Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 5

MAY 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(5) 259-432 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

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CONTENTS

 

Symposium in Print on Biophotons and Alternate Therapies

(dedicated to Prof. Fritz-Albert Popp on his 70th birthday)

 

Preface

261

      R P Bajpai

 

 

 

A tribute to Fritz-Albert Popp on the occasion of his 70th birthday

267

      Marco Bischof

 

 

 

Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis:
State of the art

273

      Roeland Van Wijk, Eduard P A Van Wijk, Fred A C Wiegant & John Ives

 

 

 

Biophysical aspects of cancer – Electromagnetic mechanism

310

      J Pokorný, J Hašek, J Vaniš & F Jelínek

 

 

 

Ultra-low luminescence of humid air and its possible role in negative air ion therapy

322

      V L Voeikov

 

 

 

Development of a fluorescence stereomicroscope and observation of Bong-Han corpuscles inside blood vessels

330

      Byung-Cheon Lee, Jung Sun Yoo, Ku Youn Baik, Baeckkyoung Sung,
Jawoong Lee & Kwang-Sup Soh

 

 

 

In vivo visualization of Bonghan ducts inside blood vessels of mice by using an
Alcian blue staining method

336

      Jung Sun Yoo, Min Su Kim, Vyacheslav Ogay & Kwang-Sup Soh

 

 

 

Imaging of biophoton emission from electrostimulated skin acupuncture point jg4:
Effect of light enhancer

340

      Janusz Slawinski & Zbigniew Gorski

 

 

 

Quantum squeezed state analysis of spontaneous ultra weak light photon emission of practitioners of meditation and control subjects

345

      Eduard P A Van Wijk, Roeland Van Wijk & Rajendra P Bajpai

 

 

 

Nonlinear mechanism for weak photon emission from biosystems

353

      Larissa Brizhik

 

Laser-Ultraviolet-A induced ultra weak photon emission in human skin cells:
A biophotonic comparison between keratinocytes and fibroblasts

358

      Hugo J Niggli, Salvatore Tudisco, Luca Lanzanò, Lee Ann Applegate,
Agata Scordino & Francesco Musumeci

 

 

 

Corresponding measurements of delayed luminescence and impedance spectroscopy on acupuncture points

364

      Luca Lanzanò, Rosaria Grasso, Marisa Gulino, Paolo Bellia, Filippo Falciglia,
Agata Scordino, Salvatore Tudisco, Antonio Triglia & Francesco Musumeci

 

 

 

Physical properties of biophotons and their biological functions

371

      Chang Jiin-Ju (Zhang Jinzhu)

 

 

 

Principles of complementary medicine in terms of a suggested scientific basis

378

      Fritz-Albert Popp

 

 

 

Common threads

384

      Lesley E Shearer

 

 

 

Mode coupling in living systems: Implications for biology and medicine

389

      John Swain

 

 

 

Consciousness enigma: The "hard problem" – binding problem entanglement, "extra ingredient" and field principle

395

      Michael Lipkind

 

 

 

Physical basis of adverse and therapeutic effects of low intensity microwave radiation

403

      G J Hyland

 

 

 

Quantum nature of photon signal emitted by Xanthoria parietina and itsimplications to biology

420

      R P Bajpai

 

 

—————————————

 

Editor’s Note

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

Author Index

Applegate Lee Ann

358

Baik Ku Youn

330

Bajpai R P

264,345,420

Bellia Paolo

364

Bischof Marco

267

Brizhik Larissa

353

Falciglia Filippo

364

Gorski Zbigniew

340

Grasso Rosaria

364

Gulino Marisa

364

Hašek J

310

Hyland G J

403

Ives John

273

Jelínek J

310

Jiin-Ju Chang (Zhang Jinzhu)

371

Kim Min Su

336

Lanzanò Luca

358,364

Lee Byung-Cheon

330

Lee Jawoong

330

Lipkind Michael

395

Musumeci Francesco

358,364

Niggli Hugo J

358

Ogay Vyacheslav

336

Pokorný J

310

Popp Fritz-Albert

378

Scordino Agata

358,364

Shearer Lesley E

384

Slawinski Janusz

340

Soh Kwang-Sup

330,336

Sung Baeckkyoung

330

Swain John

389

Triglia Antonio

364

Tudisco Salvatore

358,364

Van Wijk Eduard P A

273,345

Van Wijk Roeland

273,345

Vaniš J

310

Voeikov V L

322

Wiegant Fred A C

273

Yoo Jung Sun

330,336

  

