Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 46

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2008

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 46(11) 744-798 (2008)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Cell culture adapted sheeppox virus as a challenge virus for potency testing of
sheeppox vaccine

685

M Hosamani, V Bhanuprakash, D J Kallesh, V Balamurugan, A Pande & R K Singh

 

 

 

Protective effect of dietary phytochemicals against arsenite induced genotoxicity in mammalian V79 cells

690

Madhumita Roy, Dona Sinha, Sutapa Mukherjee, Susmita Paul & R K Bhattacharya

 

 

 

Anti-atherosclerotic effect of atorvastatin and clopidogrel alone and in combination
in rats

698

Martha Srinivas, Akula Annapurna & Yellu Narsimha Reddy

 

 

 

Dose-dependent response of central dopaminergic systems to buspirone in mice

704

S A Jadhav, R V Gaikwad, R K Gaonkar, V M Thorat, S C Gursale & J J Balsara

 

 

 

Topiramate induced histopathological changs in placenta of rats

715

A Mishra & M Singh

 

 

 

Concentration of cations in different parts of male reproductive system and their influence on in vitro sperm motility in lizard, Mabuya carinata Schneider.

720

Ivan Aranha, M Bhagya & H N Yajurvedi

 

 

 

Molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Aspergillus terreus (Thom)

725

Sameer H Qari

 

 

 

Cost effectiveness of colony lysis and colony PCR methods for screening of recombinant Escherichia coli colonies A comparative study

731

P Azhahianambi, S Ghosh, C Ashok Kumar & V V S Suryanarayana

 

 

 

Effect of salinity stress on growth and carbohydrate metabolism in three rice
(Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance

736

Wattana Pattanagul & Maysaya Thitisaksakul

 

 

 

Information for Authors

743

 

 

Announcements

684

 

 

 

 

 

Announcements

 

International Conference on New Developments in Drug Discovery
from Natural Products and Traditional Medicines

N.I.P.E.R., SAS Nagar, India, 1620 November 2008

 

Organized by the Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), and co-sponsered by Merck & Co., Inc., USA, the conference will provide a platform for networking international and national researchers and pharma industry to reap benefits from Mother Nature's Combi-Lab. The scientific topics to be covered in the Conference are: (i) Methods and techniques, (ii) Discovery of new biological pathways, (iii) New/novel chemical entities as lead scaffolds, (iv) Phytopharmaceuticals, (v) Nutraceuticals and functional foods, (vi) Infectious diseases, (vii) Life-style and metabolic disorders, (viii) Oncology, (ix) Inflammation and immunological disorders, (x) Marine natural products, (xi) Synthesis of bioactive molecules, (xii) Traditional medicines, and (xiii) In-silico approaches. For details, please contact: Prof. K. K. Bhutani, Convenor, DDNPTM 2008, Department of Natural Products, NIPER, Sector-67, SAS Nagar (Mohali) 160062, India. Telefax: +91-172-2232208; E-mail: kkbhutani@niper.ac.in; ddnptm@niper.ac.in; np@niper.ac.in. Website: http://www.niper-ddnptm.com

 

 

International Symposium on Emerging Trends in Tuberculosis Research:
Biomarkers, Drugs and Vaccines

I.C.G.E.B., New Delhi, India, 13 December 2008

 

Organized by the International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, and supported by AERAS, AstraZeneca, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Novartis, the Symposium will provide an opportunity to take stock of deliverables in the areas of diagnostics, drugs and vaccines for tuberculosis in the light of advances made in the basic biology of the host-pathogen interaction. In addition, the Symposium will also look for future directions to emerge in these areas so as to provide assistance to patients at the point-of-care facilities. Following scientific sessions are planned: (1) Metabolomics of Mycobacteria: Developing new TB drugs; (2) The host and the pathogen: Genomic and cell biology of the interaction; (3) TB vaccine(s): Emerging strategies; and (4). Biomarkers/TB diagnostics: Trailing the bug. Poster session on all of above themes, to be ontributed by participating delegates has also been planned. For details kindly visit http://www.icgeb.res.in/ITBS-2008.htm or contact: Dr. Pawan Sharma, Symposium Organizer (ITBS-2008), Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, ICGEB Campus, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India. Telephone: +91-11-26741680 (O); Mobile: +91-931-328-2314; Fax: +91-11-2674-2316. E-Mail: pawan37@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Annapurna Akula

