Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(6) 433-486 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Enhancement of radiation induced cell death in chicken B lymphocytes by withaferin A

437

      P Uma Devi, H Utsumi, M Takata & S Takeda

 

 

 

Moderate physical training increases brain insulin concentrations in experimental diabetic rats

443

      Jose AlexandreCuriacos de Almedia Leme, Ricardo Jose Gomes,
Maria Alice Rostom de Mello & Eliete Luciano

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective effect of Pergularia daemia (Forsk) ethanol extract and its fraction

447

      S V Suresh Kumar & S H Mishra

 

 

 

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of plant lipids containing a–linolenic acid

453

      Surender Singh, Vinod Nair, Sweety Jain & Y K Gupta

 

 

 

Mechanism of vasorelaxant activity of a fraction of root extract of
Sesamum indicum Linn.

457

      P Suresh Kumar, J S Patel & M N Saraf

 

 

 

Effects of Withania somnifera Dunal root extract against pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold in mice: Possible involvement of GABAergic system

465

      S K Kulkarni, Kiran Kumar Akula & Ashish Dhir

 

 

 

Effects of Withania somnifera Dunal in ethanol-induced anxiolysis and withdrawal anxiety in rats

470

      Girdhari Lal Gupta & Avtar Chand Rana

 

 

 

Antiatherosclerotic activity of ibuprofen, a non-selective COX — An animal study

476

      J K Dabhi, J K Solanki & Anita Mehta

 

 

 

De novo shoot regeneration from root culture of Garcinia indica Choiss

482

      Swapna R Deodhar, R J Thengane & S R Thengane

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

National Symposium on Algae in Agriculture and Food Industry

20 and 21 September 2008, Chennai

 

Jointly organised by the Krishnamurthy Institute of Algology and PG and Research Department of Plant Biology & Plant Biotechnology, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai, the symposium will cover following aspects: (i) Algae as food or commercial crops, (ii) Algae as biofertilizers, (iii) Algae as source of agar, carrageenan and alginates and use of these in food related industries, (iv) New algal polysaccharides useful in food industries, (v) Beneficial as well as toxic effects of algal feeds on farm animals, (vi) Micro and macroalgal feeds in aquaculture, (vii) Algae as primary producer in artificial culture ponds, (viii) Algae in poly culture systems, (ix) Aquaculture of algae in marine as well as freshwater, and (x) Algae in bioremediation of wastewater. For further details, kindly contact Dr S Murugesan, Convener, PG and Research Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Unit of Environmental Sciences and Algal Biotechnology, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai 600 030, India. Mobile: 09840276446; E-mail: murugesan5@yahoo.com; smurugesan5@gmail.com. Website: http://www.geocities.com/krishalg

 

———————————

Erratum

 

Time course of pulmonary pathology, cytokine influx and their correlation on augmentation of antigen challenge by influenza A virus infection by Ruqiaya Nazir, Madhu Khanna & Ritu Kulshrestha, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 151-158.

Legends of Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 have been interchanged.

Legend of Fig.3 on page 156, top left col. should read as:

Fig. 3—Changes in IgE levels in BALF and serum of influenza A virus mediated allergic asthma [(I) Control group; (II) influenza virus infected group; (III) OVA group; (IV) acute phase group; Group I; significant vs group IV (###P<0.0001); vs group III (##P <0.001); Group II; vs group IV (***P <0.0001); vs group III (**P <0.001)]

 

Legend of Fig.4 on page 156, bottom should read as:

Fig. 4—Cytokine profile for kinetics in BALF of allergen augmented mice after influenza A virus infection [(a) IFN-γ, (b) IL-4, (c) IL-5, and (d) IL-10 at 9, 12, 24 and 48 hr after the antigen challenge. I=control group; II=influenza virus infected group; III=OVA group; IV=acute phase group. In acute phase group (IV) IL-4 and IL-5 levels showed a marked increase at 24 hr after the antigen challenge (both the cytokines, P< 0.001), but slight change was observed in the level of IL-10 and IFN-γ. Virus group (II) showed a two-fold increase in IFN-γ at 12 hr, significant increase in IL-10 at 12 hr, and no change was observed in case of IL-4 and IL-5. In OVA group (III) showed a significant increase in IL-4 and IL-5 level at 24 hr and little change was observed in the level of IL-10 and IFN-γ]

