Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 12

DECEMBER 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(12) 799-884 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Relaxant effects of different fractions from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s)

805

      Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Rana Keyhanmanesh &

      Ebrahimi Saadatloo

 

 

 

Central nervous system activity of acute administration of ethanol extract of

Punica granatum L. seeds in mice

811

      Sokindra Kumar, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari & Vijender Singh

 

 

 

Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica: In vitro and in vivo studies

817

      A Madani & S K Jain

 

 

 

Comparison of toxicity of selected mustard agents by percutaneous and

subcutaneous routes

822

      Manoj Sharma, R Vijayaraghavan & K Ganesan

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of bioactive and antibacterial compound from

Helianthus annuus linn.

831

      S Sankaranarayanan , P Bama, M Deccaraman, M Vijayalakshimi, K Murugesan,
P T Kalaichelvan & P Arumugam

 

 

 

Incorporation and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate implanted in

large metaphyseal defects — An animal study

836

      P Sunil, S C Goel, A Rastogi & N C Arya

 

 

 

Improved and convenient method of RNA isolation from polyphenols and polysaccharide

rich plant tissues

842

      Rekha Kansal, Kalika Kuhar, Isha Verma, Ram Niwas Gupta, Vijay Kumar Gupta & Kirpa Ram Koundal

 

 

 

Regulation of urease in Bradyrhizobium colonizing green gram

(Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek)

846

      Devyani Sen, C Appunu & R K Singh

 

 

 

Notes

 

Na+K+-ATPase activity in response to exogenous dehydroepiandrosterone administration

in aging rat brain

852

      Asia Taha, Monika Mishra, N Z Baquer & Deepak Sharma

 

 

 

Effect of dietary iron overload in rat brain: Oxidative stress, neurotransmitter level and

serum metal ion in relation to neurodegenerative disorders

855

      Mohamed M Elseweidy & Atef E Abd El-Baky

 

 

Announcements

 

41 Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmacological Society and The International

Conference on Translational Pharmacology; International Symposium on Novel

Strategies for Targeted Prevention of Cancer; National Level Seminar on

Nanobiotechnology—The Big world of Small Things

804

 

 

Annual Index

 

Contents

859

Keyword Index

872

Author Index

876

 

 

List of Experts

879

 

Author Index

Appunu C

846

Arumugam P

831

 

Bama P

831

Baquer N Z

852

Boskabady Mohammad Hossein

805

 

 

Deccaraman M

831

 

 

El-Baky Atef E Abd

855

Elseweidy Mohamed M

855

 

 

Ganesan K

822

Goel S C

836

Gupta Ram Niwas

842

Gupta Vijay Kumar

842

 

 

Jain S K

817

 

 

Kalaichelvan P T

831

Kansal Rekha

842

Keyhanmanesh Rana

805

Koundal Kirpa Ram

842

Kuhar Kalika

842

Kumar Sokindra

811

 

 

Madani A

817

Maheshwari Kamal Kishore

811

Mishra Monika

852

Murugesan K

831

 

 

Rastogi A

836

 

 

Saadatloo Mohamad Ali Ebrahimi

805

Sankaranarayanan S

831

Sen Devyani

846

Sharma Deepak

852

Sharma Manoj

822

Singh R K

846

Singh Vijender

811

Sunil P

836

 

 

Taha Asia

852

 

 

Verma Isha

842

Vijayalakshimi M

831

Vijayaraghavan R

822

 

   

Keyword Index

Aging

852

Ammonia

846

Antibacterial activity

831

Antioxidant

811

Anti-Salmonella activity

817

Auxin

831

 

 

Bioactive ceramics

836

Bioactive compound

831

Bone substitutes

836

Bradyrhizobium

846

Brain

852

Bronchodilatory

805

 

 

cDNA synthesis

842

Chromium

855

Cytokinin

831

 

 

Dehydroepiandrosterone

852

Dopamine

855

 

 

Ferrous sulphate

855

Flavonoids

811

Fractions

805

 

 

Gibberellin

831

Glutamine

846

Guinea pig

805

 

 

Helianthus annuus

831

Hydroxyapatite

836

 

 

Imipramine

811

Iron

855

 

 

Leguminous seeds

842

 

 

Mechlorethamine

822

Metaphyseal defects

836

Morphine

811

 

