Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(1) 1-84 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs): Chemical structure, biosynthesis and significance as UV-absorbing/screening compounds

 

7

Shailendra P Singh, Sunita Kumari, Rajesh P Rastogi, Kanchan L Singh & Rajeshwar P Sinha

 

 

 

Papers

 

Detection on in vitro and in vivo released antigens of diagnostic interest in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by immunoblotting

 

18

Niraj Shende, Sonika Gupta, Vijay Upadhye, Satish Kumar & Bhaskar C Harinath

 

 

 

Acivicin with glutaminase regulates proliferation and invasion of human MCF-7 and OAW-42 cells — An in vitro study

 

22

Subhadra Roy, Sonali Ghosh, Palash Mallick & Putul Maity

 

 

 

Testicular protein profile (SDS-PAGE) study of zinc deficient Wistar albino rat

27

Archana Bahuguna & R S Bedwal

 

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm fruits against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats

 

35

Uma Bhandari, M Nazam Ansari & F Islam

 

 

 

In vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract on clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 

41

K Anas, P R Jayasree, T Vijayakumar & P R Manish Kumar

 

 

 

Immunostimulatory action of AC II — An ayurvedic formulation useful in HIV

47

Sheeja T Tharakan, Girija Kuttan, Ramadasan Kuttan, M Kesavan, Sr Austin & K Rajagopalan

 

 

 

Antioxidant activity of Aulosira fertilisima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats

52

Gini C Kuriakose & G Muraleedhara Kurup

 

 

 

Role of ion channel modifiers in reversal of morphine-induced gastrointestinal inertia by prokinetic agents in mice

 

60

Selvarajan Sandhiya, Steven Aibor Dkhar, Peddy Reddy Murali Krishna &
Subramanian Ramaswamy

 

 

 

PCR-based detection of microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms from Central India

 

66

Shubhro Kamal Ghosh, Palash Kumar Das & Suvendra Nath Bagchi

 

 

 

Abnormal anther development and high sporopollenin synthesis in benzotriazole treated male sterile Helianthus annuus L.

 

71

S M Tripathi & K P Singh

 

 

 

Micropropagation of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. ‘Dura’: Comparison of three basal media for efficient regeneration

 

79

F Muniran, Subhash J Bhore & Farida H Shah

 

 

 

Announcement

6

 

 

Information for Authors

83

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

 

XVII Annual Meeting of Indian Society of Hypertension

and

Blood Pressure Conference (BPCON)

 

2-3 February 2008, Lucknow

 

 

To be held at Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Lucknow, the theme of this year conference is "Bioremediation and hypertension". Topics like Pressor peptides and hypertension, Pregnancy induced hypertension, Pharmacotherapeutic leads in the treatment of diabetes, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome will be covered. For details kindly contact Prof. S A Alam, K-26, Sarvodya Nagar, Kanpur, 208025; Phone: 91-0512-2500979, Mobile: 0933566662; Fax: 91(0512) 2500044; E-mail: BPCON-2008@gmail.com; drsmalam@rediffmail.com or Prof. R K Sharma, Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi P G Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Lucknow, 226 014; Phone: 91-0522-2668004-8, Ext.2121, Mobile 09415026762; Fax:.91(0522)2668017, 2668129; E-mail: rksharma@sgpgi.ac.in

 

 

————————————————

 

Erratum

 

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and capsule bore, by A Josephrajkumar, R Chakrabarty & G Thomas, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol. 45, November 2007, pp. 998-1002.

The title may be read as: Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and Capsule borer

 

