Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(3) 145-202 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

Time course of pulmonary pathology, cytokine influx and their correlation on augmentation of antigen challenge by influenza A virus infection

151

      Ruqiaya Nazir, Madhu Khanna & Ritu Kulshrestha

 

 

 

Gabapentin attenuates acute hypoxic stress-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice: Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism

159

      Anil Kumar & Richa Goyal

 

 

 

Possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the anti-depressant-like effect of MK-801 (dizocilpine), a NMDA receptor antagonist in mouse forced swim test

164

      Ashish Dhir & S K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Beneficial effect of modified egg* on serum T3, T4 and dyslipidaemia following dietary Zn-supplementation in Wistar rat

171

      S K Taneja & R Mandal

 

 

 

Antidepressant activity of fosinopril, ramipril and losartan but not of lisinopril in depressive paradigms of albino rats and mice

180

      Veena Nayak & P A Patil

 

 

 

CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats

185

      Sutapa Das & Debjani Guha

 

 

 

Surface morphology of immunocompetent cells isolated from spleen of
Bufo himalayanus (Günther)

191

      Koutilya Bhattacharjee & Sanjib Kr Das

 

 

 

Effect of propofol in altering pentylenetetrazol induced seizure threshold in rats

196

      A Prakash, B Medhi, A Puri & B Saikia

 

 

 

Information for Authors

201

 

 

Announcement

150

 

Announcement

 

National Conference on Current Trends in Medicinal Plants Research
and Herbal Technology (NCMPRHT)

 

7–8 March 2008, Chennai

 

Sponsored by the National Medicinal Plants Board, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and organized by the Postgraduate & Research Department of Botany, Pachaiyappa’s College, the Conference will have following focus areas: (a) Biodiversity and conservations, (b) Ethnobotany and pharmacology, (c) Herbal products, (d) Biotechnology and tissue culture, (e) Genetic improvement and agrotechniques, and (f) Plant secondary metabolites. For further details,
please contact Dr T Sekar, Organising Secretary, PG & Research Department of Botany,
Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai 600 030. Phone: 91-044-26412844 (O), 91-044-24747154 (R).
Fax: 91-044-26426900. Mobile: 09444350858. E-mail: tsekar_2005@yahoo.com

 

————————————————

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. One of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

It is mandatory on the part of the corresponding author to furnish the following certificate at the time of submission of the manuscript for publication:

[This is to certify that the reported work in the article entitle, “(give full title with all the authors name)” submitted for publication in the journal, the……………………. is an original one and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. I/we further certify that proper citation to the previously reported work have been given and no data/table/figures have been quoted verbatim from other publications without giving due acknowledgement and without the permission of the author(s). The consent of all the authors of this article has been obtained for submitting the article to the journal, “………………….”

Signatures and names of all the authors]

 

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)                After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)                Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)                Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

 

Author Index

Anil Kumar

159

Bhattacharjee Koutilya

191

Das Sanjib Kr

191

Das Sutapa

185

Dhir Ashish

164

Goyal Richa

159

Guha Debjani

185

Khanna Madhu

151

Kulkarni S K

164

Kulshrestha Ritu

151

Mandal R

171

Medhi B

196

Nayak Veena

180

Nazir Ruqiaya

151

Patil P A

180

Prakash A

196

Puri A

196

Saikia B

196

Taneja S K

171

 

 

Keyword Index

Asthma

151

Anticonvulsant

185

Anxiety

159, 180

B cells

191

Bufo himalayanus

191

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

 164

Cytokine

151

Depression

180

Dyslipidaemia

171

Epilepsy

185

Forced-swim test

164

Fosinopril

180

Gabapentin

159

Hypoxic stress

159

Immunopathology

151

Influenza A virus

151

L-arginine

164

Lipid peroxidation

159

Locomotor activity

159

Losartan

180

MK-801 (dizocilpine)

