Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 7

JULY 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(7) 487-552 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): Utility in assisted reproduction

491

††††† Kartikeya Makker, Ashok Agarwal & Rakesh K Sharma

 

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of DENA induced hepatocarcinogenesis on neuroendocrine levels in male rats

498

††††† A S Ghosh, D Bhattacharyya, M Chandra & T K Bhattacharyya

 

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng. leaves

505

††††† Abhishek S Shah, Alok S Wakade & Archana R Juvekar

 

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of tubers of Momordica tuberosa Cogn. against CCl4 induced liver injury in rats

510

††††† Pramod Kumar, Deval Rao G, Lakshmayya & Ramachandra Setty S

 

 

 

Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and tests in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats

514

††††† A P Manjrekar, V Jisha, P P Bag, B Adhikary, M M Pai, A Hegde & M Nandini

 

 

 

Protective effect of Embelia ribes Burm on methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in rat brain

521

††††† M Nazam Ansari & Uma Bhandari

 

 

 

Protective effect of Piper longum L. on oxidative stress induced injury and cellular abnormality in adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity in rats

528

††††† Alok S Wakade, Abhishek S Shah, Mrugaya P Kulkarni & Archana R Juvekar

 

 

 

Modulatory effect of curcumin on methionine-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in albino rats

534

††††† Puneet Kapoor, M Nazam Ansari & Uma Bhandari

 

 

 

Lowering of intraocular pressure by topical application of Daucus carota seed extract
in rabbits

541

††††† Renu Agarwal, S K Gupta, Sushma Srivastava, S S Agarwal & Rohit Saxena

 

 

 

Note

 

Effect of Bacopa monniera (Linn.) on lipid peroxidation and lipofuscinogenesis in prostate gland of D-galactose induced aging mice, Mus musculus

547

††††† V I Kalamade, M M Pillai & I S Kalamade

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Genomics and Genetic Engineering

550

††††† P Ananda Kumar & Sharmistha Barthakur

 

 

 

Information for Authors

551

 

 

Author Index

Adhikary B

514

Agarwal Ashok

491

Agarwal Renu

541

Agarwal S S

541

Ananda Kumar P

550

Ansari M Nazam

521, 534

 

 

Bag P P

514

Barthakur Sharmistha

550

Bhandari Uma

521, 534

Bhattacharyya D

498

Bhattacharyya T K

498

 

 

Chandra M

498

 

 

Deval Rao G

510

 

 

Ghosh A S

498

Gupta S K

541

 

 

Hegde A

514

 

 

Jisha V

514

Juvekar Archana R

505, 528

 

 

Kalamade I S

547

Kalamade V I

547

Kapoor Puneet

534

Kulkarni Mrugaya P

528

 

 

Lakshmayya

510

 

 

Makker Kartikeya

491

Manjrekar A P

514

 

 

Nandini M

514

 

 

Pai M M

514

Pillai M M

547

Pramod Kumar

510

 

 

Saxena Rohit

541

Setty Ramachandra S

510

Shah Abhishek S

505, 528

Sharma Rakesh K

491

Srivastava Sushma

541

 

 

Wakade Alok S

505, 528

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Adriamycin

528

Antioxidant

510

Antioxidants

547

 

 

Bacopa monniera

547

 

 

Cardiotoxicity

528

CCl4

510, 514

Curcumin

534

 

 

Daucus carota

541

DENA

498

D-galactose

547

Dopamine

498

 

 

Embelia ribes

521

 

 

Free radicals

547

 

 

GGT

498

 

 

Hepatoprotective

510

Hepatotoxicity

514

Homocysteine

521, 534

Hyperlipidemia

534

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity

505

Intraocular pressure

541

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

521, 528, 547

Lipofuscin pigments

547

 

 

Male rat

498

Methionine

521, 534

 

 

Momordica tuberosa

510

Murraya koenigii

505

Myelosuppression

505

 

 

Nitric oxide

505

Noradrenaline

498

 

 

Oxidative stress

514, 521, 528

 

 

Phyllanthus niruri

514

Piper longum

528

Prolactin

498

 

 

Rabbit

541

T3

498

T4

498

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 491-497

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Review Article

Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): Utility in assisted reproduction

Kartikeya Makker, Ashok Agarwal & Rakesh K Sharma

 

Received 18 March 2008; revised 8 May 2008

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 498-504

 

 