 

Na+K+-ATPase

852

Nigella sativa

805

Nitrogen mustard

822

Non-cytotoxic

817

 

 

Oryza sativa

831

Oxidative stress

822

 

 

Phaseolus mungo

831

Punica granatum

811

 

 

RNA isolation

842

 

 

Serotonin

855

Sulphur mustard

822

 

 

T. belerica

817

Toxicity

822

Trachea

805

Tricalcium phosphate

836

Typhoid

817

 

 

Urease

846

 

 

Zinc                       

855

 

 

 

 

 

Announcements

41 Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmacological Society

and

The International Conference on Translational Pharmacology

18-20 December 2006, AIIMS, New Delhi

 

The 41 Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmacological Society (IPS) and the International Conference on Translational Pharmacology will be held at the Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi . For details please contact Prof. Y K Gupta, Organizing Secretary, Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Telephone: +91-11-26593282; E-mail: ips2008.aiims@gmail.com; website: www.ips-aiims.com

 

——————————————

 

International Symposium on Novel Strategies for Targeted Prevention of Cancer

19-20 December 2008, J N U, New Delhi

 

The symposium will be held at the School of Life Sciences , Jawahar Lal Nehru University , New Delhi . For details please contact the Organizing Secretary, Dr Rana P Singh,# 104, School of Life Sciences, Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. Telephone: +91-11-26704503; Fax: +91-11-26742558; E-mail: JNUCancerSymp2008@gmail.com, rana_singh@mail.jnu.ac.in

 

——————————————

 

National Level Seminar on Nanobiotechnology—The Big World of Small Things

10 January 2008, Kashimira, Mira Road , Thane

 

Organized by the Department of Microbiology, Royal College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Mira Road , Distt. Thane, the one day seminar, covering different aspects of Nanobiotechnology, will cater to graduate, post graduate, research students and teachers in the field of biological sciences. For detail, please contact Microbiology Department, Royal College , Mira Road , Distt., Thane 401104. Telephone: 022-28453344, 28453232; Fax: 022-28459070, 28453232; E-mail: armb_royal@yahoo.co.in

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 805-810

 

 

Papers

 

Relaxant effects of different fractions from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s)

Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Rana Keyhanmanesh, & Mohamad Ali Ebrahimi Saadatloo

 

Received 26 March 2008; revised 8 October 2008

The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous fractions of N. sativa (0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 g%) in comparison with saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1) and 10 µM methacholine (group 2). In group 1, all concentrations of only theophylline showed significant relaxant effects. However, in group 2, all concentrations of theophylline and methanol fraction, 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 g% concentrations of dichloromethane and 1.2 and 2.0 g% concentrations of n-hexane fractions showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline. In addition, in group 1, the relaxant effect of most concentrations of all fractions except the low concentration (0.8 g%) of dichloromethane and methanol fraction were significantly less than those of theophylline. The relaxant effect of different concentrations of methanol and dichloromethane fraction and 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 g% concentrations of n-hexane fraction were significantly greater in group 2 compared to group 1 experiments. There were significant positive correlations between the relaxant effects and concentrations for all fractions (except aqueous fraction) in group 2 and for theophylline in both groups but a negative correlation for n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol fractions in group 1. The results showed relaxant effect of most fractions from N. sativa on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which was more potent for methanol and dichloromethane fractions.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 811-816

 

 

Central nervous system activity of acute administration of ethanol extract of Punica granatum L. seeds in mice

Sokindra Kumara, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari & Vijender Singha

 

Received 20 March 2008; revised 1 September 2008

Role of ethanolic extract of P. granatum seeds on central nervous system (CNS) in animal models of elevated plus maze test, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, tail suspension test, hot-plate and tail-flick test was studied. P. granatum (PG) extract was administered to young and aged mice at single doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, perorally while diazepam (1 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg) and imipramine (30 mg/kg) were used intraperitoneally as standard drugs. The results showed that PG extract at all dose levels significantly exhibited the anxiolytic activity. In another study PG extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly increased the sleeping latency and reduced the sleeping time. Tail suspension test showed that PG extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) was able to induce a significant decrease in the immobility time, similar to imipramine, a recognized antidepressant drug. Tail-flick and hot-plate tests exhibited antinociceptive property of PG extract, similar to morphine, a recognized antinociceptive agent. Phytochemical investigation of ethanol extract for the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, sugars and saponins was also carried out. Phytochemical screening and measurement of reducing power revealed the CNS activity of ethanol extract of PG seeds may be due to its antioxidative profile.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 817-821

