Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

 

VOLUME 47

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47(4) 225-304(2009)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Migrating motor complex in biological sciences: Characterization, animal models and disturbances

229

      Krzysztof W. Romański

 

 

 

Papers

 

Restriction enzyme analysis of VP7 gene of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus

245

      Sangeeta Dalal, Gaya Prasad, Minakshi Prasad & Sushila Maan

 

 

 

Isolation and identification of poly beta hydroxybutyric acid accumulating bacteria of Staphylococcal sp. and characterization of biodegradable polyester

250

      Bappaditya Roy, Rajat Banerjee & Sumana Chatterjee

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of six polyherbal formulations in CCl4-induced liver toxicity in mice

257

      C Girish, Bidhan Chandra Koner, S Jayanthi, K Ramachandra Rao, B Rajesh & Suresh Chandra Pradhan

 

 

 

Protective effects of propolis on inorganic mercury induced oxidative stress in mice

264

      Jun-Quan Zhao, Yi-Fei Wen, Monika Bhadauria, Satendra Kumar Nirala,
Abhilasha Sharma, Sadhana Shrivastava, Sangeeta Shukla, Om Prakash Agrawal & Ramesh Mathur

 

 

 

Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Terminalia belerica. Roxb.

270

      M C Sabu & Ramadasan Kuttan

 

 

 

Antioxidant and Antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. leaves and calyces extracts in rats

276

      Pooja C Ochani & Priscilla D’Mello

 

 

 

Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker stem on haematological and serum lipid profile of male Wistar rats

283

      M T Yakubu & A J Afolayan

 

 

 

In vitro synthesis of Frankia and mycorrhiza with Casuarina equisetifolia and ultrastructure of root system

289

      Sanniyasi Elumalai & Nanjian Raaman

 

 

 

Antimicrobial activities of microbial strains isolated from soil of stressed ecological niches of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

298

      Vineeta Singh, Vandana Praveen, Jaspreet Banga & C K M Tripathi

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Forthcoming special issue on ‘Emerging trends in TB, HIV and Leishmaniasis

304

 

 

Author Index

Afolayan A J

283

Agrawal Om Prakash

264

 

 

Banerjee Rajat

250

Banga Jaspreet

298

Bhadauria Monika

264

 

 

Chatterjee Sumana

250

 

 

D’Mello Priscilla

276

Dalal Sangeeta

245

 

 

Elumalai Sanniyasi

289

 

 

Girish C

257

 

 

Jayanthi S

257

 

 

Koner Bidhan Chandra

257

Kuttan Ramadasan

270

 

 

Maan Sushila

245

Mathur Ramesh

264

 

 

Nirala Satendra Kumar

264

 

 

Ochani Pooja C

276

 

 

Pradhan Suresh Chandra

257

Prasad Gaya

245

Prasad Minakshi

245

Praveen Vandana

298

 

 

Raaman Nanjian

289

Rajesh B

257

 

 

Rao K Ramachandra

257

Romański Krzysztof W

229

Roy Bappaditya

250

 

 

Sabu M C

270

Sharma Abhilasha

264

Shrivastava Sadhana

264

Shukla Sangeeta

264

Singh Vineeta

298

 

 

Tripathi C K M

298

 

 

Wen Yi-Fei

264

 

 

Yakubu M T

283

 

 

Zhao Jun-Quyan

264

 

Keyword Index

Actinorhiza

289

Activated sludge

250

Alloxan

270

Antibiotic production

298

Antidiabetic

270

Antihyperlipidemic

276

Antimicrobial activity

298

Antioxidant

276

Antioxidant enzymes

270

 

 

Bluetongue virus

245

Bulbine natalensis

283

 

 

Casuarina equisetifolia

289

CCl4

257

Centrizonal necrosis

257

 

 

Frankia

289

 

 

Glomus fasciculatum

289

 

 

Haematological parameters

283

Hepatoprotection

264

Hepatoprotective

257

Hepatotoxicity

257

Hibiscus sabdariffa

276

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

264

Liver

264

Liver enzymes

257

Localized systemic toxicity

283

 

 

MALDI NMR

250

Mercuric chloride

264

Migrating motor complex

229

Mycorrhiza

289

 

 

Neurohormonal control

229

Non-ruminants

229

 

 

Olivanic acid

298

 

 

Pisolithus tinctorius

289

Polyenes

298

Polyherbal formulations

257

Polyhydroxybutyric acid

250

Propolis

264

 

 

Restriction enzyme digestion

245

RT-PCR

245

Ruminants

229

 

 

Serogroup-specific

245

Serum lipids

283

Staphylococcus sp.