 

 

 

Author Index

Akula Kiran Kumar

465

 

 

Dabhi J K

476

de Almedia Leme Jose Alexandre Curiacos

 443

de Mello Maria Alice Rostom

443

Deodhar Swapna R

482

Dhir Ashish

465

 

 

Gupta Girdhari Lal

470

Gupta Y K

453

 

 

 

 

Jain Sweety

453

Jose Gomes Ricardo

443

 

 

Kulkarni S K

465

 

 

Luciano Eliete

443

 

 

Mehta Anita

476

Mishra S H

447

 

 

Nair Vinod

453

 

 

Patel J S

457

 

 

Rana Avtar Chand

470

 

 

Saraf M N

457

Solanki J K

476

Surender Singh

453

Suresh Kumar P

457

Suresh Kumar S V

447

 

 

Takata M

437

Takeda S

437

Thengane R J

482

Thengane S R

482

 

 

Uma Devi P

437

Utsumi H

437

 

 

 

Keyword Index

a–Linolenic acid

453

Antihyperlipidemic activity

476

Antioxidant activity

476

Aorta

457

 

 

Brain

443

 

 

CCl4

447

Chicken B-lymphocytes

437

 

 

Diabetes

443

Diazepam

465

DNA repair

437

 

 

Eicosanoids

453

Elevated plus maze

470

Endothelium-dependent

457

Ethanol

470

Ethanol extract

447

 

 

GABA

465

Garcinia indica

482

Glycine max

453

Guttifereae

482

 

 

Hepatoprotective

447

Hypercholesterolemia

476

 

 

Insulin

443

 

 

Linum usitatissimum

453

 

 

Ocimim sanctum

453

Organogenesis

482

 

 

P. daemia

447

Paw edema

453

Pentylenetetrazol

465

Physical training

443

 

 

Rat

443

Roots

482

 

 

Seizure threshold

465

Sesamum indicum

457

Shoots

482

Silymarin

447

Surviving fraction

437

 

 

Vasorelaxant

457

 

 

Withaferin A

437

Withania somnifera

465

Withania somnifera

470

Withdrawal anxiety

470

 

 

X-radiation

437

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 437-442

 

 

 

Enhancement of radiation induced cell death in chicken B lymphocytes by withaferin A

P  Uma Devi, H Utsumi, M Takata & S Takeda

 

Received 3 May 2007; revised 2 May 2008

Withaferin A (WA), a plant withanolide, has shown significant radiosensitizing effect in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of DNA repair has been suggested as a mechanism of radiosensitization by WA. To test this, the effect of withaferin A on survival of DT40 chicken B-lymphocyte cell line and its repair deficient single gene mutants Rad54-/-, Ku70-/- and double mutant Ku70-/- /Rad54-/- after irradiation was studied . Exponentially growing cells were treated for 1 hr with 5 mM WA and then exposed to different doses of X-rays.  Cell survival was studied by clonogenic assay. WA significantly reduced survival of DT40, Ku70-/- and Ku70-/- /Rad54-/-, but not Rad54-/- cells, suggesting that WA enhances radiosensitivity by interfering with homologous repair, the major pathway of DSB repair in these cells. Inhibition of DNA repair is further indicated in a significant decrease in surviving fraction of DT40 cells by post-irradiation incubation with WA. This could have relevance to cancer radiotherapy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 443-446

 

 

 

Moderate physical training increases brain insulin concentrations in
experimental diabetic rats

José Alexandre Curiacos de Almeida Leme, Ricardo José Gomes, Maria Alice Rostom de Mello &
 Eliete Luciano

 

Received 5 April 2007; revised 4 April 2008

Insulin is an important modulator of growth and metabolic function in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of swimming physical training (at 32°±1oC, 1 hr/day, 5 days/week, with an overload equivalent to 5% of the body weight, for 4 weeks) on brain insulin concentrations in alloxan induced type 1 diabetic rats. Training attenuated hyperglycemia but had no effect on insulinemia in diabetic rats. Hematocrit and blood albumin values remained without changes. Brain insulin did not change in diabetic rats. However, physical training increased the concentration in both control and diabetic rats. It is concluded that in the present experimental conditions, diabetes had no influence on brain insulin, however moderate physical training increased the hormone in both control and diabetic animals.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 447-452

