Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(4) 203-258 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Cloning of an ovule specific promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana and expression of
b-glucuronidase

207

      Vikrant Nain, Anju Verma, Neeraj Kumar, Priyanka Sharma, B Ramesh &
P Ananda Kuma
r

 

 

 

Inhibition of MAO and GABA: Probable mechanisms for antidepressant-like activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in mice

212

      Dinesh Dhingra & Parveen Kumar Goyal

 

 

 

Nimodipine is more effective then nifedipine in attenuating morphine tolerance on chronic co‑administration in the rat tail-flick test

219

      Subrata Basu Ray, Pravash Mishra, Dilip Verma, Ankur Gupta & Shashi Wadhwa

 

 

 

Bradycardia induced by Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion venom involves muscarinic receptor‑G‑protein-coupled cell signaling pathways

229

      Shripad B Deshpande, Sadhana Kanoo & Anitha B Alex

 

 

 

Beneficial effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit epicarp in animal models

234

      J R Deshpande, A A Choudhari, M R Mishra, V S Meghre, S G Wadodkar &
A K Dorle

 

 

 

Effects of different factors on immature embryo culture, PLBs differentiation and rapid mass multiplication of Coelogyne suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook

243

      Sungkumlong & Chitta Ranjan Deb

 

 

 

Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method

249

      Ramesh Chand, Devyani Sen, K D Prasad, A K Singh, B M Bashyal, L C Prasad &
A K Joshi

 

 

 

Antimicrobial protein from Streptomyces fulvissimus inhibitory to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

254

      Himadri Malik, Banani Sur, Neha Singhal & Vinod Bihari

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Microbial Biotechnology

258

      G S Randhawa

 

Announcements

 

 

 

Third biennial International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries (ICBF-2008) and 5th Convention of the Biotech Research Society (BRSI)

 

ICMR Awards and Prizes for 2006

206

 

Announcements

 

Third biennial International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries (ICBF-2008) and

5th Convention of the Biotech Research Society (BRSI)

 

6–8 November 2008, Hyderabad, India

 

Jointly organized by the International Forum on Bioprocesses in Food Industries (ICBF Forum; http://www.icbfforum.org/) and the Osmania University, Hyderabad, the Third biennial International Congress on Bioprocesses in Food Industries (ICBF-2008) and the 5th Convention of the Biotech Research Society (BRSI; http://www.brsi.in/) will be held at Osmania University Hyderabad. The topics covered would be broadly in the area of food biotechnology, industrial biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and medical biotechnology. Details can be obtained either form Prof L.Venkateswar Rao, Convenor, ICBF-2008, [Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India, Telephone: +91-40-27090661, Fax: +91- 40- 27682246(O), Mobile: 09391011277, e-mail: icbfou@gmail.com] or Prof Christian Larroche, Co-Convener, ICBF-2008, [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique et Biochimique, 24, avenue des Landais, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex, France; e-mail: christian.larroche@univ-bpclermont.fr] URL: www.icbf2008.com

 

—————————————

 

ICMR Awards and Prizes for 2006

 

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) invites nominations/applications from Indian scientists for ICMR awards and prizes for the year 2006 in various fields of Biomedical Sciences. For details and application format, kindly log on to ICMR website: http://www.icmr.nic.in

Last date of receipt of nominations/applications is 15 April 2008. Correspondence address: International Health Division, Indian Council of Medical Research,
V Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, Post Box 4911, New Delhi 110 029.
Telefax: 91-11-26589492. E-mail: ihd@icmr.org.in

 

—————————————

 

Editor’s Note

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

Author Index

Alex Anitha B

229

Ananda Kumar P

207

Bashyal B M

249

Bihari Vinod

254

Choudhari A A

234

Deb Chitta Ranjan

243

Deshpande J R

234

Deshpande Shripad B

229

Dhingra Dinesh

212

Dorle A K

234

Goyal Parveen Kumar

212

Gupta Ankur

219

Joshi A K

249

Kanoo Sadhana

229

Malik Himadri

254

Meghre V S

234

Mishra M R

234

Mishra Pravash

219

Nain Vikrant

207

Neeraj Kumar

207

Prasad K D

249

Prasad L C

249

Ramesh B

207

Ramesh Chand

249

Randhawa G S

258

Ray Subrata Basu

219

Sen Devyani

249

Sharma Priyanka

207

Singh A K

249

Singhal Neha

254

Sungkumlong

243

Sur Banani

254

Verma Anju

207

Verma Dilip

219

Wadhwa Shashi

219

Wadodkar S G

234

 

 