250

 

 

Terminalia belerica

270

Thermoplastic biopolymer

250

 

 

Ultrastructure

289

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 229-244

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Migrating motor complex in biological sciences: Characterization, animal models and disturbances

Krzysztof  W. Romański

Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences,
31 Norwida str., 50-375 Wrocław, Poland

 

The migrating motor complex (MMC) occurs in most mammals and birds and is organized during the fetal life. In some species, like ruminants and other herbivores, it is not abolished by feeding but its character and controlling mechanisms do not vary considerably from other animal species. However, the mechanisms controlling the MMC are complex and incompletely recognized. The central nervous system exerts rather modulatory effects upon the MMC and the role of the enteric nervous system in the initiation and propagation of the MMC is crucial. The hormones appear mainly to disrupt and convert the MMC cycle into the fed pattern. Several types of the disturbances of the MMC cycle and its phases have been described in various pathophysiological conditions. However, it can be more suitable to identify and describe the given MMC abnormality than to establish the rules of the MMC behavior in the course of the gastrointestinal diseases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 245-249

 

 

Papers

 

Restriction enzyme analysis of VP7 gene of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus

Sangeeta Dalal1, Gaya Prasad3*, Minakshi Prasad3 & Sushila Maan2

1Department of Animal and Poultry Science, 51 Campus drive, College of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (SK) S7N5A8, Canada

2Department of Arbovirology, Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK

and

3Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Sciences, CCS Haryana Agricultural University,
Hisar 125 004, Haryana, India

Received 6 October 2008; revised 30 January 2009

The genome segment 7 of two Indian isolates of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Avikanagar (BTV-1-western India) and Hyderabad (BTV-Untyped Hyderabad-southern India) was amplified by RT-PCR using two sets of VP7 specific primers. A sequence of 1137 bp comprising the complete coding sequence of the VP7 gene from Avikanagar isolate and a 1154 bp full–length sequence from BTV-UT Hyderabad isolate were amplified. Further, restriction enzyme digestion of these full-length amplicons, using EcoRI, PstI and TaqI revealed that genome segment 7 from both isolates were different from each other by absence of any EcoRI site in the BTV-UT Hyderabad isolate. There were also variations in the number and position of restriction sites for TaqI enzyme in these two isolates. TaqI has two sites in the Avikanagar isolate whereas four sites in BTV-UT Hyderabad. The restriction digestion fragments obtained after PstI digestion were differentiated on the basis of their distinct sizes in both isolates. Comparison of their in silico restriction profiles with that of other isolates from different countries revealed that the two Indian isolates belonging to different parts of India had variations in their VP7 gene which was also distinguishable from at least some isolates from Australia and South Africa. Hence the restriction enzyme (RE) based analysis might be a useful tool in determining the genetic diversity in genome segment 7 and also for tracing their evolutionary relationships.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 250-256

 

 

Isolation and identification of poly beta hydroxybutyric acid accumulating
bacteria of Staphylococcal sp. and characterization of biodegradable polyester

Bappaditya Roy, Rajat Banerjee & Sumana Chatterjee*

Dr B C Guha Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019

Received 14 July 2008; revised 6 February 2009

Staphylococcus sp. strain BP/SU1, capable of degrading the biopolymer and utilize it as a source of carbon and energy, was isolated from activated sludge using metabolix (MBX D411G). It was found that this strain was capable of accumulating poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) P(3-HB), as granule poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid), p(3-HB), inclusion bodies when grown under suitable nutrient conditions. These strains could sustain cell growth up to a dry mass of 9.24 g/l with a doubling time of 8 to 10 hr and could accumulate P(3-HB) as granular inclusion bodies to a cell dry weight of more than 12%. P(3-HB) accumulated by this organism was isolated and characterized through NMR, FT- IR spectroscopy, UV Spectroscopy, Mass spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. P(3-HB) granules so isolated showed physical and chemical properties that should be possessed by a superior quality thermoplastic biopolymer.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 257-263