 

 

Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica: In vitro and in vivo studies

A Madani & S K Jain

 

Received 23 January 2008; revised 25 September 2008

To search for an herbal remedy for protection against and treatment for typhoid fever, a number of plants were screened. Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica, an ingredient of Ayurvedic preparation ‘triphala’ used for treatment of digestive and liver disorders, has been reported. Fruits of T. belerica were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, alcohol and water and efficacy of extracts against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated. Alcoholic and water extracts of T. belerica showed significant anti-Salmonella activity and MIC was 12.5 mg/ml against S. typhimurium. Aqueous extracts of Picrohiza kurroa and Vitits vinefera also showed low anti-Salmonella activity where as aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale showed no anti-Salmonella activity. Extracts of T. belerica, Picrohiza kurroa and Vitits vinefera with other solvents such as chloroform and petroleum ether showed insignificant activity. Results showed that aqueous extract of T. belerica was bactericidal at high concentrations where as low concentrations showed bacteriostatic property. In vitro cellular toxicity studies showed no cyto-toxicity associated with T. belerica extracts. Pretreatment of mice with aqueous extract of T. belerica conferred protection against experimental Salmonellosis and 100% survival of animals has been reported when challenged with lethal doses of S. typhimurium.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 822-830

 

 

Comparison of toxicity of selected mustard agents by percutaneous and subcutaneous routes

Manoj Sharma, R. Vijayaraghavan & K Ganesan

 

Received 17 July 2008; revised 10 October 2008

Comparative toxicity of nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard was carried out in mice. Based on LD50, the toxicity pattern was HN-2 < HN-1 < HN-3 < sulphur mustard by percutaneous route whereas, by subcutaneous route the toxicity pattern was sulphur mustard < HN-3 < HN-2 < HN-1. Single dose of 1 LD50 of nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard was administered percutaneously and various oxidative stress parameters were also evaluated. The weight loss was more in HN-2 on day 3 and in sulphur mustard on day 7. There was a drastic fall of WBC count on day 3 in all groups with a recovery in nitrogen mustard groups on day 7. The RBC count and haemoglobin content showed a significant increase on day 7 in sulphur mustard group. The plasma enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) showed an increase in all groups on day 3 and day 7. The hepatic GSH and GSSG contents were reduced and MDA content increased in all groups, with a further change in sulphur mustard on 7 day. Extensive DNA fragmentation was observed in all the nitrogen mustard groups compared to sulphur mustard group, on day 3. However, on the day 7 the DNA fragmentation was same in all groups. This study showed that the nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard were extremely toxic by percutaneous route and caused oxidative stress. Sulphur mustard was more toxic by the percutaneous route and the effects were delayed and progressive.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 831-835

 

 

Isolation and characterization of bioactive and antibacterial compound from Helianthus annuus linn.

S Sankaranarayanan, P Bama, M Deccaraman, M Vijayalakshimi

K Murugesan, PT Kalaichelvan & P Arumugam

 

Received 12 May 2008; revised 22 October 2008

A bioactive compound with antibacterial activity was isolated and purified from the extract of leaves of sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The bioactive compound was characterized using 1H and 13C NMR. The compound induced auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin in Oryza sativa and Phaseolus mungo. It also showed activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 836-841

 

 

Incorporation and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite–tricalcium phosphate implanted in large metaphyseal defectsAn animal study

P Sunil, S C Goel & A Rastogi

and

N C Aryya

 

Received 25 April 2008; revised 10 October 2008

Incorporation and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite(HA)-tricalcium phosphate(TCP) granules implanted in 5 ´ 5 ´ 5 mm distal femoral metaphyseal defects created in 18 adult rabbits were studied. In two rabbits, the defects were left to heal spontaneously without any implant. Roentgenographic and histological study by light microscopy was done on silver nitrate stained undecalcified sections as well as haematoxylin–eosin stained decalcified sections. The synthetic HA-TCP was biocompatible and produced no adverse reactions. The implant was osteoconductive and allowed good new bone formation to occur, mainly from periphery to center, but mature trabeculae could be delineated only at 4-6 months. The HA-TCP biomaterial had very low biodegradability with marked amount of intact implant still present at final follow up. Bonding between implant and bone, though a close biological bond, was not uniformly strong. Rate of bone ingrowth was very slow and large areas of implant at center did not show new bone formation at 12 months.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 842-845

