Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http : // www.niscair.res.in

 

VOLUME47

NUMBER8

AUGUST2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47 (8) 611-694 (2009)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

                                                                  CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

 

Lifestyle factors in deteriorating male reproductive health

615

Sunil Kumar, Archana Kumari & Shiva Murarka

 

 

 

Role of different cytokines and seizure susceptibility: A new dimension toward
epilepsy research

625

R S Rao, A Prakash & B Medhi

 

 

 

Papers

 

Stem cell-like outgrowths from in vitro fertilized goat blastocysts

635

S S Pawar, D Malakar, A K De & Y S Akshey

 

 

 

Molluscicidal activity of Piper cubeba Linn., Piper longum Linn. and Tribulus terrestris Linn. and their combinations against snail Indoplanorbis exustus Desh

643

Jitendra K Pandey & D K Singh

 

 

 

Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats

649

T Prabha, M Dorababu, Shalini Goel, P K Agarwal, A Singh, V K Joshi & R K Goel

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress

660

Karunakar Hegde & Arun B Joshi

 

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Achillea wilhemsii C. Koch in mice

668

Fariba Sharififar, Shirin Pournourmohammadi & Moslem Arabnejad

 

 

 

Sequence information, outogeny and tissue-specific expression of complement component C3 in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

672

Jasobanta Mishra, P K Sahoo, B R Mohanty & Abhilipsa Das

 

 

 

Hybridization between threatened freshwater catfish Mystus gulio (Hamiltion & Buchanan) and Mystus montanus (Jerdon) by artificial fertilization

679

M A Haniffa, M Dhanaraj, C Muthu Ramakrishnan, R Arthi Manju,
Y Ananth Kumar & S V Arun Singh

 

 

 

Carborundum-dependent entrance of EcoRI restriction enzyme into plant cells and specific cleavage of genomic DNA

684

Ashraf Gholizadeh & B Baghban Kohnehrouz

 

 

 

Comparative biosorption of Pb2+ by live algal consortium and immobilized dead biomass from aqueous solution

690

Rajiv Kumar & Dinesh Goyal

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Second Louis Pasteur Memorial National Symposium on Antimicrobial Resistance and Drug Discovery

614

 

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Second Louis Pasteur Memorial National Symposium on
Antimicrobial Resistance and Drug Discovery

910 September 2009

 

Sponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, and organized by the Department of Microbiology, Dr N G P Arts & Science College, Coimbatore, the Symposium will focus on (i) Antimicrobial Resistance (relentless rise of resistance, testing and clinical use of antibiotics, laboratory issues, mechanism of antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoan and antiviral resistance, and hospital and community practice) and (ii) Drug Discovery (microbial drug production, synthesis and biological evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents, screening and antimicrobials of herbs, and standization of in vitro and in vivo procedures). For further details, please contact the Organizing Secretary ((Mr N Prabhu), II Louis Pasteur Memorial NSARDD-2009, Department of Microbiology, Dr N G P Arts & Science College, Dr N G P Kalapatti Road, Coimbatore 641 048, India. Telephone: 0422-2629367, 2628944, 2627098; Mobile: 09842780322; Fax: 0422-2629369; e-mail: prachanna_76@yahoo.co.in; pasteur.symposium@gmail.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2008 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year, issue, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Agarwal P K

649

Akshey Y S

635

Arabnejad Moslem

668

Archana Kumari

615

 

 

Das Abhilipsa

672

De A K

635

Dhanaraj M

679

Dorababu M

649

 

 

Gholizadeh Ashraf

684

Goel R K

649

Goel Shalini

649

Goyal Dinesh

690

 

 

Haniffa M A

679

 

 

Hedge Karunakar

660

 

 

Joshi Arun B

660

Joshi V K

649

 

 

Kohnehrouz B Baghban

684

Kumar Rajiv

690

Kumar Y Ananth

679

 

 

Malakar D

635

Manju R Arthi

679

Medhi B

625

Mishra Jasobanta

672

Mohanty B R

672

Murarka Shiva

615

 

 

Pandey Jitendra K

643

Pawar S S

635

Pournourmohammadi Shirin

668

Prabha T

649

Prakash A

625

 

 

Ramakrishnan C Muthu

679

Rao R S

625

 

 

Sahoo P K

672

Sharififar Fariba

668

Singh A

649

Singh V S Arun

679

Singh D K

643

Sunil Kumar

615

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Achillea wilhelmsii

668

Acid secretion

649

Active components

643

Algae

690

Antiepileptic drugs

625

Antioxidants

649, 660

Artificial fertilization

679

 

 

Bioresin

690

Biosorption

690

Blastocyst

635

 

 

Carissa carandas

660

CCl4

660

Cleavage

684

Complement factor C3

672

Cytokines

625

 

 

DTH

668

 

 