Effect of DENA induced hepatocarcinogenesis on neuroendocrine levels in
male rats

A S Ghosh, D Bhattacharyya , M Chandra & T K Bhattacharyya

 

Received 12 March 2007, revised 14 May 2008

Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by injecting diethylnitrosamine (DENA); 150 mg/kg body weight, ip, a well known liver carcinogen and a mutagenic agent. Concurrent with the induction of hepatocarcinoma, psychological stress was also elicited from the changes in brain neurotransmitters. Noradrenaline and dopamine, the neurotransmitters of sympathetic system were estimated from the whole brain and corresponding hormones T3, T4 and prolactin were estimated from the blood of such rats. The neuroendocrine cascade and the marker enzyme gamma glutamyl transferase were estimated at 7, 14, 21 and 30 weeks. A direct relationship between noradrenaline, T3 and T4 and a reciprocal relationship between dopamine and prolactin were observed, which may be correlated to the carcinogenic effect of DENA.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 505-509

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng. leaves

Abhishek S Shah, Alok S Wakade & Archana R Juvekar

 

Received 8 November 2007; revised 8 May 2008

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of M. koenigii leaves was evaluated on humoral and cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin, phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test, nitric oxide (NO) release from murine peritoneal macrophages and cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression. Significant increase in the NO production by mouse peritoneal macrophages was detected in culture supernatants indicated increased phagocytic activity of macrophages. The extract showed significant increase in phagocytic index by rapid removal of carbon particles from blood stream. The extract also increased the antibody titre against the ovalbumin and protection towards the cyclophosphamide induced myelosuppression. However, the extract did not show any significant increase in delayed type hypersensitivity reaction which indicated the inability of the extract to stimulate T cells. Present study thus reveals that the extract holds promise as immunomodulatory agent, which acts by stimulating humoral immunity and phagocytic function.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 510-513

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of tubers of Momordica tuberosa Cogn. against CCl4 induced liver injury in rats

Pramod Kumar, Deval Rao G, Lakshmayya & Ramachandra Setty S

 

Received 4 October 2007; revised 13 May 2008

Hydro alcoholic extract of tubers of M. tuberosa was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of M. tuberosa reversed CCl4 induced elevation of levels of serum biomarkers to near normal levels, suggesting that the tubers of M. tuberosa possess hepatoprotective property and this property may be attributed to the antioxidant property of the plant.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 514-520

 

 

Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats

A P Manjrekar, V Jisha, P P Bag, B Adhikary, M M PaiÜ, A Hegde & M Nandini

 

Received 26 July 2007; revised 14 May 2008

Phyllanthus niruri extract is extensively used in treating liver ailments. Effects of aqueous extract of P. niruri on liver, kidney and testes of CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats were studied. High levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in the CCl4 test group with significant reduction of MDA levels in all groups on P. niruri extract administration. Highest levels of glutathione (GSH) were found in P. niruri group. Activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were significantly reduced in the curative group (P. niruri treatment after CCl4 injection). Histopathology of liver showed lesser degree of inflammation in all P. niruri treated groups while the renal and seminiferous tubules showed eosinophilic protein casts with signs of tubular damage and degeneration. Testes also showed decreased amount of mature spermatozoa. The results suggest that P. niruri has anti-oxidant and hepato-protective activity with associated deleterious effects on kidney and testes.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 521-527

 

Protective effect of Embelia ribes Burm on methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in rat brain

M Nazam Ansari & Uma Bhandari

 

Received 15 October, 2007; revised 8 May 2008

The present study was aimed to find out the protective effect of ethanolic extract of E. ribes fruits on homocysteine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lipid profile in serum, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels in brain homogenates and histopathological examination of brain tissue in methionine (1 g/kg body weight, orally for 30 days) induced hyperhomocysteinemic rats. A significant increase in homocysteine, LDH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) levels was observed in serum. Increased LPO levels in brain homogenates with reduced serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels and decreased GSH content were other salient features observed in methionine treated pathogenic control rats. Administration of ethanolic E. ribes extract (100 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 30 days to methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemic rats produced a significant decrease in the levels of homocysteine, LDH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C in serum and LPO levels in brain homogenates with significant increase in serum HDL-C levels and GSH content in brain homogenates, when compared with pathogenic control rats. Biochemical observations were further substantiated with histological examination of brain. Degenerative changes of neuronal cells in methionine treated rats were minimized to near normal morphology by ethanolic E. ribes extract administration as evident by histopathological examination. The results provide clear evidence for the first time, that ethanolic E. ribes extract treatment enhances the antioxidant defense against methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in brain.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 528-533