———————————

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Anas K

41

Ansari M Nazam

35

Austin Sr

47

Bagchi Suvendra Nath

66

Bahuguna Archana

27

Bedwal R S

27

Bhandari Uma

35

Bhore Subhash J

79

Das Palash Kumar

66

Dkhar Steven Aibor

60

Ghosh Shubhro Kamal

66

Ghosh Sonali

22

Gupta Sonika

18

Harinath Bhaskar C

18

Islam F

35

Jayasree P R

41

Kesavan M

47

Krishna Peddy Reddy Murali

60

Kumari Sunita

7

Kuriakose Gini C

52

Kurup G Muraleedhara

52

Kuttan Girija

47

Kuttan Ramadasan

47

Maity Putul

22

Mallick Palash

22

Manish Kumar P R

41

Muniran F

79

Rajagopalan K

47

Ramaswamy Subramanian

60

Rastogi Rajesh P

7

Roy Subhadra

22

Sandhiya Selvarajan

60

Satish Kumar

18

Shah Farida H

79

Shende Niraj

18

Singh K P

71

Singh Kanchan L

7

Singh Shailendra P

7

Sinha Rajeshwar P

7

Tharakan Sheeja T

47

Tripathi S M

71

Upadhye Vijay

18

Vijayakumar T

41

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Acivicin

22

Amplification

66

Antioxidants

52

ATP gated K+ channels

60

Aulosira fertilisima

52

Bactericidal

41

Benzotriazole

71

Carbon tetrachloride

52

Cell mediated immunity

47

Cyanobacteria

7, 66

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes

47

Elaeis guineensis

71

Elaeis oleifera

71

Embelia ribes

35

Gastrointestinal delay

60

Glutaminase

22

Helianthus annuus L.

71

Hepatoprotection

52

Herbal drugs

47

Humoral immunity

47

Immunoblotting

18

In vitro and in vivo released antigens

18

Induced male sterility

71

Invasion

22

Ion channel modifiers

60

Isoproterenol

35

‘L’ type voltage gated calcium channels

60

Lipid peroxides

35

Macroalgae

7

MCF-7

22

MDR Strains

41

Microcystin synthetase genes

66

Microcystin variants

66

Microcystis-dominant blooms

66

Micropropagation

71

Morphine

60

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs)

7

Myocardial infarction

35

OAW-42

22

Oil palm

71

Pair fed

27

PCR

66

Phytoplankton

7

Prokinetic drugs

60

Proliferation

22

Proteolysis

41

Psidium guajava

41

Pulmonary tuberculosis

18

SDS-PAGE

27

Small intestinal transit

60

Staphylococcus aureus

41

Tapetum development

71

Testicular protein profiles

27

Traditional medicine

47

U V radiation

7

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 7-17

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs): Chemical structure, biosynthesis and significance as UV-absorbing/screening compounds

Shailendra P Singh, Sunita Kumari, Rajesh P Rastogi, Kanchan L Singh & Rajeshwar P Sinha

 

Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

 

Continuous depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has resulted in an increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation on the earth’s surface which inhibits photochemical and photobiological processes. However, certain photosynthetic organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract the toxicity of ultraviolet or high photosynthetically active radiation by synthesizing the UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin besides the repair of UV-induced damage of DNA and accumulation of carotenoids and detoxifying enzymes or radical quenchers and antioxidants. Chemical structure of various MAAs, their possible biochemical routes of synthesis and role as photoprotective compounds in various organisms are discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 18-21

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Detection of in vitro and in vivo released antigens of diagnostic interest in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by immunoblotting

Niraj Shende, Sonika Gupta, Vijay Upadhye, Satish Kumar & Bhaskar C Harinath

 

Received 3 October, 2006 ; revised 2 November 2007

Identification of in vitro and in vivo released mycobacterial antigens are of considerable interest in diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isolation of in vitro released antigen from M. tb excretory-secretory culture filtrate protein and in vivo released circulating tuberculous antigen from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis sera by ammonium sulphate precipitation is reported. The antigens were resolved by SDS–PAGE and immunoblotting was performed using pooled serum of smear positive, smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis sera and normal sera to identify reactive tuberculous antigens. In vitro and in vivo released mycobacterial antigens showed reactivity at 100, 31, 43 and 20 kDa with smear positive and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Further, the in vitro released antigen showed strong reactivity exclusively at 55 kDa antigen with smear positive and 24 kDa antigen with smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis sera.
In vivo released antigen reacted exclusively at 170 and 16 kDa with smear positive and 19 kDa antigen with smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Antigens of 24 and 19 kDa which are reactive with sputum negative sera will be of diagnostic interest and need further study in patients with low bacillary load. The in vitro and in vivo released mycobacterial 100, 31, 43 and 20 kDa antigens, reactive with patients sera are of diagnostic interest in tuberculosis.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 22-26

 

 

Acivicin with glutaminase regulates proliferation and invasion of
human MCF-7 and OAW-42 cells
-An in vitro study

Subhadra Roy, Sonali Ghosh, Palash Mallick & Putul Maity

 

