Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(8) 553-616 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

 

  CONTENTS

Review Article

 

Prevention of postoperative microbial infection by synbiotics

557

      Koji Nomoto

 

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of Vitamin E on alcohol-induced changes in oxidative stress and expression of transcription factors NFkB and AP-1 in mice brain cerebral hemispheres

562

      Jasmeet Kaur & M P Bansal

 

 

 

Modulation of CYP4502E1 and oxidative stress by testosterone in liver and kidney of benzene treated rats

568

      Yeshvandra Verma & S V S Rana

 

 

 

Rapid detection and characterization of Chikungunya virus by RT-PCR in febrile patients from Kerala, India

573

      Anu Yamuna Joseph, Vidhu Sankar Babu, Sona S Dev, Jayashree Gopalakrishnapai,
M Harish, M D Rajesh, S Anisha & C Mohankumar

 

 

 

Evaluation of four methods of DNA recovery from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis present in intestine tissue of goats and comparative sensitivity of IS900 PCR with respect to culture for diagnosis of Johne’s disease

579

      P K Singh, S V Singh, A V Singh & J S Sohal

 

 

 

Effect of Manuka honey and sulfasalazine in combination to promote antioxidant defense system in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis model in rats

583

      B Medhi, A Prakash, P K Avti, U N Saikia, P Pandhi & K L Khanduja

 

 

 

Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (roxb)

591

      N Venkata Rao, Basavaraj Pujar, S K Nimbal, S M Shantakumar & S Satyanarayana

 

 

 

Antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal formulation (DRF/AY/5001)

599

      Rahul V Mandlik, Sandya K Desai, Suresh R Naik, Gaurav Sharma & R K Kohli

 

 

 

Antihyperglycaemic activity of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

607

      Uma Bhandari & M Nazam Ansari

 

Notes

 

Hypoglycemic potential of Morus indica. L and Costus igneus. Nak. — A preliminary study

614

      D Vishalakshi Devi & Asna Urooj

 

 

——————

 

Editor’s Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

——————

 

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. One of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)            After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals.

(b)            Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)            Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Anisha S

573

Ansari M Nazam

607

Avti P K

583

 

 

Babu Vidhu Sankar

573

Bansal M P

562

Bhandari Uma

607

 

 

Desai Sandya K

599

Dev Sona S

573

Devi Vishalakshi D

614

 

 

Gopalakrishnapai Jayashree

573

 

 

Harish M

573

 

 

Joseph Anu Yamuna

573

 

 

Kaur Jasmeet

562

Khanduja K L

583

Kohli R K

599

 

 

Mandlik Rahul V

599

Medhi B

583

Mohankumar C

573

 

 

Naik Suresh R

599

Nimbal S K

591

Nomoto Koji

557

 

 

Pandhi P

583

Prakash A

583

Pujar Basavaraj

591

 

 

Rajesh M D

573

Rana S V S

568

Rao N Venkata

591

 

 

Saikia U N

583

Satyanarayana S

591

Shantakumar S M

591

Sharma Gaurav

599

Singh A V

579

Singh P K

579

Singh S V

579

Sohal J S

579

 

 

Urooj Asna

614

 

 

Verma Yeshvandra

568

 

 

Keyword Index

Alcohol

562

Alloxan

599

Antiamnesic

591

Anticataleptic

591

Antidiabetic activity

599

Antioxidant activity

599

Antioxidant defense system

583

AP1

562

 

 

Benzene

568

Blood pressure

607

 

 

Castration

568

Cerebral hemispheres

562

Chikungunya

573

Costus igneus

614

 

 

Diabetes

614

Diabetes mellitus

607

DNA

579

 

 

E1

573

Embelia ribes

607

EPM

591

 

 

Goat

579

GSH

568

 

 

Herbal formulation

599

Hypoglycemic effect

614

 

 

Intestine tissues

579

IS900 PCR

579

 

 

Johne’s disease

579

 

 

Kidney

568

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

568

Liver

568

 

 

Microbial infection

557

Monuka honey

583

Morus indica

614

 

Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis

579

 

 

Neurotoxicity

562

NFkB

562

nsP1

573

 

 

Phylogenetic analysis

573

Postoperative infection

557

Prebiotic

557

Probiotic

557

Pueraria tuberosa

591

 

 

RT-PCR

573

 

 

Streptozotocin

607

Sulfasalazine

583

Synbiotic

557

 

 

Testosterone

568

Tuber extracts

591

 

 

Ulcerative colitis

583

 

 

Vit. E

562

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 557-561

 

Review Article

 

 

Prevention of postoperative microbial infection by synbiotics

Koji Nomoto

 

Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, 1796 Yaho, Kunitachishi, Tokyo 186-8650, Japan

Prevention of infectious complications after major surgeries including those for cancer has been a major concern in the clinical field. To overcome this problem, probiotics and synbiotics (combination of probiotics and prebiotics have recently been introduced for post-operative treatment. Clinical application of synbiotics in severe cases, such as severe pediatric surgical cases, acute pancreatitis, liver transplantation, and biliary cancer, has been reported. The present article deals with the clinical effect of such synbiotic therapies for the patients under emergency medical care, and discusses the possible mechanism of action and prospect of synbiotic therapy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 562-567