Keyword Index

AGAMOUS

207

Antihyperglycemic

234

Antihyperlipidemic

234

Antimicrobial protein

254

Antioxidant

234

Bipolaris sorokiniana

249

Ca2+ channel blockers

219

Callus culture

249

Cardiac dysrhythmia

229

Cardiotonic

234

Depression

212

Disease screening

249

Endangered epiphytic orchid

243

Forced swim test

212

GABA

212

Glycopeptide antibiotics

254

Guanylyl cyclase

229

Hepatoprotective

234

Immature seed culture

243

Immunomodulatory

234

In vitro multiplication

243

Indian red scorpion

229

Lagenaria siceraria

234

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

254

Methylene blue

229

Monoamine oxidase

212

Morphine tolerance

219

Nardostachys jatamansi

212

Neuronal plasticity

219

Nifedipine

219

Nimodipine

219

Ovule

207

Pertussis toxin

229

SDS-PAGE

254

Seed age

243

Streptomyces fulvissimus

254

Tail suspension test

212

Tissue specific promoter

207

Toxin

249

Transcription factor

207

Transgenics

207

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 207-211

 

 

Cloning of an ovule specific promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana and expression of β-glucuronidase

Vikrant Nain, Anju Verma, Neeraj Kumar, Priyanka Sharma, B Ramesh & P Ananda Kumar

Received 29 October 2007; revised 10 February 2008

Tissue specific expression of transgenes in plant species has several advantages over constitutive expression. Identification of ovule specific promoters would be useful in genetic engineering of plants with a variety of desirable traits such as genetically engineered parthenocarpy, female sterile plants or seedless fruits. Relative inaccessibility and difficulty in harvesting adequate amounts of tissue at known developmental stages has impeded the progress in cloning of promoters involved in ovule development. In the present study an ovule specific promoter was cloned from Arabidopsis AGL11Ψ gene and used to express GUS (β-glucuronidase) gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. Histochemical staining of GUS appeared in the center of young ovary (ovules), but no detectable GUS activity was observed in vegetative plant tissues, sepals, petals and androecium. AGL11 gene promoter can be useful to modify the developmental path of plants by expressing either plant hormones or lethal genes for agronomic purpose.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 212-218

 

 

Inhibition of MAO and GABA: Probable mechanisms for antidepressant-like activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in mice

Dinesh Dhingra & Parveen Kumar Goyal

 

Received 23 November 2007; revised 6 February 2008

Ethanolic extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, po) of N. jatamansi administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice (either sex) produced significant antidepressant-like effect in both tail suspension and forced swim tests. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to imipramine (15 mg/kg, po) and sertraline (20 mg/kg, po). Ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg, po) did not show any significant change on locomotor activity of mice as compared to control; hence it did not produce any motor effects. Further, the extract decreased the whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities as compared to control, thus increased the levels of monoamines. The antidepressant effect of the extract was also significantly reversed by pretreatment of animals with baclofen (GABAB agonist); when tested in tail suspension test.  The results suggested that the antidepressant-like effect of the extract may also be due to interaction with GABAB receptors, resulting in decrease in the levels of GABA in mouse brain. Thus, the extract may have potential therapeutic value for the management of mental depression.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 219-228

 

 

Nimodipine is more effective than nifedipine in attenuating morphine tolerance
on chronic co-administration in the rat tail-flick test

Subrata Basu Ray, Pravash Mishra, Dilip Verma, Ankur Gupta &  Shashi Wadhwa

Received 14 September 2007; revised 29 January 2008

Opioids, when co-administered with L-type calcium channel blockers (L-CCBs) show morphine like higher antinociceptive effect. This antinociceptive effect has been further investigated using a different experimental paradigm. The effect of two different L-CCBs (nifedipine and nimodipine) on morphine-induced antinociception was studied by the tail-flick test (40 min after morphine administration) in adult Wistar rats. A fixed-dose of nimodipine or nifedipine (2 mg/kg, once daily) was combined with a fixed dose of morphine (10 mg/kg, twice daily) for 10 days. Co-administration of L-CCBs significantly increased the antinociceptive effect of morphine, even 12 hr after administration. Also, nimodipine was more effective than nifedipine. Nimodipine was further studied using a higher and escalating doses of morphine (20 – 30 mg/kg twice daily for 14 days). Nimodipine increased the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the latter part of the study (days nine to fourteen) though significant difference was observed on 11th evening and 12th morning. No obvious adverse effects were observed in the present study. The results show for the first time that nimodipine is more effective than nifedipine and that these L-CCBs continue to be effective, even 12 hr after administration in the tail-flick test.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 229-233

 

 

 

Bradycardia induced by Mesobuthus tamulus scorpion venom involves muscarinic receptor-G-protein-coupled cell signaling pathways

