Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 47

NUMBER 12

DECEMBER 2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47 (12) - (2009) 933-1034

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field—A viable alternative therapy for arthritis

939

      Kalaivani Ganesan, Akelayil Chandrapuram Gengadharan, Chidambaram Balachandran, Bhakthavatsalam Murali Manohar & Rengarajulu Puvanakrishnan

 

 

 

Papers

 

Effects of limited doses of retinyl palmitate at the critical time of limb morphogenesis in mouse embryos

949

      N Rezaei , M B Hashemi Soteh & F Rahimi

 

 

 

Reversal of effects of intra peritoneally administered beryllium nitrate by tiron and CaNa3DTPA alone or in combination with α-tocopherol

955

      Satendra Kumar Nirala, Monika Bhadauria, Anil Kumar Upadhyay, Ramesh Mathur &

      Asha Mathur

 

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolite from marine isolate, Pseudomonas sp. against Gram positive and negative bacteria including MRSA

964

      E Madhava Charyulu, G Sekaran, G Suseela Rajakumar & Arumugam Gnanamani

 

 

 

Anxiolytic effect of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata L Willd

969

      Chandana C Barua, Jayanti D Roy, Bhaben Buragohain, Achinta G Barua,
Prabodh Borah & Mangala Lahkar

 

 

 

Ameliorative effect of Cassia auriculata L. Leaf extract on glycemic control and atherogenic lipid status in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

974

      Shipra Gupta, Suman B Sharma & Krishna M Prabhu

 

 

 

Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn.

981

      A C Ene, S E Atawodi, D A Ameh, C N Nnamami & Y E O Apeh

 

 

 

Toxicity and recovery studies of two ayurvedic preparations of iron

987

      P K Sarkar, P K Prajapati, V J Shukla, B Ravishankar & A K Choudhary

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and their effect on plant growth

993

      Dhara P Sachdev, Hemangi G Chaudhari, Vijay M Kasture, Dilip D Dhavale &
Balu A Chopade

 

Notes

 

Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kunzt using in vivo and in vitro model

1001

      C C Barua, A Talukdar, S S Begum, D K Sarma, D C Pathak, A G Barua & R S Bora

 

 

 

Annual Index

 

      Contents

1007

 

 

      Keyword Index

1021

 

 

      Author Index

1025

 

 

List of Experts

1028

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

                                                ————————

 

                      Author Index

Ameh D A

981

Apeh Y E O

981

Atawodi S E

981

 

 

Balachandran Chidambaram

939

Barua A G

1001

Barua C C

1001

Barua C Chandana

969

Barua G Achinta

969

Begum S A

1001

Bhadauria Monika

955

Bora R S

1001

Borah Prabodh

969

Buragohain Bhaben

969

 

 

Charyulu E Madhava

964

Chaudhari Hemangi G

993

Chopade Balu A

993

Choudhary A K

987

 

 

Dhavale Dilip D

993

Enc A C

981

 

 

Ganesan Kalaivani

939

Gengadharan Akelayil

Chandrapuram

 

939

Gnanamani Arumugam

964

Gupta Shipra

974

 

 

Kastrue Vijay M

993

 

 

Lahkar Mangala

969

 

 

Manohar Bhakthavatsalam
Murali

 

939

Mathur Asha

955

Mathur Ramesh

955

Nirala Satendra Kumar

955

 

 

Nnamani C N

981

 

 

Pathak D C

1001

 

 

Prabhu M Krishna

974

Prajapati P K

987

Puvanakrishnan Rengarajulu

939

 

 

Rahimi F

949

Ravishankar B

987

Rezaei N

949

Roy D Jayanti

969

 

 

Sachdev Dhara P

993

Sarkar P K

987

Sarma D K

1001

Sekaran G

964

Sharma S Suman

974

Shukla V J

987

Soteh M B Hashemi

949

Suseela Rajakumar G

964

 

 

Talukdar A

1001

 

 

Upadhyay Anil Kumar

955

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Arthritis

939

Alloxan

974

Alternanthera brasiliana

1001

Antiitrypanosomal

981

Antimicrobial activity

964

Anxiolytic effect

969

Atherogenic indices

974

Atremisia maciverae

981

 

 

Beryllium toxicity

955

Bioassay-guided assay

981

Bone

939

 

 

CaNa3 DTPA

955

Cassia auriculata

974

Chondroprotection

939

Chorioallantoic membrance

model

 

1001

Combination therapy

955

 

 

Diazepam

969

Drymaria cordata

969

 

 

