level as compared to T. terrestris. After 3 weeks of treatment with T. alatus extract, glucose level was significantly decreased to the normal level. Both the extracts also caused a significant decrease in the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol. The percent of reduction in rats treated with T. alatus extract was significantly higher than that of the rats treated with
T. terrestris. The results indicate that alcoholic extract of T. alatus possesses hypoglycemic activity in type-1 model of diabetes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 791-801

 

 

Antischistosomal and liver protective effects of Curcuma longa extract in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

Afaf K EL-Ansary, Samia A Ahmed & Sanaa A Aly

 

Received 9 December 2005; revised

With a view to clarify the induction of the “Crabtree consequence” in liver cells of S. mansoni infected mice, the curative effect of oil extract of C. longa was tested and compared to praziquantel (PZQ) the effective drug against all schistosome species occurring in man. Protein, glucose, glucose-6-phopsphatase, AMP-deaminase, adensoine deaminase, urea concentration, pyravate kinase (PK), phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and PK/PEPCK ratio were estimated. In addition, worm burden and ova count in mice infected with S.mansoni were elucidated. The result showed that C. longa normalized the concentration of protein, glucose, AMP-deaminase and adenosine deaminase, which were changed by infection. Moreover, it lowered pyruvate kinase level, while PZQ-treatment induced more elevation of this enzyme. PZQ was more effective in lowering worm burden while C. longa extract was more potent in reducing egg count.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 802-806

 

 

Effects of monosodium glutamate on food acceptance and toxicity of
selenium in rats

R K Parshad & J K Natt

 

Received 15 January 2007; revised 12 April 2007

Food acceptance and toxic effects of feeding sodium selenite (Se) alone and in combination with monosodium glutamate (MSG), a taste enhancer were studied in the laboratory rat. Dose-dependent stimulation of daily food intake was observed with MSG offered in no-choice or bi-choice with the plain food. Consumption of pellets containing 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0% Se was significantly low than the plain or MSG containing pellets but their active ingredient was sufficient to cause mortality of rats. Food pellets containing both MSG and Se in no-choice feeding trial were not preferred by the rats, as their consumption remained low as compared to pellets containing only MSG. However, prior feeding on MSG containing pellets for two days increased the amount of intake of Se-containing pellets. No mortality of rats feeding on pellets containing different concentrations of MSG was recorded. Feeding on Se-containing pellets caused dose-dependent mortality on the third day of the trial. As compared to rats feeding on Se-containing pellets, the mortality rate was reduced in those provided Se in combination with MSG but the intake of active ingredient of Se in both these trials did not differ significantly. Decrease in death rate of rats feeding on Se in combination with MSG containing pellets suggested that addition of MSG to seleniferous food probably provide protection to some extent from the toxic effects of selenium. However, combination of excess doses of MSG and Se in food pellets caused mortality of all experimental animals.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 807-811

 

 

In vivo interactive effect of garlic oil and vitamin E against stavudine induced genotoxicity in Mus musculus

Pushpindar Kaur & Rattan Singh

 

Received 4 July 2006; revised 12 April 2007

Stavudine (Zerit, d4T) is widely used as an anti HIV infection drug. It prevents HIV by altering the genetic material of healthy cells but causes mutations in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. It also produces clastogenic effects in mice. In the present investigation, comet assay test was applied to evaluate the possible genomic damage caused by stavudine and also the ameliorating effects of garlic oil and vitamin E against its genotoxicity in different organs of mice. Two different doses of garlic oil (low and high dose) and vitamin E were administered to mice separately and in combination for six consecutive days followed by a dose of stavudine. The mice were sacrificed after 24, 48 and 72 h of stavudine administration. Both the antioxidants (vitamin E and garlic oil) separately and in combination reduced the genotoxicity of stavudine. The protective effects of high doses of garlic oil were more pronounced as compared to vitamin E administered group.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 812-816

 

 

Non-chemical method of DNA recovery and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using IS 900 PCR

S V Singh, P K Singh, A V Singh, J S Sohal, Swati Subodh & K Narayanasamy

 