164

Modified egg

171

Muscimol

159

Neurotransmitters

185

Nitric oxide

164

Nylon wool column

191

Pentylenetetrazol

196

Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor

164

Picrotoxin

159

Propofol

196

PTZ

185

Ramipril

180

Scanning electron microscopy

191

Seizure severity

196

Serum T3, T4

171

Spinacia oleracea

185

T cells

191

Zn-supplementation

171

  

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 151-158

 

 

 

Time course of pulmonary pathology, cytokine influx and their correlation on augmentation of antigen challenge by influenza A virus infection

Ruqiaya Nazir, Madhu Khanna & Ritu Kulshrestha

Received 29 October 2007; revised 23 January 2008

A murine model of influenza A virus exacerbation of allergen induced airway inflammation, pulmonary histopathological changes, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis, cytokine influx and the time course of these events have been studied. The present study was undertaken to determine the relative contributions of Th1/Th2 cytokines to the histopathological changes in the lungs observed at 9, 12, 24 and 48 hr following antigen challenge in mice previously immunized with influenza A virus. BALF analysis of acute phase group revealed statistically significant increase in neutrophils at 9 hr, macrophages at 12 hr, lymphocytes and eosinophils at 24 hr, as compared to OVA-sensitized control mice. These changes were associated with an alteration in the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ. A peak of IL-4 at 24 hr significantly enhanced bronchiolar and perivascular histopathology, whereas increased IL-5 level peaking at 24 hr was correlated with the enhanced infiltration of eosinophils in both BALF and lung tissue. There was simultaneous depletion of IL-10 an anti-inflammatory cytokine leading to persistence of pulmonary inflammation in case of acute phase group. Histopathology at 24 and 48 hr showed severe denudation of bronchiolar lining epithelium surrounded by dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Chronic interstitial infiltrate with focal loss of architecture, marked oedema, extravasation of RBCs from congested blood vessels and laying down of reticulin fibres was observed in acute phase. Thus, infection with influenza A virus on pre-existing asthmatic immunopathology elicits a cascade of Th2 cytokines with influx of inflammatory cells in BALF, mucosal and interstitial inflammation leading to asthma exacerbations

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 159-163

 

 

Gabapentin attenuates acute hypoxic stress–induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice: Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism

Anil Kumar & Richa Goyal

Received 16 April 2007; revised 21 January 2008

The effect of gabapentin has been investigated on acute hypoxic stress-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice. Mice were subjected to hypoxia for 2 hr. Treatment with gabapentin (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased ambulatory movements, exerted anti-anxiety like effect and reduced oxidative damage in mice subjected to acute hypoxic stress. Treatment with picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) per se had no significant effect on behavioral and biochemical parameters of stressed mice. Treatment with muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) per se significantly increased the locomotor activity of stressed mice, exerted significant anti anxiety effect and significantly reduced the oxidative damage. Further, pretreatment with picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) significantly blocked whereas pretreatment with muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of gabapentin. These results suggest that gabapentin produces its neuroprotective effect in mice subjected to acute hypoxic stress through GABAA receptor mechanism.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 164-170

 

 

Possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in the anti-
depressant-like effect of MK-801(dizocilpine), a NMDA receptor antagonist in mouse forced swim test

Ashish Dhir & SK Kulkarni

Received 27 November 2007; revised 15 January 2008

L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is an important signaling pathway involved in depression. With this information, the present study aimed to study the involvement of this signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like action of MK-801 (dizocilpine; N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist) in the mouse forced-swim test. Total immobility period was recorded in mouse forced swim test for 6 min. MK-801 (5-25 μg/kg., ip) produced a U-shaped curve in reducing the immobility period. The antidepressant-like effect of MK-801 (10 μg/kg, ip) was prevented by pretreatment with L-arginine (750 mg/kg, ip) [substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS)]. Pretreatment of mice with
7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (25 mg/kg, ip) [a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor] produced potentiation of the action of subeffective dose of MK-801 (5 μg/kg, ip). In addition, treatment of mice with methylene blue (10 mg/kg, ip) [direct inhibitor of both nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase] potentiated the effect of MK-801 (5 μg/kg, ip) in the forced-swim test. Further, the reduction in the immobility period elicited by MK-801 (10 μg/kg, ip) was also inhibited by pretreatment with sildenafil (5 mg/kg, ip) [phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor]. The various modulators used in the study and their combination did not produce any changes in locomotor activity per se and in combination with MK-801. MK-801 however, at higher doses (25 μg/kg, ip) produced hyperlocomotion. The results demonstrated the involvement of nitric oxide signaling pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of MK-801 in mouse forced-swim test.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 171-179