  

Keyword Index

Acupuncture

330,364,384

Acupuncture meridian

336,378

Alcian blue

336

Antioxidants

273

Background noise
 correction

 

420

Binding problem

395

Biological oscillation

389

Biological regulation

371,378

Biophoton

 

338,340,353,
371,384,389

Biophoton regulation

378

Biophotonic channel

420

Biophotonics

345

Blood vessel

330

Bong-Han corpuscle

330

Bonghan duct

336

Bong-Han duct

330

Cancer cells

310

Cell communication

371

Chaperones

273

Chronic disease

273

Coherent excitation

403

Coherent state

310,371

Complimentary medicine

378

Consciousness

420

Consciousness emergence

395

Davydov’s soliton

353

Delayed luminescence

364

Dielectric properties

364

Electroacupuncture

340

Energy medicine

384

Extra ingredient

395

Fibroblast

358

Field principle

395

Fluorescence
 stereomicroscope

 

330

Free radicals

273

Fröhlich’s theory

310

Halotherapy

322

Hard problem

395

Heat shock proteins

273

Hematopoiesis

330

Hematoxylin and eosin

336

Homeopathy

378

Human

345,358

Humid air flow

322

Hyaluronic acid

336

Hybrid soliton

353

Impedance spectroscopy

364

Luminescent probes

340

Magnetic therapy

384

Meditation

345

Microtubules

310

Microwave

403

Mode coupling

389

Nonlinearity

389

Non-material medicine

389

Oxidative stress

345

Photo count distribution

273

Photomultiplier

322

Photon

358

Photon count distribution

273,345

Protoconsciousness

395

Protophenomenal
 fundamental

 

395

Qi

384

Quantum entity

420

Quantum photon signal

420

Radiative life time

353

Reactive oxygen species

322

Regulation dynamics

378

Resonance

403

Skin

358

Skin electrostimulation

340

Speleotherapy

322

Squeezed state

 

345,371,
420

Telecommunication

403

Therapeutic effects

403

Ultra weak photon

 emission


273,345

Ultraviolet

358

Ultraweak

358

UVA-laser-induced

358

 

 

Preface

 

The greatest challenge to any thinker is stating the problem in a way
 that will allow a solution
”—Bertrand Russell

Science develops in phases; the motivation of development in a phase is usually an objective, attracting the imagination of large number of investigators. The objective motivating the development of its first major phase was to convert iron into gold, which has nearly been achieved and the first phase of is almost completely developed. The first phase is called physical sciences and it describes various properties of non-living matter to an incredible degree of precision using well-understood entities, atoms and molecules. It has identified quantum field theory as the correct framework of description though it does use quantum mechanical and classical frameworks in many situations for simpler and almost correct descriptions. The development of the first phase has changed the motivating objective of scientific curiosity. The new objective is to convert one bacterium into another or one species into another species. And this objective is motivating the development of the second major phase of science called life or biological sciences. Science in the second phase is a continuation and extension of the first phase and attempts to describe properties of systems endowed with “life” using paradigm and framework established in the first phase. The correct entities for describing biological phenomena have been identified as biomolecules that are well-understood objects of the first phase. All biological properties must originate from and be expressible in term of biomolecules. However, the framework mainly used in the description of biological properties is semi-classical. Perhaps because of the framework of description, the second phase encounters discrepancies in the description of a few aspects of biological properties. The second phase finds that many properties of a living system are different from the corresponding properties of its non-living counterpart. The differences seem irreconcilable. Ways and means have to be found to reconcile these differences; otherwise the second phase of science will remain a collage of empirical studies and experiences. Reconciliation requires new ideas and/or discarding of some old notions. Schrödinger addressed one basic discrepancy namely, the decrease of entropy with evolution in a living system.  He correctly guessed its resolution and predicted the existence of a long chain of aperiodic crystal like structure in a living system. Prigogine addressed the connected discrepancy of the stability of living systems and resolved it by showing the existence of stable dissipative structures in states that are far from equilibrium. Wigner pointed out a problem in quantum description of reproducing living systems by showing that a reproducing living system is extremely unlikely to be a quantum system. Wigner’s misgiving was removed by showing that extremely unlikely conditions indeed exist in living systems. It paved the way for considering living systems as quantum systems needing quantum field theoretic framework for description. The discrepancies associated with entropy, stability and reproduction are reconcilable both in classical and quantum frameworks but these reconciliations solve only existence problem of living systems. The discrepancies in various properties attributed to “life” need to be reconciled as well. Fröhlich proposed a way for the reconciliation of these discrepancies. He suggested that the essential aspect of a living system is the coherence of its biomolecules. Cohering biomolecules can, perhaps, reconcile all discrepancies and make properties of living systems comprehensible.