Excision wound

1001

 

 

Hyperglycemia

974

Hypervitaminosis A

949

 

 

Incision wound

1001

Indole acetic acid

993

Inflammation

939

Iron

987

 

 

Klebsiella

993

 

 

Lauha Bhasma

987

Limb defect

949

Lipid profile

974

 

 

Mandura Bhasma

987

Marine microorganisms

964

 

 

 

 

Mouse embryo

949

 

 

Osteoblasts

939

 

 

PEMF

939

Pot experiments

993

Pseudomonas

964

 

 

Recovery

987

Retinyl palmitate

949

Rhizosphere

993

 

 

Seed germination tests

993

 

 

Teratogen

949

Tiron

955

a-tocopherol

955

Toxicity

987

 

 

Wheat

993

Wound healing

1001

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 939-948

 

 

Review Article

 

Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field — A viable alternative
therapy for arthritis

Kalaivani Ganesana, Akelayil Chandrapuram Gengadharanb, Chidambaram Balachandranc,
Bhakthavatsalam Murali Manohard & Rengarajulu Puvanakrishnana*

aDepartment of Biotechnology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India

bAswene Hospital and Research Center, Alwarpet, Chennai 600 018, India

cDepartment of Veterinary Pathology, Madras Veterinary College, Vepery, Chennai 600 007, India 

dCentre for Animal Health Studies, TamilNadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University,

Madhavaram, Chennai 600 051, India

 Arthritis refers to more than 100 disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The existing pharmacological interventions for arthritis offer only symptomatic relief and they are not definitive and curative.   Magnetic healing has been known from antiquity and it is evolved to the present times with the advent of electromagnetism. The original basis for the trial of this form of therapy is the interaction between  the biological systems with the natural magnetic fields. Optimization of the physical window comprising the electromagnetic field generator and signal properties (frequency, intensity, duration, waveform) with the biological window, inclusive of the experimental model, age and stimulus has helped in achieving consistent beneficial results. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can provide noninvasive, safe and easy to apply method to treat pain, inflammation and dysfunctions associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and PEMF has a long term record of safety. This review focusses on the therapeutic application of PEMF in the treatment of these forms of arthritis. The analysis of various studies (animal models of arthritis, cell culture systems and clinical trials) reporting the use of PEMF for arthritis cure has conclusively shown that PEMF not only alleviates the pain in the arthritis condition but it also affords chondroprotection, exerts antiinflammatory action and helps in bone remodeling and this could be developed as a viable alternative for arthritis therapy.

 

 

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 949-954

 

 

 

Effects of limited doses of retinyl palmitate at the critical time of limb morphogenesis in mouse embryos

N Rezaei*

Department of Aanatomy & Cell Biology, Sari Medical Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences,
Mazandaran, Iran

M B Hashemi Soteh

Department of Genetics, Thalassaemia Research Center and Cellular and Molecular Research Center,
Sari Medical Faculty, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran

F Rahimi

Department of Biotechnology, Pasture Institute, Tehran, Iran

Received 16 April 2009; revised 27 August 2009

With a view to examine the effects of defined doses of retinyl palmitate (Vit. A) on limb morphogenesis and their effects at the critical time in mouse embryos, pregnant Swiss Webster albino mice were administered retinyl palmitate (10000 or 15000 IU/kg, ip) on different days of pregnancy. Vitamin A in 15000 IU/kg, ip dose was most effective as produced malformations in the forelimbs by day 10 in 28.6% mice and in the hindlimbs by day 11 in 20.6% mice. Further, two injections in a day with the lower dose (10000 IU/kg, ip) had more teratogenic effects than single 15000 IU/kg, ip injection. Two injections of either dose on day 10 resulted in higher embryo absorption.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 955-963

 

 

 

Reversal of effects of intra peritoneally administered beryllium nitrate by tiron and CaNa3DTPA alone or in combination with α-tocopherol

Satendra Kumar Nirala1, Monika Bhadauria1*, Anil Kumar Upadhyay1, Ramesh Mathur1 & Asha Mathur2

1Reproductive Biology and Toxicology Laboratory, School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