698

Aranha Ivan

720

Ashok Kumar C

731

Azhahianambi P

731

 

 

Balamurugan V

685

Balsara J J

704

Bhagya M

720

Bhanuprakash V

685

Bhattacharya R K

690

 

 

Gaikwad R V

704

Gaonkar R K

704

Ghosh S

731

 

 

Gursale S C

704

 

 

Hosamani M

685

 

 

Jadhav S A

704

 

 

Kallesh D J

685

 

 

Mishra A

715

Mukherjee Sutapa

690

 

 

Pande A

685

Pattanagual Wattana

736

Paul Susmita

690

 

 

Qari Sameer H

725

 

 

Reddy Yellu Narsimha

698

Roy Mathumita

690

 

 

Singh M

715

Singh R K

685

Sinha Dona

690

Srinivas Martha

698

Suryanarayana V V S

731

 

 

Thitisaksakul Maysaya

736

Thorat V M

704

 

 

Yajurvedi H N

720


 

  

 

 

Keyword Index

Apomorphine

704

Arsenite

690

Asprgillus terreus

725

Atherosclerosis

698

Atorvastatin

698

 

 

Buspirone

704

 

 

Cage climbing behaviour

704

Calotropis prosera

725

Carbohydrate metabolism

736

Catalepsy

704

Cations

720

Cell culture

685

Clopidogrel

698

Colony lysis

731

Colony PCR

731

Cost effectiveness

731

 

 

Decidua basalis

715

 

 

Dietary phytochemicals

690

DNA analysis

725

 

 

Fibrinoid matter

715

 

 

Genotoxicity

690

Gestation day

715

Giant cells

715

Glycolysis

715

 

 

Haloperidol

704

 

 

Latex

725

LDL

698

Lizard

720

 

 

Mabuya carinata

720

Mesenchyame

715

Methamphetamine

704

Mice

704

 

 

Mutagenicity

725

 

 

Potency testing

685

Protein analysis

725

 

 

RAPD-PCR

725

Recombinant E coli

731

Rice

736

 

 

Salinity stress

736

Salt tolerant

736

SDS-PAGE

725

Serotonergic system

704

Sheeppox vaccine

685

Sheeppox virus

685

Sperm motility

720

Stereotypy

704

 

 

V 79 cells

690

Virulent virus challenge

685

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 685-689

 

 

Cell culture adapted sheeppox virus as a challenge virus for potency testing of sheeppox vaccine

M Hosamani, V Bhanuprakash, D J Kallesh, V Balamurugan, A Pande & R K Singh

Received 1 January 2008; revised 1 July 2008

Sheeppox virus from an outbreak of sheeppox that occurred in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir, India) in 2000 was isolated by inoculation of susceptible sheep and further re-isolated in cell culture. The field virus, adapted to grow in lamb testes culture, was evaluated for its potential use as challenge virus in potency testing of sheeppox vaccine currently in use. The virus (passage 6) produced severe disease in susceptible sheep when inoculated subcutaneously with a dose of 106.2 TCID50. The virus identity was confirmed by PCR, sequencing of P32 gene and species-specific signature residues identified in deduced aa sequence of the gene. The virus was successfully evaluated for its virulence using two batches of sheep pox vaccines. Use of this field virus enables consistent potency experiments of sheeppox vaccines avoiding use of animals for its propagation and titration.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 690-697

 

 

Protective effect of dietary phytochemicals against arsenite induced genotoxicity in mammalian V79 cells

Madhumita Roy*, Dona Sinha, Sutapa Mukherjee, Susmita Paul & R K Bhattacharya

 