Received 19 January 2007; revised 25 May 2007

In the present study, two methods of DNA isolation-routine, traditional and standard DNA isolation protocol for Mycobacteria (Method 1) and a new non-chemicals and non-enzymes (physical) method (Method 2) of DNA recovery have been compared and evaluated in IS900 PCR for the specific detection of pathogen. Using the new Method 2, DNA has been recovered from few (1 – 3 colonies), extremely minute and stunted colonies. DNA, thus, isolated from these colonies (colonies PCR) and cultured for the first time from the cases of Crohn’s disease in human beings, dairy cattle, raw milk and pasteurized commercial milk samples has been characterized in the present study. It is the first report from India.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 817-823

 

 

Pathogenicity, antibiotic susceptibility and genetic similarity of environmental and clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae

D Immanual Gilwax Prabhu, R Selvaraj Pandian & P Thirumalai Vasan

 

Received 19 January 2007; revised 17 May 2007

Isolates of Vibrio cholerae were obtained from clinical and environmental samples and the pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by hemolytic assay. The clinical isolates were more pathogenic than environmental isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility of V. cholerae to a set of antibiotics showed a marked variation. The environmental isolates exhibited more resistance to the antibiotics than clinical isolates. The plasmid curing technique was used to check the encoding of antibiotic resistance gene in genome. In both isolates, the resistance to vancomycin and co-trimaxazole was not mediated by plasmid and it may probably be encoded in genome. RAPD method was adopted to find out the variation in the genome of the clinical isolates and environmental isolates of V. cholerae. The genomic similarity pattern revealed that the environmental Ogawa isolates were closely related to clinical Ogawa isolates. This study confirmed the existence of the complex nature of V. cholerae in its pathogenicity, response to a set of antibiotics and genetic similarity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 824-829

 

 

Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks

T Sharma, M Modgil & M Thakur

 

Received 31 August 2007; revised 8 May 2007

Shoots of apple rootstocks raised in vitro were transferred to various rooting media to study the effect of different factors on root initiation and development. Various concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) initiated rooting but maximum rooting percentage was found with 2.0 and 2.5 mg l-1 of IBA in M7 and with 1.0 mg l-1 of IBA in MM106. The drawback was that the roots were thick, short and with profuse callus. The presence of activated charcoal (AC) in the rooting medium improved the rooting quality but reduced the rooting percentage in both the rootstocks. In high auxin dip of 70, 80 and 90 mg l-1 IBA for 2, 2 and 1 hr showed 75-85 per cent rooting in M7, but lacked reproducibility of the results. Whereas in MM106, 66 – 70 % rooting was achieved with 70 mg l-1 of IBA dip for 3 h. Root induction in shoots in IBA containing liquid medium (LM) in dark for few days and root elongation in IBA - free medium in light proved most effective. On the other hand, continuous light treatment showed reduced rooting. Reduction of MS salts and sucrose in root elongation medium showed decreased rooting. Plantlets from two - stage rooting procedure showed more rapid growth and satisfactory survival during hardening of plants and on transfer to field.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 830-833

 

 

Short Communications

 

Differential affinity of natural haemagglutinin of Macrobrachium rosenbergii towards vertebrate erythrocytes: Effect of sex, size and moult stage on haemagglutination titre

Pramoda K Sahoo, Bindu R Pillai, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Jaya Kumari, Swagatika Mohanty &
Bibudhendra K Mishra

 

Received 2 January 2007; revised 20 March 2007

Lectins play important role in innate immunity of animals. The affinity of the natural haemagglutinin of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii towards vertebrate erythrocytes and its level with relation to sex, size and moult stages were studied. The strongest agglutinating titres in haemolymph of prawns were marked against guinea pig, chicken, Clarias batrachus, and rabbit erythrocytes, and the weakest towards cattle, dog, horse and goat erythrocytes. A moderately agglutinating titre was evident in duck and human erythrocytes. The haemolymph of adult, male or intermoult stage prawns weighing more than 100 g had the highest haemagglutinating activity as compared to their respective counterparts with varied responses observed towards various erythrocytes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 834-836

 

 

Infertility associated with sub clinical salmonellosis

Bhoj Raj Singh, Mudit Chandra, Ravikant Agarwal & N Babu

 