 

 

Improved and convenient method of RNA isolation from polyphenols and polysaccharide rich plant tissues

Rekha Kansal, Kalika Kuhar, Isha Verma, Ram Niwas Gupta, Vijay Kumar Gupta & Kirpa Ram Koundal

 

Received 14 August 2008; revised 27 October 2008

It has been difficult to extract a good quality total RNA from the plant parts (such as seeds) which contain high levels of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and other compounds that bind and/or co-precipitate with RNA. A simple, rapid and efficient method for isolating total RNA from polyphenols and polysaccharide rich plant tissues has been developed. Seeds of leguminosae family were chosen for the study. The good quality and high yield of total RNA was achieved with A260/A280 ratio of 1.9. Seeds of three different crops (Cajanus cajan, Dolichos biflorus and Vigna mungo) at different developmental stages were evaluated for total RNA extraction using standardized protocol. Seeds at 21 days after flowering (DAF) gave the best results among others (7 DAF and dry seeds). Quality of isolated RNA from all the three crops was further checked by cDNA synthesis. The extracted RNA was found suitable for further molecular applications such as reverse transcription and cDNA library construction.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 846-851

 

 

Regulation of urease in Bradyrhizobium colonizing green gram
(Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

Devyani Sen, C Appunu & R K Singh

 

Received 12 May 2008; Revised 17 September 2008

In the present study attempts have been made to characterize urease expression in slow growing Bradyrhizobium strains TAL442 and MO5 which are endosymbionts of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek). It was found that urease activity in vegetative cells of both the strains was inducible unlike their fast growing counterparts. Mode of regulation in TAL442 was governed by presence of ammonia. Urease expression was also detectable in bacteroids of both the strains which was not influenced by presence of external nickel chloride in high concentration, a situation detrimental to the vegetative cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 852-854

 

 

Notes

Na+ K+-ATPase activity in response to exogenous dehydroepiandrosterone administration in aging rat brain

Asia Taha, Monika Mishra, N Z Baquer & Deepak Sharma

 

Received 10 July 2008; revised 8 October 2008

Influence of exogenously administered dehydroepiand-rosterone (DHEA) on the activity of Na+ K+ ATPase was investigated in synaptosomal fraction from cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and medulla regions of brain of 12 and 22 months old rats. DHEA was administered daily at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body wt, intraperitonially (ip) in both the age groups of rats for 1 month. Results showed that Na+ K+ ATPase activity, increased in DHEA treated rats in both the age groups. In terms of per cent increase, 22 months old animals showed significant increase in Na+ K+ ATPase activity in the synaptosomal fraction of all the four brain regions than in 12 months old DHEA-treated rats. This showed that exogenous DHEA modulated the activity of Na+ K+ ATPase and also protected the age-related loss of membrane integrity and functions. It was concluded that exogenous DHEA might be beneficial in terms of neuroprotection against age-related loss of Na+ K+ ATPase mediated brain functions like learning and memory.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 855-858

 

 

Effect of dietary iron overload in rat brain: Oxidative stress, neurotransmitter level and serum metal ion in relation to neurodegenerative disorders

Mohamed M Elseweidy & Atef E Abd El-Baky

 

Received 6 December 2007; revised 22 September 2008

Excess iron causes cell injury by reacting with superoxide anions (O2radical dot) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and producing hydroxyl radical (OHradical dot) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, albino rats were fed with biscuits enriched with ferrous sulphate (0.3% w/w) for 10 weeks to have overload iron conditions and observed a significant decrease in serum chromium, brain serotonin and dopamine, while iron and zinc increased significantly in serum. Increasing iron level might be responsible for accelerated dopamine oxidation with subsequent quinone formation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 859-878

 

 

Annual Index

Contents

Keyword Index

Author Index

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, December 2008, pp. 879-883

 

 

List of Experts