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective effect of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) ethanol extract and its fraction

S V Suresh Kumar  & S H  Mishra

 

Received 17 July 2007; revised 9 April 2008

Ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction from aerial parts of P. daemia exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein and albumin in serum indicated hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction. Histopathological examination of liver sections confirmed that, pre-treatment with ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction prevented hepatic damage induced by CCl4. The results were comparable with the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. The extract and its fraction showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. It is suggested that, the presence of flavonoids in ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction may be responsible for hepatoprotective properties. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of flavonoids of bio-active extracts was developed using quercetin-3-glucoside as a marker. Results indicate hepatoprotective properties of ethanol extract of P. daemia.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 453-456

 

 

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of plant lipids containing α–linolenic acid

Surender Singh, Vinod Nair, Sweety Jain & Y K Gupta

 

Received 22 January 2008; revised 2 May 2008

Two groups of fatty acids are essential to the body, the ω6 (n6) series derived from linoleic acid (18:2, n-6) and the ω3 (n3) series derived from α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3). Fatty acids provide energy, are an integral part of the cell membranes and are precursors of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes collectively known as eicosanoids. Eicosanoids participate in development and synthesis of immunological and inflammatory responses. The fixed oils (1, 2, 3 ml/kg) containing α-linolenic acid, obtained from the seeds of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum), Soyabean (Glycine max) and Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) were screened for their antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan, leukotriene and arachidonic acid induced paw edema models in rats and the antiinflammatory effects were compared with the standard drug indomethacin. Significant inhibition of paw edema was produced by all the oils in the highest dose (3ml/kg) in all the models. While O. sanctum oil produced the maximum percentage inhibition in leukotriene induced paw edema, L. usitatissimum oil produced maximum percentage inhibition in carrageenan and arachidonic acid induced paw edema models. The results show that oils with higher α-linolenic acid content (L. usitatissimum and O. sanctum) produced a greater inhibition of paw edema suggesting that modulation of the course of inflammatory disorders may be achieved by altering the eicosanoid precursor (i.e. poly unsaturated fatty acids: PUFA) availability through dietary manipulation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 457-464

 

 

 

Mechanism of vasorelaxant activity of a fraction of root extract of
Sesamum indicum Linn.

P Suresh Kumar, J S Patel & M N Saraf

 

Received 10 April 2007; revised 15 April 2008

The petroleum ether soluble fraction (SIPE) of the root extract of S. indicum was evaluated for the vasorelaxant activity using isolated rat aorta. SIPE up to 180 µg/ml concentration significantly inhibited phenylephrine- and KCl-induced contraction to the extent of 98.13 ± 6.37 and 70.19 ± 3.43% respectively in isolated rat aorta in a concentration dependent manner. The vasorelaxant activity was not blocked by propranolol (10 µM), atropine (1 µM) indomethacin (10 µM) and glibenclamide (10 µM). Influence of SIPE on phenylephrine-induced contractions in aortic preparations in absence of functional endothelium and on pre-incubating the tissue with L-NAME (300 µM) or methylene blue (10 µM) was also studied. SIPE at 180 µg/ml concentration could elicit partial relaxation in presence of L-NAME or methylene blue to the extent of 34.26 ± 6.13 and 25.66 ± 10.95% respectively. However, in absence of functional endothelium, SIPE exhibited little relaxation to the extent of 6.70 ± 4.87%. These studies revealed that the vasorelaxant activity of SIPE was chiefly mediated through endothelium-dependent pathway.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 465-469

 

 

 

Effect of Withania somnifera Dunal root extract against pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold in mice: Possible involvement of GABAergic system

S K Kulkarni, Kiran Kumar Akula & Ashish Dhir

 

Received 22 January 2008; revised 7 March 2008

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) is a widely used herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of W. somnifera root extract (Ws) alone or in combination with exogenous g-amino butyric acid (GABA), a GABA receptor agonist or with diazepam, a GABA receptor modulator against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, iv) seizure threshold in mice. Minimal dose of PTZ (iv, mg/kg) needed to induce different phases (myoclonic jerks, generalized clonus and tonic extension) of convulsions were recorded as an index of seizure threshold. Ws (100 or 200 mg/kg, po) increased the PTZ seizure threshold for the onset of tonic extension phase whereas a lower dose (50 mg/kg, po) did not show any effect on the seizure threshold. Co-administration of a sub-effective dose of Ws (50 mg/kg, po) with a sub-protective dose of either GABA (25 mg/kg, ip) or diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, ip) increased the seizure threshold. The results suggested that the anticonvulsant effect of W. somnifera against PTZ seizure threshold paradigm involved the GABAAergic modulation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 470-475