Received 19 January 2007; revised 8 May 2007

Subclinical infection of guinea pigs with isogenic wild type and aroA, htrA and aroA-htrA mutants of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi) induced infertility, while mutants had little or no effect on conception rate in guinea pigs. Conception rate was significantly lower in guinea pigs inoculated with wild type (S-787) and aroA mutant of S. Abortusequi than those inoculated with intracellular survival deficient htrA or aroA-htrA mutants of S. Abortusequi. Chi-test analysis revealed that none of the three mutants could be attributed to low conception rate, but wild type Salmonella inoculation and chronic carriage of the pathogen were significant cause of low conception rate in guinea pigs. Role of S. Abortusequi in causation of infertility was proven from the experiment for the first time.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 837

 

 

Book Review

 

Vector BiologyΎProceedings of the International Symposium on Vector Biology

 

by U S N Murty

 

 

——————————————

 

Announcements

 

 

International Conference on Environmental Parasitology and Community Health Care Initiatives (ENPARACOHI-2007)

 

13-15 October 2007, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra

 

The conference which will be a conclave for researchers and practitioners from India and universities abroad, in the disciplines of environmental parasitology, and advanced techniques in parasitology, will focus on (i) presentations of present day status of the various parasitic diseases in India and abroad, (ii) an evaluation of areas where new developments are expected to take place, and (iii) identification of vistas for integration and convergence of these broad paradigms of environmental parasitology with community health initiatives and issues. The major thrust areas of the conference will be: parasitology, parasite environment, host-parasite relationship, vector control, biotechnology of vector born diseases, helminthology, parasitic insects, community health and disease, control of parasitic disease, epidemics, mosquito control, advances in parasitology, biological control, biolarvicides and pesticides, host-immune reaction, microbial parasitology, bacteria, fungi and viruses, systematics of parasites vector and host, systems in parasitology, model of future health scenario, cestology, trematode biology, evaluation of parasites and cybernetic parasitology. For details please contact, Dr. Soam Prakash, Organizing Secretary, ENPARACOHI- 2007, Environmental and Advanced Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra. Phone: 0562-2801545 (O), Fax: 0562-2801226, Mobile: 9319112307, 9897188121. E-mail: soamprakash@gmail.com; parasitologyunit@yahoo.com. Website: www.dei.ac.in/enparacohi 2007

 

———————

 

National Symposium on Biomarkers

 

26-28 October 2007, Department of Zoology, C.C.S. University, Meerut

 

A National Symposium on Biomarkers of Environmental problems will be held at Department of Zoology, C.C.S. University, Meerut during 26–28 October 2007. The symposium will offer current knowledge on bio-indicators, bio-monitors and biomarkers and their applications in environmental management, environmental health risk assessment, environmental restoration and in regulatory or decision making frame work. The 27th Session of Academy of Environmental Biology will also be held simultaneously with a scientific theme on gene, genome and environment. For further information please contact: Prof. S.V.S. Rana, Head, Department of Zoology, Coordinator, Deptt. of Env. Sci., C.C.S. University, Meerut 250 004, India, e-mail: sureshvs_rana@yahoo.com or Dr. Krishan Gopal, Head, Aquatic Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Post Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226 001,
e-mail: aeb1@rediffmail.com

 

—————————————

 

 

34th Indian Immunology Society Conference

and

International Symposium on HIV Immunology

 

16-18 December 2007, National AIDS Research Institute, Pune

 

The 34th Annual Conference of Indian Immunology Society (IIS) will have plenary sessions, oral and poster presentations and brainstorming sessions on (i) innate immunity, (ii) developmental immunology, (iii) infectious diseases, (iv) tumor and transplantation immunology, (v) mucosal immunity, (vi) autoimmune disorders,
(vii) recent advances in immuno-diagnostics, (viii) vaccinology, and
(ix) immunoregulation. The Symposium is aimed at generating more interest in HIV immunology among Indian immunologists and providing opportunities for establishing national and international collaborations. For further details, please contact,
Dr Madhuri Thakar, Organizing Secretary, Department of Immunology, National AIDS Research Institute, Pune 411 026, India. Telephone: 91-20-27121342, 27121280; Fax: 91-20-27121071; E-mail: immconnari07@rediffmail.com; Website: http://www.immcon-nari.org