2K R G (PG) College, Kampoo, Gwalior 474 009, India

Received 11 February 2009; revised 16 September 2009

To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of chelating agents tiron (Sodium-4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulphonate) and CaNa3DTPA (Calcium trisodium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) in presence of α-tocopherol against beryllium induced toxicity, adult female albino rats were exposed to beryllium nitrate for 28 days followed by therapy with tiron
(471 mg/kg, ip) and CaNa3DTPA (35 mg/kg, ip) alone and in combination with α-tocopherol (25 mg/kg, po).
Results revealed non-significant fall in haemoglobin and total serum protein content while significant fall in blood sugar level and activity of serum alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand, significant rise in the activity of serum transaminases and LDH was noticed after beryllium administration. Significant increase in total and esterified cholesterol was found in liver and kidney after toxicity. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decreased level of reduced glutathione in both the organs showed oxidative stress due to beryllium exposure. Histopathological and ultrastructural observations of liver and kidney revealed lesions due to beryllium toxicity followed by recovery due to combined therapy. CaNa3DTPA showed moderate therapeutic efficacy; however, its effectiveness was enhanced with α-tocopherol to some extent. Tiron in combination with α-tocopherol exerted statistically more beneficial effects in reversal of beryllium induced biochemical, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 964-968

 

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolite from marine isolate, Pseudomonas sp. against Gram positive and negative bacteria including MRSA

E Madhava Charyulu1, G Sekaran2, G Suseela Rajakumar1 & Arumugam Gnanamani1*

1Microbiology Division, 2Environmental Technology Division, Central Leather Research Institute
(C S I R), Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India

Received 25 August 2008; revised 14 September 2009

A proteobacterium isolated from coastal region of Chennai, India, produced appreciable secondary metabolite and partial purification of the obtained secondary metabolite demonstrated antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and negative organisms including MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Identification of the isolate using biochemical tests, 16s rDNA sequence analysis, G+C content and electron microscopy studies revealed, isolate belonged to Pseudomonas genera. Extraction, purification, characterization and antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolite carried out using various standard instrumental techniques suggested that the active fraction was of 272 m/z with a stable fragment of 244 m/z and also displayed stable free radical activity assessed using EPR analysis. This stable free radical activity of secondary metabolite mediated its antimicrobial activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 969-973

 

 

 

Anxiolytic effect of hydroethanolic extract of Drymaria cordata L Willd

1Chandana C Barua*, 1Jayanti D Roy, 1Bhaben Buragohain, 2Achinta G Barua, 3Prabodh Borah & 4Mangala Lahkar

1Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, 2Public Health,3Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science,
AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India 4 Department of Pharmacology, Gauhati Medical College,
Bhangagarh, Guwahati 781 007, India.

Received 12 June 2009; revised 4 September 2009

Drymaria cordata hydroethanolic extract (DCHE) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg (po) was administered to study anxiolytic effect. Different models for anxiolytic activity viz. Hole board, Open field, Elevated plus maze, Light/dark exploration model were used. In the hole board model, there was dose dependent and significant increase in the numbers of head pokes and the time of head dipping in the treated groups in comparison to the vehicle. In open field test, the number of rearing, assisted rearing and numbers of squares traversed increased significantly. Similarly, in elevated plus maze test, there was significant increase in the time spent and number of entries in open arm as compared to the time spent and number of entries in closed arm in dose dependent manner. In light/dark exploration test, another model for anxiolytic activity, the time spent in lit box , number of crossing and the latency period increased significantly with reduction in time spent in dark box after treatment with DCHE. The presence of phytochemicals viz. triterpenes, diterpenes, steroids and tannins might contribute to its anxiolytic activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 974-980

 

 

 

Ameliorative effect of Cassia auriculata L. leaf extract on glycemic control and atherogenic lipid status in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

Shipra Gupta, Suman B Sharma* & Krishna M Prabhu

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 095, India

Received 3 February 2009; revised 20 July 2009

Oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Cassia auriculata L. (100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body wt daily for 21 days) to alloxan-induced mild diabetic (MD) and severe diabetic (SD) rabbits produced dose dependent fall in fasting blood glucose up to 400 mg/kg dose from day 3 to day 21. Further, a significant elevation in the levels of insulin and reduction in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was observed in both MD and SD rabbits when treated with 400 mg/kg dose of the extract. The significant decrease in serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) with a concomitant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was exhibited by MD as well as SD rabbits following treatment with the extract. Atherogenic indices (TG/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C) were also significantly reduced in both diabetic models of rabbits fed with the extract. Effect of the extract at 400 mg/kg dose was comparable to that of glibenclamide (600 ตg/kg), a reference antidiabetic drug. Thus, the present study demonstrated that aqueous leaf extract of C. auriculata can be a possible candidate for antidiabetic drug.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 981-986

 

 

 

Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn.