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of six polyherbal formulations in CCl4-induced liver toxicity in mice

C Girish*, Bidhan Chandra Konera, S Jayanthib, K Ramachandra Raoc,

B Rajeshc & Suresh Chandra Pradhan

Department of Pharmacology, Biochemistrya, Pathologyb and Anatomyc,

Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India, 605 006

Received 16 September 2008; revised 12 January 2009

To evaluate pretreatment of six polyherbal liquid formulations (PLFs) commercially available in India, on CCl4-induced liver injury, Swiss albino mice were treated for 7 days with distilled water or PLFs (2.6 and 5.2 ml/kg body weight/day, po) followed by single sc injection of 50% (v/v) CCl4 in arachis oil at a dose of 1ml/kg. The serum biochemical parameters such as alanine transaminases, aspartate transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were estimated. Phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time and liver histopathology were also carried out. CCl4-treated animals showed significant increase in the levels of liver enzymes, phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time and revealed fatty changes and centrizonal necrosis on histological examination of liver indicating hepatic damage. When pretreated with PLFs at a dose of 5.2 ml/kg body weight/day, the CCl4-induced changes were significantly reversed. The pretreatment with PLFs can prevent acute liver damage induced by CCl4 only at a higher dose. Therefore, it is suggested that a dose adjustment of these PLFs may be necessary for their optimal effects in human liver diseases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 264-269

 

 

Protective effects of propolis on inorganic mercury induced oxidative stress in mice

Jun-Quan Zhao1, Yi-Fei Wen1, Monika Bhadauria2*, Satendra Kumar Nirala2, Abhilasha Sharma2,

Sadhana Shrivastava2, Sangeeta Shukla2, Om Prakash Agrawal2 & Ramesh Mathur2

1College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650 201, PR China

2School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

Received 20 August 2008; revised 17 February 2009

Protective potential of propolis was evaluated against mercury induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic alterations in mice liver. Exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 5 mg/kg; ip) induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione level along with concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes. Mercury intoxication deviated the activity of liver marker enzymes in serum. Conjoint treatment of propolis (200 mg/kg; po) inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione level, whereas increased glutathione level. Activities of antioxidants enzymes i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also restored concomitantly towards control after propolis administration. Release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly restored towards control after propolis treatment. Results suggest that propolis augments the antioxidants defense against mercury induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepatoprotective agent.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 270-275

 

 

Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Terminalia belerica. Roxb

M C Sabu & Ramadasan Kuttan*

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, India, 680 553

Received 14 July 2008; revised 2 December 2008

Effect of continuous administration of dried 75% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia belerica (Combretaceae) suspended in water was studied in alloxan induced hyperglycemia and antioxidant defense mechanism in rats. T. belerica prevented alloxan-induced hyperglycaemia significantly from 6th day of administration and there was 54% reduction on 12th day. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of T. belerica extract. This was evident from a significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides in blood and liver respectively. Similarly, decreased glutathione level produced by alloxan was increased by the administration of the extract in blood and liver. However the increase was not significant. Superoxide dismutase which was decreased by alloxan was significantly increased from 9th day in blood and liver of drug treated group. Similarly there was significant increase in the activity of catalase in blood and liver. Decrease in glutathione peroxidase by alloxan administration was found to be increased significantly in the blood and liver from 9th day by extract treatment. Glutathione reductase also was found to be increased in blood and liver. These results suggested that T. belerica fruit extract possessed anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant activity and these activities may be interrelated.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 276-282

 

 

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. leaves and calyces extracts in rats

Pooja C Ochani & Priscilla D’Mello*

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Prin K M Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai 400 005, India