Received 7 April 2008; revised 29 July 2008

Chronic arsenic exposure causes skin diseases, gastrointestinal and neurological disorders, diabetes and cancer in various organs. Oxidative stress associated with arsenic exposure cause genetic instabilities and may initiate carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals present in vegetables, fruits, spices, tea, and medicinal plants, have shown to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in various organs. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the protective effect of some of the phytochemicals against the arsenite induced DNA damage in normal mammalian V79 cells. Comet assay was used for assessment of DNA damage and 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein dihydroacetate for estimation of ROS generated by arsenite. The effect of the phytochemicals was observed during simultaneous treatment with arsenic, before arsenite exposure and during repair experiments. Of all the phytochemicals tested against arsenic, curcumin gave better protection during simultaneous treatment and resveratrol during pre treatment, which was evident both from comet assay and ROS generation experiments. During pre treatment a longer duration of treatment with lower dose of phytochemicals proved fruitful in reducing the genotoxicity. During repair experiments the phytochemicals enhanced recovery of DNA damage and ellagic acid gave promising results. The results indicated that natural phytochemicals may have the efficacy in reducing arsenic induced genotoxicity, in scavenging ROS and in enhancing the process of DNA repair in V79 cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 698-703

 

 

Anti-atherosclerotic effect of atorvastatin and clopidogrel alone and
in combination in rats

Martha Srinivas, Akula Annapurna & Yellu Narsimha Reddy

 

Received 18 March 2008; revised 18 August 2008

 

Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting arterial blood vessels due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and low density lipoproteins. Effects of atorvastatin, a recently introduced lipid lowering statin was studied alone and in combination with clopidogrel in high fat diet fed atherosclerotic rats orally. Results showed significant reduction in total serum cholesterol and malondialdehyde levels and significant improvement in urine creatinine levels. Aortic cross sections of rats treated with clopidogrel alone showed reversal of atherosclerotic calcification. The same effect was observed with the combined treatment of clopidogrel and atorvastatin. Only atorvastatin treatment did not show any histological atheroprotective effect. Atorvastatin and clopidogrel alone and in combination have offered significant atheroprotective effect. No specific advantage was seen with combined treatment of atorvastatin and clopidogrel, moreover the advantages seen with independent drug administration also reduced with combined treatment.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 704-714

 

 

Dose-dependent response of central dopaminergic systems to buspirone in mice

S A Jadhav, R V Gaikwad, R K Gaonkar, V M Thorat, S C Gursale & J J Balsara

 

Received 5 October 2007; revised 14 July 2008

Buspirone, a partial agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine1A autoreceptors, preferentially blocks the presynaptic rather than the postsynaptic D2 dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioural effects of a wide dose range of buspirone were therefore studied in mice. Buspirone at 0.625 to 5 mg/kg ip induced stereotyped cage climbing behaviour which was antagonized by pretreatment with haloperidol, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine and small doses of apomorphine. Buspirone at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg ip induced catalepsy and antagonized oral stereotypies induced by high doses of apomorphine and methamphetamine and apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour. The findings indicate that buspirone at 0.625 to 5 mg/kg selectively blocks the presynaptic mesolimbic D2 DA autoreceptors and releases DA which stimulates the postsynaptic mesolimbic D2 and D1 DA receptors and induces cage climbing behaviour. Buspirone, at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg blocks the postsynaptic striatal and mesolimbic D2 and D1 DA receptors. Pretreatment with l-tryptophan, dexfenfluramine and fluoxetine antagonized buspirone induced cage climbing behaviour and potentiated buspirone induced catalepsy. Pretreatment with trazodone, mianserin and p-chlorophenylalanine potentiated buspirone induced cage climbing behaviour and antagonized buspirone induced catalepsy. The results indicate that drugs which influence the activity of central serotonergic systems modulate the intensity of buspirone induced cage climbing behaviour and catalepsy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 715-719

 

 

Topiramate induced histopathological changes in placenta of rats

A Mishra & M Singh

Received 13 December 2007; revised 11 August 2008

Effect of topiramate, an antiepileptic drug, on the development of conceptus and its safety during pregnancy has been investigated in experimental rats. Rats were treated with topiramate dissolved in tap water in the doses of 40, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight from day 9 to 12 of gestation through oral route. Fetuses along with placenta were collected for examination on day 21 of gestation after sacrificing the pregnant rats with deep ether anaesthesia. The placenta showed neither significant reduction in weight as compared to the controls nor any overt anomaly. However, on microscopic examination all treated groups showed similar structural changes which increased in severity with increase in the dose of the drug. The deciduas basalis showed thickening, heamorrhage and increased fibrinoid deposit. Disproportionately increased frequency of vacuolated giant cells was observed in the basal zone whereas frequently broken trichorial membrane, homogenous labyrinthine septa and increased fetal mesenchyme were observed in the placental barrier. The results suggested that topiramate induced dose dependent deleterious changes in the structure of placenta, therefore it should be used with caution during pregnancy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 720-724

 

 

Concentration of cations in different parts of male reproductive system
and their influence on in vitro sperm motility in lizard,
Mabuya carinata Schneider.