Shripad B. Deshpande, Sadhana Kanoo & Anitha B. Alex

Received 20 November 2007; revised 12 February 2008

Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus; MBT) envenomation produces various cardio-respiratory abnormalities including cardiac dysrhythmias. The underlying cell signaling pathways for the cardiac dysrhythmias produced by MBT venom are not known. The present study was therefore conducted to delineate the second messenger signaling pathways involved in MBT venom-induced atrial rhythm changes. The effects of venom and various antagonists were examined on spontaneously beating rat right atrial preparations in vitro. The MBT-venom produced an increase (35%), a decrease (45%) and again an increase (50%) in rate at 0.03, 0.3 and 3.0 ΅g/ml of venom, respectively. On the other hand, force of contraction exhibited a concentration-dependent rise (up to 40%) at all concentrations of venom. Pretreatment with atropine (0.3 ΅M) blocked the decrease in atrial rate at 0.3 ΅g/ml concentration of venom while no such blockade was seen in force of contraction. Submaximal concentration of ACh (0.1 nM) decreased the atrial rate by 25%. In the presence of MBT venom (0.3 ΅g/ml), ACh-induced fall in atrial rate was enhanced. The venom-induced fall in atrial rate and augmentation of ACh response were blocked by pertussis toxin (PTx; a Gi-inhibitor) or methylene blue (a G-cyclase inhibitor). The results indicate that the decrease in atrial rate produced by venom is mediated muscarinic by receptors via Gi-guanylyl cyclase mediated cell signaling pathways.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 234-242

 

 

Beneficial effects of Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit epicarp in
animal models

J R Deshpande, A A Choudhari, M R Mishra, V S Meghre, S G Wadodkar & A K Dorle

Received 4 January 2007; revised 18 February 2008

Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standley fruit (bottle gourd), a commonly used vegetable in India is described as cardiotonic and as a general tonic in Ayurveda. Keeping in view the presence of free radical scavenging activity in L. siceraria and involvement of free radicals in the development of various disorders, present studies were designed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of L. siceraria fruit against the disorders where free radicals play a major role in pathogenesis. The extract was found effective as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic and cardiotonic agent. The results showed that the radical scavenging capacity of L. siceraria fruit may be responsible for various biological activities studied.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 243-248

 

 

Effects of different factors on immature embryo culture, PLBs differentiation and rapid mass multiplication of Coelogyne suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook

Sungkumlong & Chitta Ranjan Deb

Received 24 August 2007; revised 14 December 2007

In vitro mass production of C. suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook, an endangered orchid with its snowy white flowers having horticultural potential was accomplished through immature seed culture, and subsequent plant regeneration. The developmental stage of the immature seeds and nutrient media significantly influenced the germination frequency. Seeds at 13 months after pollination cultured on 3% sucrose containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 9 ΅M a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 15% coconut water exhibited 93% germination after 40 days of culture. Upon subculture, the germinated shoots on MS medium with 9 ΅M BA, 6 ΅M NAA, 3% casein hydrolysate and 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) yielded >12 shoots per shoot or bud. Addition of AC favoured the enlargement of pseudobulbs and better rooting. The plantlets transferred to community potting mix after in vitro hardening (8-10 wk) displayed 85% survival.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, pp. 249-253

 

 

Screening for disease resistance in barley cultivars against Bipolaris sorokiniana using callus culture method

Ramesh Chand, Devyani Sen, K D Prasad, A K Singh, B M Bashyal , L C Prasad & A K Joshi

Received 27 November 2007; revised 12 February 2008

Screening for resistant barley genotypes in response to fungal toxin of Bipolaris sorokiniana was assessed on standing barley plants as well as in selected callus lines of the same. For the standing lines tested, those manifesting chlorosis in response to toxin infiltration showed a significantly slower disease progress as compared to the necrotic lines. Also, necrosis in the callus tissues of the susceptible cultivar in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of the crude toxin was significantly higher than in the callus tissues of the chlorotic lines studied. Similar host response to the toxin in in vitro and field situations open up the possibility of screening barley cultivars for resistance to spot blotch using callus culture as against classical methods of screening in order to increase accuracy and save time and space.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, p. 254-258

 

 

Antimicrobial protein from Streptomyces fulvissimus inhibitory to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Himadri Malik, Banani Sur, Neha Singhal & Vinod Bihari

Received 8 October 2007; revised 25 February 2008

Fermented culture of Streptomyces fulvissimus was found to secrete an antibacterial protein inhibitory to Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. The extracellular protein from the fermented culture on concentration revealed a high molecular weight peptide of 63kDa on SDS-PAGE gel and the region on gel displayed inhibitory activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity of the extra cellular protein was non-sensitive to proteinase K, a chymotrypsin, protease, EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), PMSF (phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride) and DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) but partially susceptible to amylase and heat. Glycoprotein nature of the proteinaceous compound was confirmed by periodic acid schiff’s (PAS) staining. The secretary protein of S. fulvissimus demonstrated a significant activity against MRSA strain. It could be an important source for developing new drugs to control multidrug resistant gram positive bacteria .

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, April 2008, p. 258

 

 

            Book Review

 

Microbial Biotechnology

G S Randhawa