Coherence is a concept of classical framework valid in composite systems. Coherence of biomolecules implies that biomolecules at different locations function in a cooperative and coordinated manner. The cooperative and coordinated functioning  is detected  by observing correlation in some property at different spatio-temporal events e.g. the correlation function  measures correlation in the electric field associated with events occurring at (r1, t1) and (r2, t2). Both electric field and its correlation function are well defined quantities in classical, quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretic frameworks. Electric field characterises the event caused by electromagnetic interaction and its correlation function integrated over a spatial region or time is measurable. A non-zero value of correlation function integrated over a spatial region indicates temporal coherence while a non-zero value of correlation function integrated over time indicates spatial coherence. One needs only one detector of electric field for measuring temporal coherence but at least two detectors for measuring spatial coherence. The classical framework attributes non-zero value of  to cooperative and coordinated functioning of biomolecules responsible for events at (r1, t1) and (r2, t2) and seeks to discover the mechanism causing cooperative and coordinated functioning of biomolecules. If it finds that a physical arrangement using information transfer through physical signals can provide the suitable mechanism, then it calls the coherence classical. However, if it cannot discover any suitable mechanism, then it calls the coherence quantum. Quantum coherence is a manifestation of inadequacy of classical framework to describe a composite system of quantum nature. Non zero value of correlation function is not problematic in quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretic frameworks for these frameworks do not attribute it to cooperative and coordinated functioning of biomolecules and hence do not require any explicit mechanism for such functioning. Correlation is intrinsic to a composite system in both quantum mechanical and quantum theoretical frameworks. It merely expresses some information of the state vector of the composite quantum system, which should be deciphered.

Temporal coherence has been detected in many living systems by measuring a quantity related to the correlation function of electric field. One simply counts the number of photons in a small interval many times using a photo multiplier operating in single photon mode. The measurement of photon number in contiguous intervals in a photon signal determines the shape of the signal. Any definite shape indicates correlation in electric field at different times excepting the shape having exponential decaying character i.e. the shape is expressible by one or more exponentially decaying terms. The exponentially decaying shape of signal emitted by an isolated system is attributed to the probabilistic decay of excited units (biomolecules in living systems). It is not considered to imply temporal coherence. Absence of exponential decay character in any portion of a photon signal may be considered as an evidence of quantum coherence. Popp demonstrated that a wide class of living systems emit photon signals that lack exponential decay character. The observed signals were either non-decaying or decaying non-exponentially. His measurements laid the experimental foundation of quantum coherence of photon signals emitted by living systems and by implication the existence of composite quantum structures in living systems.

The emission of photons by a living system is wide spread.  Almost all living systems emit photons spontaneously. The average flux of photons is nearly unchanging in a physiological state of living system but the number of photons detected in intervals of any size fluctuates. The number of photons detected in an interval is called photo counts. The distribution of photo counts is not normal but appears to characterize the physiological state of living system. A characteristic photo count distribution implies temporal coherence of the signal and existence of a quantum composite structure in the emitting system at least for the duration of measurements. The nature of coherence is quantum and parameters specifying the photo count distribution contain information of the physiological state of living system as well as quantum state of composite structure existing in the system.

A living system after a few seconds exposure to light, say of laboratory illumination, emits light induced photon signal that decays non-exponentially. The signal has temporal coherence of quantum nature and implies the presence of a composite quantum structure in the living system. The parameters of the decay contain information about the physiological state of living system as well as of the quantum state of composite structure. The information contained in light induced photon signal does not need to be identical to the information contained in spontaneously emitted signal. The connection of spontaneous and light induced signals with physiological state of living system and quantum state of composite structure is formalised by calling photons emitted in both signals, biophotons. The
same word for photons in two types of signal implies a presumption that spontaneous and light
induced emissions are connected aspects of one phenomenon—biophoton emission. The
presumption defines biophotons as photons of quantum nature emitted by a living system containing information of its physiological state and of the quantum state of composite structure inherent in the living system.