 

 

Protective effect of Piper longum L. on oxidative stress induced injury and cellular abnormality in adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity in rats

Alok S Wakade, Abhishek S Shah, Mrugaya P Kulkarni & Archana R Juvekar

 

Received 8 November 2007; revised 8 May 2008

Effect of methanolic extract of fruits of P. longum (PLM) on the biochemical changes, tissue peroxidative damage and abnormal antioxidant levels in adriamycin (ADR) induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats was investigated. PLM was administered to Wistar albino rats in two different doses, by gastric gavage (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg) for 21 days followed by ip ADR (15 mg/kg) on 21st day. ADR administration showed significant decrease in the activities of marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in heart with a concomitant increase in their activities in serum. A significant increase in lipid peroxide levels in heart of ADR treated rats was also observed. Pretreatment with PLM ameliorated the effect of ADR on lipid peroxide formation and restored activities of marker enzymes. Activities of myocardial antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase along with reduced glutathione were significantly lowered due to cardiotoxicity in rats administered with ADR. PLM pretreatment augmented these endogenous antioxidants. Histopathological studies of heart revealed degenerative changes and cellular infiltrations in rats administered with ADR and pretreatment with PLM reduced the intensity of such lesions. The results indicate that PLM administration offers significant protection against ADR induced oxidative stress and reduces the cardiotoxicity by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 534-540

 

 

Modulatory effect of curcumin on methionine- induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in albino rats

Puneet Kapoor, M Nazam Ansari & Uma Bhandari

 

Received 30 November 2007; revised 23 April 2008

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effect of curcumin on methionine- induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in Wistar rats (200-250 g) of either sex. The vehicle control rats were treated with 1% Tween 80 in normal saline (2 ml/kg, po) for 30 days. Hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia was induced by methionine administration (1 g/kg, po) for 30 days. A significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and homocysteine levels in serum and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in heart homogenates were observed with a concomitant decrease in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels in pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats, as compared to vehicle control (i.e. group I) rats. Further, curcumin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment in methionine treated rats for 30 days significantly decreased the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C and homocysteine levels in serum and TBARS levels in heart homogenates and increased serum HDL-C levels, as compared to pathogenic control (i.e. group II) rats. The results of biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of ratís aortic section. The results of test drug were comparable to that obtained with folic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results suggest that curcumin has significant antihyperlipidemic and antihyperhomocysteinemic effect against methionine- induced hyperlipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 541-546

 

 

Lowering of intraocular pressure by topical application of Daucus carota seed extract in rabbits

Renu Agarwal, S K Gupta, Sushma Srivastava, S S Agrawal & Rohit Saxena

 

Received 13 December 2007; revised 16 May 2008

In normotensive rabbits topical application of Daucus carota seed extract at the concentration of 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2% resulted in mean IOP reduction of 19.33. 23.20 and 25.61% respectively from baseline. As no significant difference was observed between the change in IOP in 0.6 and 1.2% extract treated groups, 0.6% concentration was chosen for further evaluation in rabbits with experimentally elevated IOP. In water loaded rabbits, maximum mean IOP reduction with 0.6% extract was 29.39%, which was comparable to pilocarpine. In steroid pretreated rabbits, maximum mean IOP reduction was 30.27% from baseline, which was significantly higher than pilocarpine. The extract showed a comparatively slower onset of action however, the duration of action was comparable to pilocarpine in all the experimental models.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 547-549

 

 

Effect of Bacopa monniera (Linn.) on lipid peroxidation and lipofuscinogenesis in prostate gland of D-galactose induced aging mice, Mus musculus

V I Kalamade, M M Pillai & I S Kalamade

 

Received 19 June 2006; revised 19 May 2008

The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin pigments were increased in the prostate of D-galactose (0.5 ml/day, sc, for 20 days) induced aging mice. After B. monniera (40 mg/kg body weight for 20 days) ethanol leaf extract administration levels of both the parameters were reduced significantly. The results suggest that B. monniera prevents formation of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin pigments which are the indicators of aging.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, July 2008, pp. 550

 

 

Book Review

Genomics and Genetic Engineering

P Ananda Kumar and Sharmistha Barthakur