 

Papers

 

Effect of Vitamin E on alcohol-induced changes in oxidative stress and expression of transcription factors NFkB and AP-1 in mice brain cerebral hemispheres

Jasmeet Kaur & M P Bansal

 

Received 8 August 2007; revised 12 June 2008

Redox sensitive transcription factors nuclear factor ĸB (NF-ĸB) and activator protein-1 are involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced disorders. Because of its antioxidative properties, vitamin E may help prevent oxidative stress-induced disorders. The aim of the present study was to delineate the molecular mechanisms associated with alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to see whether vitamin E supplementation counters the alcohol-induced adverse effects. The results showed that vitamin E supplementation restored the redox status and thus prevented the alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Further measurements of the mRNA expressions of cjun, cfos, p65 (NFkB) indicated an increase in their expression during oxidative stress. Although Vit E inhibited NFkB activation, it stimulated AP1 expression. The results support the findings that alcohol induces oxidative stress in nervous tissue. The data further show that vitamin E can mitigate the toxic effects of alcohol and thus can be suitable as a potential therapeutic agent for alcohol-induced oxidative damage in brain.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 568-572

 

Modulation of CYP4502E1 and oxidative stress by testosterone in liver and kidney of benzene treated rats

Yeshvandra Verma & S V S Rana

 

Received 29 January 2008; revised 12 June 2008

Bilateral castration increased lipid peroxidation and consequently reduced glutathione in both liver and kidney. Testosterone administration reduced lipid peroxidation in the liver of castrated and benzene treated rats, however, reduced glutathione status could not be restored. Benzene depleted CYP4502E1 in castrated rats, however, the enzyme was restored in liver and kidney both after testosterone treatment. The results suggest that testosterone affects the metabolism and disposition of benzene by influencing CYP4502E1. Other hormonal and cellular/molecular factors may also alter the actions of testosterone. Testosterone dependent mechanism of toxicity of benzene in the liver and kidney has been discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 573-578

 

Rapid detection and characterization of Chikungunya virus by RT-PCR in febrile patients from Kerala, India

Anu Yamuna Joseph, Vidhu Sankar Babu, Sona S Dev, Jayashree
Gopalakrishnapai, M Harish, M D Rajesh, S Anisha & C Mohankumar

 

Received 20 February 2008; revised 5 June 2008

There has been a resurgence and prevalence of fever with symptoms of Chikungunya (CHIK) and increased death toll in Kerala, the southern-most state of India. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid detection method to determine the presence of CHIK- virus in the serum samples collected from febrile patients in Kerala, India. Serum specimens were analyzed for CHIK viral RNA by RT-PCR using primers specific for nsP1 and E1 genes. Five out of twenty clinical samples were positive for CHIK virus. The partial sequences of the E1 and nsP1 genes of the strain, IndKL01 were highly similar to the Reunion strains and the recently isolated Indian strains. A novel substitution, A148V, was detected in the E1 gene of the isolate, IndKL02. The detection procedure used in this study was simple, sensitive and rapid (less than 4 hr). This result suggests that CHIK viruses similar to the Reunion strains, which had resulted in high morbidity and mortality rates, may have caused the recent Chikungunya outbreak in India. The effect of the variant, E1-A148V, in the virulence and the rate of transmission of the virus deserves further investigation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 579-582

 

Evaluation of four methods of DNA recovery from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis present in intestine tissue of goats and comparative sensitivity of IS900 PCR with respect to culture for diagnosis of Johne’s disease

P K Singh, S V Singh, A V Singh & J S Sohal

 

Received 10 July 2007; revised 2 June 2008

Low sensitivity of PCR reaction for detection of Mycoobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in tissues and fecal samples is mainly attributed to false negative results. Present study was undertaken to compare four methods of DNA isolation from tissues of infected animals and to determine most sensitive protocol for the recovery of DNA, suitable for IS900 PCR based detection of Johne’s disease infection. Method I, the traditional van Soolingen2 method of DNA isolation was adopted for the isolation of DNA from tissues. Method II was modification (hexadecyl pyridinium chloride-HPC treatment) of van Soolingen2 method. Method III was traditional tissue DNA isolation method based on tissue lysis buffer. Method IV was modification of method III (HPC treatment). Using four methods of DNA isolation from 25 intestinal tissues of clinically infected goats, DNA was isolated from 15 (60.0%), 18 (72.0%), 13 (52.0%) and 13 (52.0%) tissues using method I, II, III and IV, respectively. All isolated DNA preparations were positive for MAP in IS900 PCR. HPC treatment enhanced the recovery of DNA from tissues of infected animals using method II. Therefore, method II can improve the diagnosis MAP infection using IS900 PCR.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 583-590

 

Effect of Manuka honey and sulfasalazine in combination to promote antioxidant defense system in experimentally induced ulcerative colitis model in rats