The information needs to be extracted and deciphered. This can be done by determining the relevant parameters of spontaneous and light induced biophoton signals and investigating the dependence of parameters on various factors. The dependence of parameters on physiological properties needs empirical studies and on properties of composite quantum structure needs theoretical investigations. It is usually conjectured that both dependencies are faithful and one to one to various aspects of “life”. The conjecture removes a fundamental philosophical objection against the physical basis of “life”, which states that two physical systems cannot differ in one property alone and there has to be at least one other property that is law–like, related to the first in all aspects. The conjecture stipulates that biophoton signal is isomorphic to “life”. Hence, a living system differs from its non-living counter part in two properties, “life” having many physiological aspects and biophoton signal having various parameters. If physiological aspects of “life” happen to be law like related to various parameters of biophoton signal, then both living system and its non-living counterpart can be physical systems. The empirical studies made so far do not contradict the conjecture. The law like relation is perhaps, responsible for the baffling and mysterious properties of biophoton signals. The law like relation between “life” and biophoton signal suggests a possible shift in the emphasis of investigations; a living system can also be investigated by studying the properties of non-living photons. The significance of emphasis shift is not fully appreciated because of the ignorance of parameter space of a biophoton signal. The parameter space is multidimensional and not one dimensional. The multidimensional character leads to inconsistencies in empirical studies based on a single parameter, signal intensity. If some combination of parameters is strongly correlated to a specific property of living system, then the discovery of the combination of parameters and of the property will provide clinching evidence of the physical basis of life.

Quantum coherence of a biophoton signal means that the signal is in a definite quantum state. A few parameters may specify the quantum state and observed properties of the signal could determine these parameters. The parameters will contain all information about the physiological state of living system and quantum state of composite structure. The number and procedure of extraction of parameters will depend on the framework and model of description. Successful models employ four parameters for describing a spontaneous biophoton signal and another four parameters for describing a light induced biophoton signal. The two sets of parameters are not completely independent. Both sets of parameters can be measured non-invasively in a few minutes even in a human subject. The parameters can be measured at various anatomic locations in the human subject to obtain the profile of parameters over the entire human body. The profile will characterize the instantaneous physiological state of human subject. The profile will measure the health of human subject as well as responses of the subject to drugs and other manipulations practiced in alternative therapies. The profile will be able to judge objectively the efficacy of any medication and will be able to discriminate between proper and improper therapies.

The most intriguing aspect of a spontaneous biophoton signal is its stability for macroscopic time. The stability is utilised in determining photo count distribution, from which the quantum state of signal is inferred. The quantum state of biophoton signal remains unaltered for macroscopic time, which in turn implies that the quantum state of composite quantum structure also remain unaltered for the same duration. The one to one correspondence between quantum states of two systems for macroscopic time suggests a deeper connection between the biophoton signal and composite quantum structure. The two quantum systems are, perhaps, entangled. One of them, the composite structure is of pure matter while the other one, the biophoton signal, is of pure energy. The entanglement puts matter and energy on equal footing and offers many ways to alter the state of a living subject. The alteration, say from sick to a healthy state, can be achieved by manipulating either its matter state or its biophoton state or a combination of the two. The different forms of manipulations probably correspond to different therapies. The possibility of entanglement kindles the hope to understand alternative therapies. Some of the alternative therapies may have sound scientific basis, which ought to be integrated with modern medicine for better health care.

The scenario envisaged above opens up new possibilities to explore and investigate. Many persons working in the field of biophoton and alternative therapies are exploring these possibilities. The current volume contains speculations and results of some workers as well as visions of a few great minds. The great minds sometimes guess the truth before they have either the evidence or arguments for it. The written versions of visions collected in this symposium in print contain these guesses along with their supporting evidence and arguments. The visions will hopefully sensitise the scientific community to pursue the field more vigorously. It is also an occasion to felicitate a great mind, Prof. Fritz-Albert Popp on his 70th birthday. His mind has guessed many truths in the field much before their acceptance by the scientific community. We wish him a long life and hope that he will continue to guess the truths in biophotons and alternative therapies for health and welfare of the humanity.