A C Ene1 *, S E Atawodi1**, D A Ameh1, C N Nnamani2 & Y E O Apeh1

1Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

2Department of Mathematics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Received 30 March 2009; revised 23 September 2009

Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. maciverae were studied in vitro and in vivo for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Swiss albino mice. Thereafter, the chloroform extract which showed the highest activity in both in vitro and in vivo assessments was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude extracts and the fractions of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae were screened for phytochemicals and secondary metabolites. Combined fractions 54-57 of this extract showed the highest in vitro antitrypanosomal activity, and at 10 mg/kg body weight, this fraction cleared the parasitemia completely from T. brucei brucei infected Swiss albino mice after 7 days of treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the level of parasitemia when the infected mice treated with this fraction was compared with the standard trypanocidal drug, diminal. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that the crude extracts contained secondary metabolites like flavonoids, triterpenes, terpenoids, tannins, phlobatannins and alkaloids, while the active fraction contains only triterpenes and alkaloids. It can be inferred that fraction 54-57 contains the active component responsible for the high antitrypanosomal activity of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 987-992

 

 

 

Toxicity and recovery studies of two ayurvedic preparations of iron

P K Sarkar*1, P K Prajapati2, V J Shukla3 & B Ravishankar3, A K Choudhary4

1Department of Rasashastra, J. B. Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, 170 – 172,
Raja Dinendra Street, Kolkata 700 004, India 2Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana including Drug Research, 3Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda,
Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar 361 008, India 4Department of Rasashastra, Faculty of Ayurveda,
Institute of Medical Sciences,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 23 February 2009; revised 23 September 2009

Lauha Bhasma and Mandura Bhasma in 55 mg/kg dose (5 times the therapeutic effective dose) for 60 days exhibited no serious toxic effects in Charles Foster albino rats. Both the drugs showed significant recovery from chronic toxic effect after 45 days of recovery period.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 993-1000

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of indole acetic acid (IAA) producing
Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from rhizosphere of wheat
(Triticum aestivum) and their effect on plant growth

Dhara P Sachdev1,3, Hemangi G Chaudhari3, Vijay M Kasture2, Dilip D Dhavale2 & Balu A Chopade*1,3

1Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (IBB)
University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India

Received 16 December 2008; revised 4 September 2009

The present study was undertaken for isolation of Klebsiella strains from rhizosphere of wheat (T. aestivum), screening and characterization of these strains for in vitro indole acetic acid (IAA) production and studying the effect of these strains on plant growth under gnotobiotic conditions. Nine strains of Klebsiella were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (var. Lokwan) and identified as K. pneumoniae by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Six K. pneumoniae strains showed in vitro IAA production. Colorimetric analysis showed that K8 produced maximum IAA (27.5 mg l-1) in the presence of tryptophan (1 mg ml-1) at 72 h of incubation with optimum conditions as pH 8.0, 37C and 0.5% (w/v) NaCl concentration. GC-MS analysis and IR studies confirmed presence of IAA in the cell filtrates of strain K8. Effect of six IAA producing Klebsiella strains on plant growth was studied by performing series of seed germination tests using moth bean seeds under axenic conditions and pot experiments using sterilized soil and wheat seeds (var. Lokwan). Strain K11 and K42 demonstrated increase in root length of inoculated moth beans (~ 92.71% over the control). Results of pot experiments indicated that almost all the six IAA producing Klebsiella strains significantly increased the root length and shoot height of inoculated wheat seedlings over the control. The results suggest that these are promising isolates from wheat rhizosphere and merits research on appliance of these strains in agriculture.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 1001-1005

 

Notes

 

Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz  using in vivo and in vitro model

C C Barua1*, A Talukdar1, S A Begum1, D K Sarma2,
D C Pathak3, A G Barua4 & R S Bora5

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Veterinary
Microbiology, 3Veterinary Pathology, 4Veterinary Public Health and 5Animal Production and Management, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India.

Received 6 July 2009; revised 28 August 2009

Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz was studied by excision and incision wound model (in vivo) in Sprague Dawley rats and by Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model (In vitro) in 9 day old embryonated chicken eggs. In excision wound model, compared to the control group, per cent contraction of wound was significantly higher in A. brasiliana (5% w/w ointment) treated group.In incision wound model, tensile strength of the healing tissue after treatment with A. brasiliana was found to be significantly higher compared to the control group indicating better wound healing activity of the test plant. These findings were also confirmed by histopathological examination. The extract also promoted angiogenesis as evidenced by CAM model. The results suggested that methanolic extract of A. brasiliana possess significant wound healing potential in normal wound.