EcoRI

684

Embryonic stem cells

635

Entrance

684

 

 

Epilepsy

625

 

 

Fascioliasis

643

Free radicals

649

 

 

Gastro-duodenal ulcers

649

Goat

635

 

 

Haemagglutination titre

668

Hepatoprotective activity

660

Hybridization

679

 

 

Illicit drugs

615

Immunity response

668

Indoplanorbis exustus

643

Inflammation

625

Inner cell mass

635

Interaction

684

 

 

Labeo rohita

672

Lead

690

Lifestyle factors

615

 

 

M. monotanus

679

Molluscicides

643

 

 

Mucosal defense

649

Mystus gulio

679

 

 

Obesity

615

Ontogeny

672

Oxidative stress

660

 

 

Paracetamol

660

Piper

643

Plant cell

684

Pongamia pinnata

649

 

 

Reproductive impairment

615

Restriction enzyme

684

 

 

Semen quality

615

Stress

615

 

 

Threatened catfish

679

Tissue-specific expression

672

Tobacco smoking and chewing

615

Toxicity

668

Tribulus

643

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 615-624

 

 

Lifestyle factors in deteriorating male reproductive health

Sunil Kumar1,2, Archana Kumari1 & Shiva Murarka2

Division of Reproductive and Cytotoxicology1, ENVIS-NIOH Centre2,
National Institute of Occupational Health (ICMR), Ahmedabad 380 016, India

Many health problems are related to lifestyle and dietary factors. Increasing trend in reproductive disorders observed in recent years may be associated at least in part with these factors, which are compounded by some of the new emergent life styles. The data available suggests that lifestyle factors such as obesity, tobacco smoking or chewing, alcohol and some of the illicit drugs like cocaine, cannabis etc and exposure to extreme heat, have adverse effects on male reproduction. The data on other factors such as use of mobile phone and stress on reproductive health are inadequate and need detailed study. Lifestyle related diseases could be lowered with modification in diet, living and working environment etc. Sub-fertile and/or normal subjects have some control over their reproductive function by adopting healthy lifestyles to avoid additional complications.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 625-634

 

 

Role of different cytokines and seizure susceptibility: A new dimension towards epilepsy research

RS Rao, A Prakash & B Medhi *

Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India

Epilepsy is a common health problem. Although variety of factors influence the incidence and prevalence of seizures, cytokines are considered to play an important role in seizures. Cytokines are also known to be involved in other neurodegenerative disorders. Proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and related molecules have been described in CNS and plasma of experimental models of seizures and clinical cases of epilepsy. There are reports suggesting more predispositions to seizures during inflammatory conditions like colitis, pneumonia and rheumatoid arthritis. These inflammatory cytokines and growth factors are also known to have dual roles in affecting seizure susceptibility. It remains to be seen if cytokine modulators can be therapeutically exploited for patients with inflammatory disorder and suffering from epilepsy.

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 635-642

 

 

Stem cell-like outgrowths from in vitro fertilized goat blastocysts

S S Pawar, D Malakar*, A K De & Y S Akshey

Animal Biotechnology Center, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001, India

Received 27 August 2008; revised 18 March 2009

With an aim to isolate, culture and characterize goat embryonic stem cell-like cells derived from in vitro fertilized goat blastocysts, slaughterhouse derived goat oocytes were in vitro matured in maturation medium in 5% CO2 air at 38.5oC. Matured oocytes were fertilized in vitro with fresh capacitated spermatozoa. Total 636 (36.5%) cleaved embryos were obtained which were further co-cultured with goat oviductal epithelial cells (GOEC) for 7-10 days. GOEC culture system was better for formation of morula (150; 44.3%) and hatched blastocyst (13; 3.8%) than embryo development medium culture system, [morula (69; 23.1%) and hatched blastocyst (5; 1.6%)]. Out of total blastocysts (48) the primary colonies were formed in 23.3% (7/30) blastocysts, and 66.6% (12/18) of hatched blastocysts. The cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) derived primary colonies were small, aggregated and tightly packed in nature forming embryoid bodies on further subculture. The colonies were stained to see the expression of alkaline phosphatase and positive result was obtained. Goat embryonic stem cell like outgrowths were also characterized for Oct-4 expression and positive result was found. It could be concluded that ICM cells were isolated from in vitro fertilized goat blastocysts and cultured for embryonic stem cell-like cells and expression of alkaline phosphatase and Oct-4 in these cells were positive.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 643-648

 

 

Molluscicidal activity of Piper cubeba Linn., Piper longum Linn. and
Tribulus terrestris Linn. and their combinations against
snail Indoplanorbis exustus Desh.