 

 

R P Bajpai

(Guest Editor)

Sophisticated Analytical Instruments Facility

North Eastern Hill University

Shillong 793022, India

Telephone: 0091 364 2550299

Fax: 0091 364 255076

E-mail: rpbajpai@yahoo.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 267-272

 

 

 

A tribute to Fritz-Albert Popp on the occasion of his 70th birthday

Marco Bischof

 

On May 11, 2008 the German biophysicist Professor Fritz-Albert Popp will celebrate his 70th birthday. This is a welcome occasion to pay tribute to the scientific achievements and human qualities of a scientist whose merits as one of the founders of biophotonics and as a pioneer of quantum biophysics increasingly find appreciation internationally.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 273-309

 

 

Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis:
State of the art

Roeland Van Wijk, Eduard P A Van Wijk, Fred A C Wiegant & John Ives

 

Convincing evidence supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. The model includes the formation of radical oxygen species (ROS) and the misassembly and aggregation of proteins when three tiers of cellular defence are insufficient: (a) direct antioxidative systems, (b) molecular damage repairing systems, and (c) compensatory chaperone synthesis. The aim of the present overview is to introduce (a) the basics of free radical and antioxidant metabolism, (b) the role of the protein quality control system in protecting cells from free radical damage and its relation to chronic diseases, (c) the basics of the ultraweak luminescence as marker of the oxidant status of biological systems, and (d) the research in human photon emission as a non-invasive marker of oxidant status in relation to chronic diseases. In considering the role of free radicals in disease, both their generation and their control by the antioxidant system are part of the story. Excessive free radical production leads to the production of heat shock proteins and chaperone proteins as a second line of protection against damage. Chaperones at the molecular level facilitate stress regulation vis-à-vis protein quality control mechanisms. The manifestation of misfolded proteins and aggregates is a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis, polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, diabetes and many others. Each of these disorders exhibits aging-dependent onset and a progressive, usually fatal clinical course.

The second part reviews the current status of human photon emission techniques and protocols for recording the human oxidative status. Sensitive photomultiplier tubes may provide a tool for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of oxidative metabolism. In that respect, recording ultraweak luminescence has been favored compared to other indirect assays. Several biological models have been used to illustrate the technique in cell cultures and organs in vivo. This initiated practical applications addressing specific human pathological issues. Systematic studies on human emission have presented information on: (a) procedures for reliable measurements, and spectral analysis, (b) anatomic intensity of emission and left-right symmetries, (c) biological rhythms in emission, (d) physical and psychological influences on emission, (e) novel physical characteristics of emission, and (f) the identification of ultraweak photon emission with the staging of ROS-related damage and disease.

It is concluded that both patterns and physical properties of ultraweak photon emission hold considerable promise as measure for the oxidative status.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 310-321

 

 

Biophysical aspects of cancer – Electromagnetic mechanism

 

J Pokorný, J Hašek, J Vaniš, & F Jelínek

 

Hypothesis of coherent vibration states in biological systems based on nonlinear interaction between longitudinal elastic and electric polarization fields with metabolic energy supply was formulated by Fröhlich. Conditions for excitation of coherent states and generation of electromagnetic fields are satisfied in microtubules which form electrical polar structures. Numerical models are used for analysis of Fröhlich’s vibration states in cells.

Reduction of activity and of energy production in mitochondria, and disintegration of cytoskeleton structures by phosphorylation on the pathway of cancer trasformation can diminish excitation of the Fröhlich’s vibration states and of the generated electromagnetic field, which results in disturbances of the interaction forces between cells. Interaction forces between cancer cells may be smaller than interaction forces between healthy cells and cancer cells as follows from numerical models. Mechanism of malignity, i.e. local invasion, detachment of cancer cells, and metastasis, is assumed to depend on the electromagnetic field.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 322-329

 

 

Ultra-low luminescence of humid air and its possible role in negative air ion therapy

V L Voeikov

 

One of the unresolved questions related to the mechanism of action of light negative air ions (reactive oxygen species) produced by air ionizers upon humans and animals is transmission of these short-living chemical species upon long distances from the place of their origin. We discovered the phenomenon which may probably resolve this problem. When a thin layer of water hydrating a hygroscopic surface absorbs rare UV-photons capable to split water molecules a flash of photon emission in UV- and visible regions of spectrum is observed. This flash (or oxygen-dependent oxidative processes underlying it) initiate reactions accompanied with generation of electronic excitation in the air contacting water film. Excitation propagates through the air at macroscopic distances, and the level of propagating excitation increases with elevation of air humidity. When air humidity exceeds 50% air excitation gains oscillatory-wave character. This phenomenon may endow into the mechanism of action of air ions generated artificially, and also into some natural processes where ordered water films may form and the latter may serve targets for energy impulses initiating oxygen-dependent oxidative processes in these films.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 330-335