Received 22 June 2007; revised 10 September 2007

Tumor cells intensely utilize glutamine as the major source of respiratory fuel. Glutamine-analogue acivicin inhibits tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. In the present study, antitumor properties of acivicin in combination with glutaminase enzyme is reported. Acivicin along with E. coli glutaminase synergistically reduced in vitro proliferation and matrigel invasion of human MCF-7 and OAW-42 cells. Effects of single and combined treatments with acivicin and glutaminase on angiogenic factors were also analyzed in these cell lines. Co-administration of the treatment agents inhibits the release of VEGF and MMP-9 by cells in culture supernatant significantly than single agent treatments. The result suggests that combination of acivicin with glutaminase may provide a better therapeutic option than either of them given separately for treating human breast and ovarian cancer. However, further studies are required to be conducted in vivo for its confirmation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 27-34

 

 

 

Testicular protein profile (SDS-PAGE) study of zinc deficient Wistar albino rat

Archana Bahuguna & R S Bedwal

 

Received 19 October 2006; revised 4 October 2007

Present study has revealed that zinc plays important role in regulating the production and secretion of proteins at transcriptional or translational level. Study has firmly depicted the change in the levels of polypeptide of 70 kDa in zinc deficient group. The protein pattern in pair fed group has been affected mainly to combat the insult due to low food intake.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 35-40

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm fruits against isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction in albino rats

Uma Bhandari, M Nazam Ansari & F Islam

 

Received 19 June 2007; revised 5 October 2007

In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of fruits of Embelia ribes Burm (ER) was evaluated in a rat model having acute myocardial infarction, induced by isoproterenol (5.25 and 8.5 mg/kg, sc, for two consecutive days). Aqueous ER extract (100 mg/kg) pretreatment orally for 40 days in isoproterenol (ISO)- treated rats significantly decreased the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine kinase and myocardial lipid peroxides and significantly increased the myocardial endogenous antioxidants (glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels. The results of biochemical observations in serum and heart tissues were supplemented by histopathological examination of rat’s heart sections to confirm the myocardial injury. The results were comparable to that of gliclazide treated group. The present results provide evidence for the first time, that aqueous ER extract pretreatment ameliorated myocardial injury and enhanced the antioxidant defense against ISO- induced myocardial infarction in rats and exhibited cardioprotective property.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 41-46

 

 

 

In vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract on clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus

K Anas1, P R Jayasree, T Vijayakumar & P R Manish Kumar

 

Received 2 January 2007; revised 9 October 2007

In the present study, antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of Psidium guajava leaves was evaluated against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains collected from hospitals in northern (Malabar region) Kerala. The strains which exhibited resistance against all the antibiotics tested was selected for antibacterial assays. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for methanolic and aqueous extracts was found to be 625ug/ml and 7.5mg/ml, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) recorded for methanolic and aqueous extracts was 1.25 and 12.5mg/ml, respectively. Methanolic extract at minimum bactericidal concentration inhibited the growth of MDR strain by 80%. Time-kill assay revealed that methanolic extract (4mg/ml) killed MDR bacteria within 10 hr. Total polypeptide profiling of bacterial cultures by SDS-PAGE indicated a high degree of protein degradative activity of the extract. Finally, a human RBC based haemolytic assay showed absence of haemolysis even at concentrations higher than that of MBC, advocating thereby its safety in therapeutic use.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 47-51

 

 

Immunostimulatory action of AC II — An ayurvedic formulation useful in HIV

Sheeja T Tharakan, Girija Kuttan & Ramadasan Kuttan

and

M Kesavan, Sr Austin & K Rajagopalan

 

Received 29 May 2007; revised 28 September 2007

Immunostimulatory activity of AC II, a registered ayurvedic preparation prepared at Amala Ayurvedic Research Centre for treating HIV and AIDS is reported. AC II administration could significantly enhance the mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes of spleen cells. It was also found to increase cell-mediated immune responses in normal and tumor-bearing control animals. Oral administration of AC II significantly enhanced Natural Killer cell activity in normal and tumor-bearing animals on the 7th day, which was observed earlier than the tumor-bearing control animals and normal animals. Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was also increased in AC II treated normal and tumor-bearing animals. An early enhancement of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity was also observed by the administration of AC II in normal as well as tumor-bearing animals. Treatment with AC II elevated the levels of IL-2, TNF-a and IFN-g in normal mice. Administration of AC II was also found to increase the cytotoxic T lymphocyte production in EL4 treated mice. These studies support the use of this immune stimulatory preparation in HIV patients.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 52-59