Ivan Aranha, M Bhagya & H N Yajurvedi

Received 15 February 2007; revised 18 August 2008

Concentrations of mono- and divalent cations in the testis, three different regions of the epididymis and the vas deferens of lizard, M. carinata were determined. The concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ increased gradually from testis to vas deferens. However, no significant variation in the levels of Mg2+ was observed between testis and anterior epididymis, and between posterior epididymis and vas deferens. Further, in an in vitro sperm motility study, wherein different concentrations of the cations were tested, the maximum forward progressive motility of posterior epididymal spermatozoa was observed following treatment with 140 mM NaCl, 25 mM KCl, and 50 mM CaCl2 whereas, treatment with magnesium brought about a decrease in sperm motility. The results indicate that Na+, K+, and Ca2+ have stimulatory effect at an optimum dose, whereas Mg2+ has an inhibitory effect even at very low concentration, on sperm motility in the lizard M. carinata.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 725-730

 

 

Molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Aspergillus terreus (Thom)

Sameer H Qari

Received 11 January 2008; revised 10 June 2008

The present study was conducted to observe the genotoxic effect of latex of Calotropis procera. Dense conidial suspensions of Aspergillus terreus Thom were treated with different concentrations of Calotropis latex and assayed for percentage survival, auxotrophic mutants, DNA and total protein contents and further subjected to RAPD and SDS-PAGE tests. It was found that latex of Calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. Percentage survival decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of auxotrophic mutants increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most auxotrophic mutants were amino acid requiring mutants. DNA and total protein contents of each mutant was significantly lower than wild type of Aspergillus terreus. RAPD demonstrated polymorphic genetic bands which were the electrophoretic products of PCR for all mutants compared with the wild type strain. SDS-PAGE results expressed a polymorphism of protein bands as well. All these results indicated the mutagenicity of latex of Calotropis procera.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 731-735

 

 

Cost effectiveness of colony lysis and colony PCR methods for screening of recombinant Escherichia coli colonies A comparative study

P Azhahianambi, S Ghosh, C Ashok Kumar & V V S Suryanarayana

 

Received 16 November 2007; revised 18 August 2008

Economizing the research protocols by using low cost technologies is the need of laboratories of developing world. Screening of recombinant E. coli colonies is the crucial step in gene cloning and expression studies. In the present study, the cost effectiveness of colony lysis method and colony PCR method in the screening of recombinant E. coli colonies was compared. The colony lysis method was 20 two times more cost effective and less time consuming and can be used to screen the recombinant E. coli colonies in large scale instead of colony PCR method.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 46, October 2008, pp. 736-742

 

 

Effect of salinity stress on growth and carbohydrate metabolism in three rice
(Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance

Wattana Pattanagul & Maysaya Thitisaksakul

Received 2 June 2008; revised 6 August 2008

Rice seedlings cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105 (salt-sensitive), Luang Anan (moderately salt-tolerant) and Pokkali (salt-tolerant) were exposed to 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl for 9 d. Salinity stress caused reduction in leaf relative water contents in all cultivars. Shoot length of cv. Pokkali was least affected by salinity stress whereas increased root length in response to salinity stress was apparent in cvs. Khao Dawk Mali 105 and Luang Anan. Increased salinity level also caused reduction in fresh and dry weights in cvs. Khao Dawk Mali 105 and Luang Anan, but had no effect in cv. Pokkali except at 150 mM. Accumulation of total soluble sugars and sucrose in mature leaves were observed in cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105 exposed to high level of salinity whereas their concentrations in cvs. Luang Anan and Pokkali remained the same as control plants. Accumulation of sucrose in cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105 was suggested to be resulted from the alteration of photosynthate partitioning since the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase were not affected by salinity in this cultivar. On the contrary, salinity stress induced an accumulation of starch in cv. Pokkali. It is suggested that partitioning sugars into starch may involve in salinity tolerance by avoiding metabolic alterations.