Received 1 August 2008; revised 5 February 2009

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of the extracts of leaves and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated by studying their in vitro inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation and in vivo effects on cholesterol induced hyperlipidemia. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by ethanolic extract of calyces followed by ethanolic extract of leaves followed by aqueous extract of leaves of H. sabdariffa. In cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic model, groups of rats treated with extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdariffa showed a significant decrease in the serum TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TAG values alongwith an increase in serum HDL-C levels. The treated groups also showed significant decrease in the atherogenic index, LDL-C: HDL-C risk ratios, and in the levels of SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities compared to cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic control group. Significant antihyperlipidemic activity was shown by ethanolic extract of calyces, followed by ethanolic extract of leaves. It was observed from the histopathological findings that rats fed with H. sabdariffa extracts showed decrease in granular degeneration caused by cholesterol feedings. Results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdariffa containing polyphenols and flavanols possess significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 283-288

 

 

Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker stem on haematological and serum lipid profile of male Wistar rats

M T Yakubu & A J Afolayan*

Centre for Phytomedicine Research, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa

Received 8 September 2008

Bulbine natalensis stem extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 14 days) did not significantly alter the red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width in male Wistar rats. In contrast, the white blood cell count increased by the end of the experimental period. While the levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased after the administration of single dose of the extract (day 1), those of the platelets and monocytes increased. The extract also reduced the levels of basophils and large unstained cells after the seven daily doses. All the doses increased the serum concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerols. Whereas the serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein was unaffected throughout the experimental period, the decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was accompanied by increase in the atherogenic index. The results showed that aqueous extract of B. natalensis stem exhibited localized systemic toxicity mainly on the white blood cell count and related indices. The alterations in the serum lipid profile may predispose the animals to atherosclerosis especially when consumed repeatedly for two weeks.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 289-297

 

 

In vitro synthesis of Frankia and mycorrhiza with Casuarina equisetifolia and ultrastructure of root system

Sanniyasi Elumalai & Nanjian Raaman*

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India

Received 12 November 2007; revised 1 December 2008

Casuarina equisetifolia is one of the ecologically and economically important tropical coastal trees nodulated by nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia and forming symbiotic associations with both ecto- and endomycorrhizal fungi. The present study aims at the ultrastructural study of interactions between C. equisetifolia, Frankia, and mycorrhiza. C. equisetifolia seeds were sterilised and germinated under in vitro condition. The seedlings were transferred to conical flasks containing vermiculite and saw dust with Hoagland’s solution. After 30 days, the inoculum of AM fungus ¾ Glomus fasciculatum (A), ectomycorrhizal fungus¾Pisolithus tinctorius (E) and actinorhizal Frankia (F) were inoculated individually and in various combinations, (A+E), (A+F), E+F) and (A+E+F). After 90 days, the experimental plant roots and nodules were harvested for assessment of growth characters of mycorrhizal and actinorhizal association by light and scanning electron microscope methods. C. equisetifolia roots were infected with arbuscles and vesicles of G. fasciculatum; P. tinctorius formed fungal sheath but no Hartig net. Large number of cortical cells were seen infected with Frankia, hyphae of Frankia were frequently seen penetrating from cell to cell directly through cell walls and Frankia occupied majority of the cell volume.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, April 2009, pp. 298-303

 

 

Antimicrobial activities of microbial strains isolated from soil of stressed ecological niches of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

 

Vineeta Singh, Vandana Praveen, Jaspreet Banga & C K M Tripathi*

Division of Fermentation Technology, Central Drug Research Institute,
Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow 226 001, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised 12 January 2009

Antimicrobial activities of twenty bacterial strains isolated from ten different stressed agro-ecological niches of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India were evaluated against bacteria, yeasts and molds. Eleven isolates showing strong antimicrobial activities were characterized. Eight antifungal compounds were purified and partially characterized by Ultra-Violet (UV) absorption spectra and grouped into polyenes and non-polyenes. Antibacterial metabolites produced by four isolates were purified and chemically characterized, of which one isolate (AB) produced a new form of olivanic acid, and other three isolates (C5, Py and M4) produced antibacterial compounds having phenoxazone nucleus.