 

 

Antioxidant activity of Aulosira fertilisima on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Gini C Kuriakose & G. Muraleedhara Kurup

 

Received 9 November 2006; revised and accepted 12 October 2007

Free radicals cause cell injury, when they are generated in excess or when the antioxidant defense is impaired. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is used as a model for liver injury. In this study antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of A. fertilisima (EEA) was investigated using CCl4 intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. Oral administration of EEA at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, for 14 consecutive days, the rate of the production of antioxidant enzymes like super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase in rats compared to the CCl4 treated group without any supporting treatment. Liver damage is detected by the measurement of the activities of serum enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase which were released in to the blood from damaged cells. The normalization of these enzymes levels was observed in rats treated with EEA (100 mg/kg body weight) by reducing the leakage of the above enzymes in to the blood. The findings provide a rationale for further studies on isolation of active principles and its pharmacological evaluation. Protection offered by silymarin (standard reference drug) seemed relatively greater.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 60-65

 

 

 

Role of ion channel modifiers in reversal of morphine–induced gastrointestinal inertia by prokinetic agents in mice

Selvarajan Sandhiya, Steven Aibor Dkhar, Peddy Reddy Murali Krishna & Subramanian Ramaswamy

Received 27 April 2007; revised 15 October 2007

Prokinetic drugs like mosapride, domperidone etc, are used to treat gastrointestinal delay. Though the receptor-mediated actions of these agents have been studied, involvement of ion channels in reversing morphine-induced gastrointestinal inertia by prokinetic agents has not been explored. Charcoal meal test was used to measure small intestinal transit (SIT) in adult male Swiss albino mice. Animals were given ion channel modifiers and prokinetic drugs intragastrically. Reversal of morphine-induced gastrointestinal delay by mosapride was decreased significantly by CaCl2, minoxidil and glibenclamide. Similarly, domperidone’s effect on morphine was decreased by CaCl2, nifedipine, minoxidil and glibenclamide significantly. The results reveal that ion channel modifiers counteract the prokinetic effects of mosapride or domperidone.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 66-70

 

 

PCR-based detection of microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms from Central India

Shubhro Kamal Ghosh, Palash Kumar Das & Suvendra Nath Bagchi

Received 6 July 2007; revised 15 October 2007

Microcystin synthetase-gene-specific primers were used to identify hepatotoxic microcystin producing genotypes in six Microcystis spp.-dominant water blooms. Four blooms gave positive PCR reaction. They produced microcystin-RR and –LR amounting to 0.037 to 0.095% of the dry mass.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 71-78

 

 

Abnormal anther development and high sporopollenin synthesis in benzotriazole treated male sterile Helianthus annuus L.

S M Tripathi & K P Singh

Received 6 July 2007; revised 9 October 2007

Foliar application of 1.5% benzotriazole induced 100% pollen sterility in H. annuus. Pollen abortion in treated plants was mainly associated with abnormal behaviour of tapetum. A limited number of anther locule showed early degeneration of tapetum followed by disintegration of sporogenous tissues. On the other hand, some locules showed normal development of tapetum at initial stages. However, this tapetum exhibited degenerated and non-functional cell organelles. In both these situations tapetum failed to provide proper nourishment to developing microspores. The ultrastructure of both tapetum and microspores is different from that of control material with irregularities of exine deposition, endopolyploidy of tapetal nuclei and an alteration of organelle composition being correlated with sterility. Pollen grains thus developed were devoid of nucleus and cell organelles and were complete sterile.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, January 2008, pp. 79-82

 

 

Micropropagation of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. ‘Dura’: Comparison of three basal media for efficient regeneration

F Muniran, Subhash J Bhore & Farida H Shah

Received 25 May 2007; revised 18 September 2007

Three basal plant tissue culture media, namely, N6, MS, and modified Y3, were compared to optimize micropropagation protocol for E. guineensis. Full strength media were used separately to regenerate plantlets directly using immature zygotic embryos (IZEs), and through somatic embryogenesis of calli obtained from IZEs. The plantlets regenerated by direct regeneration on three media were examined for shoot length and rooting percentage. For the induction of callus, somatic embryogenesis, and rooting modified Y3 medium was the most effective. In conclusion, the results indicate that modified Y3 medium is the most suitable for direct regeneration, callus induction and somatic embryogenesis in E. guineensis.