 

 

Development of a fluorescence stereomicroscope and observation of
Bong-Han corpuscles inside blood vessels

Byung-Cheon Lee, Jung Sun Yoo, Ku Youn Baik, Baeckkyoung Sung, Jawoong Lee & Kwang-Sup Soh

 

A fluorescence stereomicroscope system was developed in order to observe in situ the distribution of nuclei in intravascular Bong-Han ducts and corpuscle tissues by injecting acridine orange, which stained specifically nuclei. Intravascular Bong-Han corpuscles, connected with Bong-Han ducts could be detected in the aortas of rats, mice, and rabbits.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 336-339

 

 

In vivo visualization of Bonghan ducts inside blood vessels of mice by using an Alcian blue staining method

Jung Sun Yoo, Min Su Kim, Vyacheslav Ogay & Kwang-Sup Soh

 

An in vivo method using Alcian blue (AB) was developed for visualizing floating threadlike tissues inside blood vessels of mice. These novel structures called intravascular Bonghan ducts (IBHDs) are considered as extension of acupuncture meridians. For in vivo imaging of IBHDs, AB solution (pH 7.4) that stains mucopolysaccharides like hyaluronic acid was used. After injecting AB solution into the femoral vein of a mouse, the threadlike structures, stained deep blue, inside the inferior vena cava. The histological results, such as hematoxylin, eosin, and AB staining, show the compositions of the cells and the extracellular matrix in the IBHD. Further studies are needed to investigate their physiological functions, especially in relation with those of other circulatory systems.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 340-344

 

 

Imaging of biophoton emission from electrostimulated skin acupuncture point jg4: Effect of light enhancers

Janusz Slawinski & Zbigniew Gorski

 

Using an ultrasensitive CCD camera, an extremely low light intensity from the acupuncture-sensitive point JG4 at the left hand was recorded. As the intensity of the light was very weak and the time of electrostimulation exceeded the recommended period, the quality of biophoton images was poor. Chemiluminescent and fluorescent hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphyphilic molecular probes were used to: (i) ensure penetration of probes into skin, (ii) enhance the intensity of BP emission, (iii) shorten time and (iv) obtain information about mechanisms of biophotons generation in EAP- sensitive points and channels. The results obtained partially fulfilled expectations and indicate on the necessity to elaborate special techniques of probes deposition on the skin.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 345-352

 

 

Quantum squeezed state analysis of spontaneous ultra weak light photon emission of practitioners of meditation and control subjects

Eduard P A Van Wijk, Roeland Van Wijk & Rajendra P Bajpai

 

Research on human ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) has suggested a typical human emission anatomic percentage distribution pattern. It was demonstrated that emission intensities are lower in long-term practitioners of meditation as compared to control subjects. The percent contribution of emission from different anatomic locations was not significantly different for meditation practitioners and control subjects. Recently, a procedure was developed to analyze the fluctuations in the signals by measuring probabilities of detecting different numbers of photons in a bin and correct these for background noise. The procedure was tested utilizing the signal from three different body locations of a single subject, demonstrating that probabilities have non-classical features and are well described by the signal in a coherent state from the three body sites. The values indicate that the quantum state of photon emitted by the subject could be a coherent state in the subject being investigated. The objective in the present study was to systematically quantify, in subjects with long-term meditation experience and subjects without this experience, the photon count distribution of 12 different locations. Data show a variation in quantum state parameters within each individual subject as well as variation in quantum state parameters between the groups.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 353-357

 

 

Nonlinear mechanism for weak photon emission from biosystems

Larissa Brizhik

 

The nonlinear mechanism for the origin of the weak biophoton emission from biological systems is suggested. The mechanism is based on the properties of solitons that provide energy transfer and charge transport in metabolic processes. Such soliton states are formed in alpha-helical proteins. Account of the electron-phonon interaction in macromolecules results in the self-trapping of electrons in a localized soliton-like state, known as Davydov's solitons. The important role of the helical symmetry of macromolecules is elucidated for the formation, stability and dynamical properties of solitons. It is shown that the soliton with the lowest energy has an inner structure with the many-hump envelope. The total probability of the excitation in the helix is characterized by interspine oscillations with the frequency of oscillations, proportional to the soliton velocity. The radiative life-time of a soliton is calculated and shown to exceed the life-time of an excitation on an isolated peptide group by several orders of magnitude.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 358-363