 

 

Effect of Withania somnifera Dunal in ethanol-induced anxiolysis and
withdrawal anxiety in rats

Girdhari Lal Gupta & Avtar Chand Rana

 

Received 5 December 2007; revised 19 March 2008

Withania somnifera (WS) or its psychotropic preparation is known to play a critical role in morphine, alcohol and benzodiazepines addiction. This study investigates the role of WS in acute ethanol and withdrawal from chronic ethanol consumption using elevated plus maze paradigm in rats. Acute administration of ethanol (1.5-2 g/kg, ip) triggered anxiolytic effect and withdrawal from prolonged ethanol (9% v/v ethanol, 15 days) consumption elicited enhanced behavioral despair (anxiety). Acute administration of WS (50 mg/kg, oral) potentiated the anxiolytic action of subeffective dose of ethanol (0.5 or 1 g/kg, ip). Moreover, the ethanol withdrawal anxiety was markedly antagonized in dose dependent manner by WS at 200 and 500 mg/kg or higher dose of ethanol (2.5 g/kg). However, co-administration of subeffective doses of WS (50 mg/kg, oral) and ethanol also attenuated withdrawal-induced anxiety due to chronic ethanol (9% v/v ethanol, 15 days) consumption. The results suggest the protective effect of WS in the management of ethanol withdrawal reactions.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 476-481

 

 

 

Antiatherosclerotic activity of ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor —
An animal study

J K Dabhi, J K Solanki & Anita Mehta

 

Received 10 April 2007; revised 22 April 2008

Atherosclerosis being considered as an inflammatory disorder, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, aspirin, and celecoxib) in hypercholesterolemia. Ibuprofen is a cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor known to reduce the production of prostaglandins that play prominent role in inflammation. Beside the anti-inflammatory effects that make ibuprofen interesting for the treatment of condition associated with hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Various other properties of ibuprofen were investigated, ibuprofen showed better reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipo-protein, low density lipo-protein and atherogenic index than aspirin and celecoxib in hypercholesterolemic animals. These properties of ibuprofen may be due to inhibition of acetyl–CoA carboxylase initiating the synthesis of fatty acids. Ibuprofen significantly elevated antioxidant (super oxide dismutase; catalase) levels and reduced lipid peroxidation. Ibuprofen inhibits COX enzymes and thereby inhibits generation of free radicals during prostaglandins synthesis, which may be responsible for reduction in lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase levels and for high catalase levels. Interestingly, ibuprofen decreased total leukocyte count, monocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. From the results of present study, it can be concluded that ibuprofen (non-selective COX inhibitor) showed promising antihyperlipidemic, antiatherosclerotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and non-ulcerogenic activity in atherosclerotic animals as compared to aspirin (preferential COX-1 inhibitor) and celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitors, suggesting the inducible role of COX in atherosclerosis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, June 2008, pp. 482-486

 

 

De novo shoot regeneration from root cultures of Garcinia indica Choiss

Swapna R Deodhar, R J Thengane & S R Thengane

 

Received 27 February 2008; revised 2 May 2008

Roots of plantlets of Garcinia indica when cultured for long time on half strength MS medium supplemented with BAP (0.44-2.22 µM) showed production of de novo shoots. Roots attached to mother plant showed more number of shoots, while excised root segments produced lesser shoots. Shoots (0.5-0.8 cm) were transferred to elongation medium consisting of Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with BAP (4.44-22.69 µM), IAA (5.71 µM) and kinetin (4.65 µM). It was observed that shoot length increased to1-2 cm. WPM medium supplemented with NAA (2.69-10.74 µM) and IBA (4.90 µM) induced rooting within 20-25 days. Using the present protocol, 20-25 plantlets could be regenerated from single root explant within 3 to 4 months. The protocol has potential for large scale production of elite plants.