 

 

 

Beneficial effect of modified egg* on serum T3, T4 and dyslipidaemia following dietary Zn-supplementation in Wistar rat

S K Taneja & R Mandal

Received 29 September 2006; revised 13 December 2007

A fall in serum T3 and T4 along with increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and VLDL-c and decrease in HDL-c was observed in albino Wistar rats when fed on semi-synthetic diet containing either 40 or 80mg Zn/kg diet. Zn concentrations were observed to increase with decreased concentration of Cu and Mg in their tissues. On including modified egg (Indian Patent Application No.2264\Del\2005) in the Zn supplement diet, the levels of T3 and T4, lipid profile in serum and mineral status approached closer to control group-I. The data suggest that hypothyroidism and dyslipidaemia caused by excessive Zn in diet can be ameliorated on consuming these modified eggs due to restoration of mineral status in the body.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 180-184

 

 

Antidepressant activity of fosinopril, ramipril and losartan, but not of lisinopril
in depressive paradigms of albino rats and mice

Veena Nayak & P A Patil

Received 15 January 2007; revised 15 January 2008

Fosinopril, ramipril and losartan significantly decreased the duration (sec) of immobility in forced swim test and were comparable to amitriptyline. The duration of immobility were significantly decreased in fosinopril, ramipril and losartan in the tail suspension test and were comparable to amitriptyline. Only losartan significantly increased the rearing number of entries, time spent (sec) in open arm and in light area in comparison to control animals. Fosinopril and ramipril and not lisinopril showed significant antidepressant activity while losartan showed a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activity. Present findings suggest that these drugs could be better antihypertensives in hypertensive patients with co-morbidity like depression or anxiety.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 185-190

 

 

CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats

Sutapa Das & Debjani Guha

Received 3 May 2007; revised 26 December 2007

Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 191-195

 

 

Surface morphology of immunocompetent cells isolated from spleen of
Bufo himalayanus (Günther)

Koutilya Bhattacharjee & Sanjib Kr Das

.

Received 14 October 2007; revised 2 January 2008

Immunocompetent cells were isolated from spleen of B. himalayanus and studied surface morphology of the three different cell types - (i) plastic adherent; (ii) nylon wool adherent; and (iii) nylon wool non-adherent cells. As revealed by scanning electron microscopy, they resembled the macrophages, B and T cells, respectively. Presence of such cell types indicated that Bufo himalayanus possessed a well-organized immune system. Further work is needed to characterize the functional efficacy of these immunocompetent cells found in B. himalayanus.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 196-200

 

 

Effect of propofol in altering pentylenetetrazol induced seizure threshold in rats

A Prakash, B Medhi, A Puri & B Saikia

Received 10 August 2007; revised 4 January 2008

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of propofol in altering pentylenetetrazol induced seizure threshold in rats. Total 42 Wistar rats were used to evaluate different parameters (onset of action, duration of seizure, seizure severity score and number of seizure) following propofol injection. The present results showed that there was significant reduction in the time required for onset of seizure in propofol treated groups following PTZ treatment. If treated with propofol alone (2 and 5mg/kg), there was no significant difference as compared to controls. In seizure severity score assessment, there was no significant difference with various doses of propofol alone treated groups, but the difference was observed in propofol (2 and 5 mg/kg) treated groups following PTZ treatment. Duration of seizure also significantly increased in propofol (5mg/kg) treated group, but at 2mg/kg of propofol treatment, no significant difference was observed. The present results showed that propofol ameliorate seizure threshold and caused prolongation of duration of seizure. However, further study and trials are needed to confirm the present results.