B Medhi, A Prakash, P K Avti, U N Saikia, P Pandhi  & K L Khanduja

 

Received November 2007; revised 16 June 2008

Manuka honey (MH, 5g/kg) provided protection against trinitro-benzo-sulphonic acid induced colonic damage. Combination therapy (MH+sulfasalazine) also reduced colonic inflammation and all the biochemical parameters were significant compared to control and MH alone treated group. Combination therapy showed additive effect of the MH which restored lipid peroxidation and improvement of antioxidant parameters. Morphological and histological scores were significantly reduced in combination groups. In inflammatory model of colitis, oral administration of MH (5g/kg) and combination with sulfasalazine (360 mg/kg) with MH (5g/kg) significantly reduced the colonic inflammation. The results indicate the additive effect of Manuka honey with sulfasalazine in colitis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 591-598

 

Nootropic activity of tuber extract of Pueraria tuberosa (roxb)

N Venkata Rao, Basavaraj Pujar, S K Nimbal, S M Shantakumar & S Satyanarayana

 

Received 8 August 2007; revised 26 May 2008

Nootropic effect of alcoholic (ALE; 50, 75, 100 mg/kg) and aqueous (AQE; 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) extracts of
P. tuberosa was evaluated by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), scopolamine-induced amnesia (SIA), diazepam-induced amnesia (DIA), clonidine-induced (NA-mediated) hypothermia (CIH), lithium-induced (5-HT mediated) head twitches (LIH) and haloperidol-induced (DA- mediated) catalepsy (HIC) models. Piracetam was used as the standard drug. A significant increase in inflexion ratio (IR) was recorded in EPM, SIA and DIA models. A significant reversal effect was observed on rectal temperature in CIH model, reduction of head twitches in LIH models. However no significant reduction in catalepsy scores in HIC models were observed with test extracts and standard piracetam. The results indicate that nootropic activity observed with ALE and AQE of tuber extracts of P. tuberosa could be through improved learning and memory either by augmenting the noradrenaline (NA) transmission or by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release. Further, the extracts neither facilitated nor blocked release of the dopamine (DA). Thus ALE and AQE elicited significant nootropic effect in mice and rats by interacting with cholinergic, GABAnergic, adrenergic and serotonergic systems. Phytoconstituents like flavonoids have been reported for their nootropic effect and these are present in both ALE and AQE extracts of tubers of P. tuberosa (Roxb) and these active principles may be responsible for nootropic activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 599-606

 

Antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal formulation (DRF/AY/5001)

Rahul V Mandlik, Sandya K Desai & Suresh R Naik

and

Gaurav Sharma & R K Kohli

Received 28 December 2007; revised 16 June 2008

The herbal formulation, DRF/AY/5001, elicits hypoglycemic/antidiabetic effects in both normal and experimentally induced hyperglycemic (epinephrine and alloxan) rats. Further, herbal formulation treatment can significantly alter the pattern of glucose tolerance in normal and diabetic rats. It is possible that the herbal formulation may act through both, pancreatic and extra-pancreatic mechanism(s). The DRF/AY/5001 also elicited a significant antioxidant effect in alloxan diabetic rats as reflected by its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and to elevate the enzymatic antioxidants in pancreatic tissue. The histopathological studies during the long term treatment have shown to ameliorate the alloxan induced histological damage of islets of Langerhans. The inhibitory effects on biochemical and histological parameters induced by herbal formulation at a dose of 600 mg/kg were almost comparable to that of standard drug, glibenclamide (4 mg/kg). The present study demonstrates that herbal formulation exhibits promisisng antidiabetic activity and helps to maintain good glycemic and metabolic control.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 607-613

 

Antihyperglycaemic activity of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Uma Bhandari & M Nazam Ansari

Received 20 February 2008; revised 1 May 2008

Forty days of orally feeding the aqueous E. ribes extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) to streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, iv, single dose) induced diabetic rats produced significant decrease in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin, serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and increase in blood glutathione levels as compared to pathogenic diabetic rats. Further, the extract significantly decreased the levels of pancreatic lipid peroxides and increased the levels of pancreatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. The results suggest that aqueous E. ribes extract exhibits a significant blood glucose and blood pressure lowering potential. Further, it enhances endogenous antioxidant defense against free radicals produced under hyperglycaemic conditions, thereby, seemingly protects the pancreatic b-cells against loss in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Note

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, August 2008, pp. 614-616

 

Hypoglycemic potential of Morus indica. L and Costus igneus. Nak.—A preliminary study

Vishalakshi Devi. D & Asna Urooj

Received 8 January 2008, revised 14 May 2008

Powdered leaves (500 mg/kg body weight) of medicinal plants M. indica and C. igneus known to possess therapeutic effect were supplemented to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Leaf powders of both the plants were able to reduce blood glucose levels in the animals by 38 and 21% respectively after 15 days of supplementation. The preliminary results suggest that both the plants possess potent hypoglycemic activity.