Jitendra K Pandey & D K Singh*

Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India

Received 6 January 2009; revised 3 March 2009

The toxic effect of dried berries powder of P. cubeba, dried fruit powder of P. longum and T. terrestris singly as well as in combination [binary(1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1)] were studied against snail I. exustus. Toxicity of these plant products were time and concentration dependent. Ethanol extracts of these plants were more effective than that of other organic solvents. 96 h LC50 value of column purified fraction of T. terrestris against I. exustus was 9.57 mg/l, where as 96 h LC50 values of column purified fractions of P. longum and P. cubeba were 11.57 mg/l and 10.93 mg/l, respectively. Binary (1:1) combination of P. cubeba (PC) + P. longum (PL) (41.78 mg/l) was more effective than P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) (42.17 mg/l) and P. longum (PL) + T. terrestris (TT) (55.84 mg/l) respectively; while tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) + T. foenum-graecum (TF) (10.67 mg/l) was more effective than rest of the combinations. These plants can be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail I. exustus.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 649-659

 

 

Effect of methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn seed on gastro-duodenal ulceration and mucosal offensive and defensive factors in rats

T Prabhaa, M Dorababua, Shalini Goelb, P K Agarwala, A Singha, V K Joshic & R K Goela*

Departments of Pharmacologya & Dravyagunac

Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

&

Department of Pathologyb

Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal 576 102, India

Received 21 November 2008; revised 20 April 2009

Pongamia pinnata has been advocated in Ayurveda for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions and dyspepsia. The present work includes initial phytochemical screening and study of ulcer protective and healing effects of methanolic extract of seeds of P. pinnata (PPSM) in rats. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of flavonoids in PPSM. PPSM when administered orally (po) showed dose-dependent (12.5-50 mg/kg for 5 days) ulcer protective effects against gastric ulcer induced by 2 h cold restraint stress. Optimal effective dose of PPSM (25 mg/kg) showed antiulcerogenic activity against acute gastric ulcers (GU) induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin and duodenal ulcer induced by cysteamine but not against ethanol-induced GU. It healed chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid when given for 5 and 10 days. Further, its effects were studied on various parameters of gastric offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) and defensive mucosal factors like mucin secretion and mucosal cell shedding, glycoproteins, proliferation and antioxidants; catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels. PPSM tended to decrease acid output and increased mucin secretion and mucosal glycoproteins, while it decreased gastric mucosal cell shedding without any effect on cell proliferation. PPSM significantly reversed the increase in gastric mucosal LPO, NO and SOD levels caused by CRS near to the normal level while it tended to increase CAT and GSH level decreased by CRS and ethanol respectively. Thus, the ulcer protective effects of PPSM may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and the actions may be due to its effects both on mucosal offensive and defensive factors.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 660-667

 

 

Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress

Karunakar Hegdea* & Arun B Joshib

a Department of Pharmacology

Srinivas College of Pharmacy, Valachil

Post- Parangepete, Mangalore 574 143, India.

b Department of Pharmacognosy

N G S M Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mangalore 574 160, India.

Received 19 February 2009; revised 20 April 2009

Oral pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of the roots of C. carandas (ERCC; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, po) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing the activities of serum marker enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation, and significant increase in the levels of uric acid, glutathione, super oxide dismutase, catalase and protein in a dose dependent manner, which was confirmed by the decrease in the total weight of the liver and histopathological examination. Data also showed that ERCC possessed strong antioxidant activity, which may probably lead to the promising hepatoprotective activities of C. carandas root extract. These findings therefore supported the traditional belief on hepatoprotective effect of the roots of C. carandas.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 668-671

 

 

Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Achillea wilhelmsii
C. Koch in mice

Fariba Sharififar1, Shirin Pournourmohammadi2 & Moslem Arabnejad1

Department of1Pharmacognosy and 2Toxicology-Pharmacology, Research Center of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy,
Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Received 4 December 2008; revised 16 April 2009

Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Achillea wilhelmsii (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days) was evaluated on body weight, relative organ weight, delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response and haemagglutination titre (HT) in female Swiss albino mice. No significant body weight gain differences were recorded in various groups of animals. Significant increase in relative organ weight of spleen at 100 mg/kg was observed. No elevation in the levels of liver function test (LFT) enzymes and kidney relative weight was observed in tested doses of the plant. The extract of A. wilhelmsii elicited a significant increase in the DTH response at the dose of 100 mg/kg. In the HT test, plant extract showed stimulatory effect in all doses, however this changes were significant at 50 mg/kg. No mortality was occurred in tested doses. Overall, A. wilhelmsii showed a stimulatory effect on both humoral and cellular immune functions in mice.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 672-678

 

 

Sequence information, ontogeny and tissue-specific expression of complement component C3 in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