 

 

Laser-Ultraviolet-A induced ultra weak photon emission in human skin cells:
A biophotonic comparison between keratinocytes and fibroblasts

Hugo J Niggli, Salvatore Tudisco , Luca Lanzanò, Lee Ann Applegate, Agata Scordino & Francesco Musumeci

 

Photons participate in many atomic and molecular interactions and processes. Recent biophysical research has discovered an ultraweak radiation in biological tissues. It is now recognized that plants, animal and human cells emit this very weak biophotonic emission which can be readily measured with a sensitive photomultiplier system. UVA laser induced biophotonic emission of cultured cells was used in this report with the intention to detect biophysical changes between young and adult fibroblasts as well as between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. With suspension densities ranging from 1-8x106 cells/ml, it was evident that an increase of the UVA-laser-light induced photon emission intensity could be observed in young as well as adult fibroblastic cells. By the use of this method to determine ultraweak light emission, photons in cell suspensions in low volumes (100 ml) could be detected, in contrast to previous procedures using quantities up to 10 ml. Moreover, the analysis has been further refined by turning off the photomultiplier system electronically during irradiation leading to the first measurements of induced light emission in the cells after less than 10 ms instead of more than 100 milliseconds. These significant changes lead to an improvement factor up to 106 in comparison to classical detection procedures. In addition, different skin cells as fibroblasts and keratinocytes stemming from the same donor were measured using this new highly sensitive method in order to find new biophysical insight of light pathways. This is important in view to develop new strategies in biophotonics especially for use in alternative therapies.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 364-370

 

 

Corresponding measurements of delayed luminescence and impedance spectroscopy on acupuncture points

Luca Lanzanò, Rosaria Grasso, Marisa Gulino, Paolo Bellia, Filippo Falciglia, Agata Scordino, Salvatore Tudisco, Antonio Triglia & Francesco Musumeci

 

Measurements of impedance spectroscopy and delayed luminescence have been performed on the acupuncture points PC4 and PC8 and other two control points of ten volunteers. The results show that there is a highly significant difference between the imaginary parts of the impedance of the acupunctural points and that of the control points. The same difference has not be observed in the values of the total number of counts of delayed luminescence. However a relationship has been detected between the imaginary part of the impedance of PC8 point and the total number of delayed luminescence counts, similar to that one found before for collagen, and it has been seen that the temporal dynamics of the two phenomena measured on one control points are similar. In particular, these final results confirm the close connection between the delayed luminescence and the dielectric properties of biological tissues.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 371-377

 

 

Physical properties of biophotons and their biological functions

Chang Jiin-Ju (Zhang Jinzhu)

 

Biophotons (BPHs) are weak photons within or emitted from living organisms.  The intensities of BPHs range from a few to several hundred photons× s-1×cm-2. BPH emission originates from a de-localized coherent electromagnetic field within the living organisms and is regulated by the field. In this paper based on the experimental results of Poisson and sub-Poisson distributions of photocount statistics, the coherent properties of BPHs and their functions in cell communication are described. Discussions are made on functions which BPHs may play in DNA and proteins functioning including the process of DNA replication, protein synthesis and cell signalling and in oxidative phosporylation and photosynthesis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 378-383

 

 

Principles of complementary medicine in terms of a suggested scientific basis

Fritz-Albert Popp

 

In order to create a scientific basis of complementary medicine it is certainly necessary to add a more non-local approach to the molecular substance of orthodox “life-sciences”. It should be able to explain strange phenomena like healing by homeopathy or acupuncture. A possible frame concerns oscillatory electromagnetic interactions as regulatory and – in case of disease – deregulatory impulses of the organisms. These couplings are found, for instance, in biological rhythms, external rhythmical influences (sun exposure, atmospheric disturbances), and vibrations of the body over a huge range of frequencies. One basic example is biophotons and “delayed luminescence”.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 384-388

 

 

Common threads

Lesley E. Shearer

 