Jasobanta Mishra, P K Sahoo*, B R Mohanty & Abhilipsa Das

Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar 751 002, India

Received 6 January 2009, revised 20 April 2009

The complement system is one of the first line of immune defence mechanisms as well as a modifier of acquired immunity. C3 is the central complement component primarily synthesized in liver. The local synthesis of C3 in tissues other than liver may play an important role in local inflammatory processes. The present study aims at looking into ontogeny of C3 in Labeo rohita and its tissue-specific expression that is yet to be explored for Indian carps. Unfertilised eggs, and eggs after 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 h post-fertilization and hatchlings at 24 h, and 3 and 7 days post-fertilization were collected from three brood fish of L. rohita (rohu). Total RNA was extracted from ~50 mg of tissue and subjected to RT-PCR using heterologous carp primers to amplify C3 fragment. A product of 155 bp size of rohu C3 was amplified, the deduced amino acid sequence of which had 91.1% similarity to that of Cyprinus carpio C3. C3 mRNA was not detected in unfertilized and 6 h post-fertilised eggs. C3 transcripts were detected 12 h post-fertilisation. Similarly, tissues from liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, brain, gonads, intestine, blood, heart and gills collected from juveniles of rohu were subjected to detection of C3 transcripts by RT-PCR and C3 mRNA was detected in all the tissues. Thus, it is concluded that there is extra-hepatic synthesis of complement (C3) in L. rohita and the synthesis of this component occurs only 6 h post-fertilisation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 679-683

 

 

Hybridization between threatened freshwater catfish Mystus gulio (Hamilton & Buchanan) and Mystus montanus (Jerdon) by artificial fertilization

M A Haniffa*, M Dhanaraj, C Muthu Ramakrishnan, R Arthi Manju, Y Ananth Kumar & S V Arun Singh

Centre for Aquaculture Research and Extension (CARE), St. Xavier's College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai 627002, India

Received 12 June 2008: revised 23 April 2009

Inter-specific hybrids were produced between the threatened catfish species Mystus gulio Mystus montanus. The differences in percentage of fertilization and hatching between control and interspecies were significant. The survival of hybrid was significantly lower (24.80 4.3%) when compared to control (95.1 3.5%). Time difference in yolk absorption by hybrid (73.30 h) was higher than that of control (72 h). When compared to interspecific fertilized egg the hatching time (24-25 h) and viability of larvae of the control were significantly better. In hybrids more deformed hatchlings (52.7 4.2 %) were noticed than the control (24.80 4.3%).

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 684-689

 

 

Carborundum-dependent entrance of EcoRI restriction enzyme into plant cells and
specific cleavage of genomic DNA

Ashraf Gholizadeh* & B Baghban Kohnehrouz

Department of Biology, Research Institute for Fundamental Sciences (RIFS), University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Received 2 June 2008; revised 15 April 2009

In a basic research to determine the morpho-molecular interactions of plant tissues with EcoRI DNA restriction enzyme, it was demonstrated that this protein is capable of entering the sunflower and maize leaf cells using a plant tissue-abrading material and cleaving the genomic DNA at specific sites. This was inferred from the analysis of morphological patterns of EcoRI-treated leaf areas as well as using some molecular tests, including the cleavage pattern analysis of genomic DNA isolated from treated locations followed by ligation of cleaved fragments into EcoRI site of a DNA cloning vector system. The overall results indicated that the specific restriction of genomic DNA may happen following the entrance of EcoRI protein most likely into the nucleus of plant cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, August 2009, pp. 690-694

 

 

Comparative biosorption of Pb2+ by live algal consortium and immobilized dead biomass from aqueous solution

Rajiv Kumar & Dinesh Goyal*

Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004, India

Received 6 October 2008; revised 20 April 2009

The percent removal and uptake of Pb2+ by algal-consortium (CP1) developed from wastewater of biological oxidation pond (Wazirabad, New Delhi, India) was studied under batch conditions with live biomass compared with continuous system using dried biomass immobilized on silica under laboratory conditions. In batch study, algal consortium (CP1) consisting of a mixed culture of Chlorella>Chlamydomonas>Lyngbya sp. was found to remove 17% of Pb2+ after 15 days of incubation from culture media containing 10 mg/L Pb2+, which decreased by increasing metal concentration from 20-50 mg/L. This reduction in removal efficiency was co-related with direct toxic effect of Pb2+ on live consortium as indicated by drastic inhibition in growth. A maximum lead uptake capacity (qmax) of 33.31 mg/g showed good accumulation potential of live consortium. Bioresin derived from the biomass of dried algal consortium immobilized on silica gel and packed in column exhibited 92.5% removal of Pb2+ with inlet Pb2+ concentration of 33.90 mg/L was brought down to minimum 0.375 mg/L of Pb2+ in outlet stream. The plot of outlet concentration to volume exhibited the typical S shape curve with Pb2+ uptake capacity of 15.95 mg/g. Efficient recovery of 86.16 % of Pb2+ was achieved by elution with dilute HCl which indicated multiple usability of immobilized biomass.