Acupuncture and Qigong are aspects of Chinese medicine, an antique medicine of energy which is thousands of years old. Its primary method of diagnosis is the pulse at the wrist, subtle information accessible to physicians only after years of training. Biophotonics presents the same information visually and makes it available to researchers everywhere, setting in place new experimental protocols for acupuncture and energy medicines. Combining this contemporary tool of technology with principles of the ancient medicine will facilitate in the development of not only medical sciences of energy, but all of the sciences of energy that are coming.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 389-394

 

 

Mode coupling in living systems: Implications for biology and medicine

John Swain

 

Complex systems, and in particular biological ones, are characterized by large numbers of oscillations of widely differing frequencies. Various prejudices tend to lead to the assumption that such oscillators should generically be very weakly interacting. This paper reviews the basic ideas of linearity and nonlinearity as seen by a physicist, but with a view to biological systems. In particular, it is argued that large couplings between different oscillators of disparate frequencies are common, being present even in rather simple systems which are well-known in physics, although this issue is often glossed over. This suggests new experiments and investigations, as well as new approaches to therapies and human-environment interactions which, without the concepts described here, may otherwise seem unlikely to be interesting. The style of the paper is conversational with a minimum of mathematics, and no attempt at a complete list of references.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 395-402

 

 

Consciousness enigma: The "hard problem" – binding problem entanglement, "extra ingredient" and field principle

Michael Lipkind

 

The "Hard problem" of consciousness relates to the perplexing emergence of consciousness as a result of the brain activity. The binding problem concerns separate processing of perceived data in functionally and topographically segregated cortical areas and functional integration of such locally disjoined operations into coherently perceived images and events. The existing field-grounded theories of consciousness fall into two groups: (i) those based on the physical (electromagnetic) field, and (ii) those grounded on autonomous fields irreducible to the established physical fundamentals. The critical analysis of the existing theories results in formulation of the extra ingredient and a novel irreducible field-based theory of consciousness.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 403-419

 

 

Physical basis of adverse and therapeutic effects of low intensity microwave radiation

G J Hyland

 

A physical basis of adverse and therapeutic effects of low intensity microwave radiation is presented based on the concept of oscillatory similitude between the frequency of an external microwave field (together with any lower frequency modulations thereof) and those of certain endogenous dipolar coherent excitations allied to aliveness, which play the role of ‘tuned circuits’ via which a living organism is electromagnetically sensitised in a non-linear way to external fields too weak to be able to cause heating. From this perspective, an external electromagnetic field affects a living system not as a toxin but rather by perturbing its endogenous electromagnetic activity. The possibility of adverse perturbation is illustrated by reference to the microwave fields used in mobile telecommunications whose signals interfere in a non-thermal way with bio-functionality-in particular, undermining the efficacy of processes that would otherwise afford natural protection against the development of pathology. Therapeutic modalities of microwave exposure, on the other hand, are illustrated using the example of microwave resonance therapy - which can be considered as an electromagnetic version of acupuncture, and as an example of ‘quantum medicine’ - whose normalising effect on a wide range of pathologies is striking, and which affords a novel alternative to conventional pharmacological interventions.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 46, May 2008, pp. 420-432

 

 

Quantum nature of photon signal emitted by Xanthoria parietina and its implications to biology

R P Bajpai

 

The properties of living systems are usually described in the semi-classical framework that makes phenomenological division of properties into four classes¾ matter, psyche, soft consciousness and hard consciousness. Quantum framework provides a scientific basis of this classification of properties. The scientific basis requires the existence of macroscopic quantum entity entangled with quantum photon field of a living system. Every living system emits a photon signal with features indicating its quantum nature. Quantum nature of the signal emitted by a sample of X. parietina is confirmed by analysing photo count distributions obtained in 20000 measurements of photon number in contiguous bins of sizes of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 ms. The measurements use a broadband detector sensitive in 300-800 nm range (Photo count distributions of background noise and observed signal are measured similarly. These measurements background noise corrected squeezed state parameters of the signal. The parameters are signal strength expressed in counts per bin, r =0.06, q = 2.76 and f = 0.64. The parameters correctly reproduce photo count distribution of any bin size in 50ms-6s range. The reproduction of photo count distributions is a credible evidence of spontaneous emission of photon signal in a quantum squeezed state for macroscopic time by the sample. The evidence is extrapolated to other living systems emitting similar photon signals. It is suggested that every living system is associated with a photon field in squeezed state. The suggestion has far reaching implications to biology and provides two ways of observing and manipulating a living system- either through matter or field or a combination of the two. Some implications and possible scenarios are elaborated.