Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME47

NUMBER1

JANUARY2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47(1) 1-76(2009)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Changes in erythrocyte aggregation and deformability in diabetes mellitus: A brief review

07

Megha Singh & Sehyun Shin

 

 

 

Papers  

Protective effect of Withaferin-A on tumour formation in 7,12-

dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters

16
S Manoharan, K Panjamurthy, Venugopal P Menon, S Balakrishnan & Linsa Mary
      Alias
 
   
Long term dietary restriction ameliorates swimming exercise- induced oxidative stress
in brain and lung of middle-aged rat
            24
Cenk Aydin, Fusun Sonat, Senay Koparan Sahin, I Taci Cangul & Guven Ozkaya  
   

Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum

var. paradisiaca) in rats

            32
P K Agarwal, A Singh, K Gaurav, Shalini Goel, H D Khanna & R K Goel  
   
Cardioprotective effect of lipistat against doxorubicin induced myocardial toxicity
in albino rats
            41
B C Koti, A H M Vishwanthswamy, Jyoti Wagawade & A H M Thippeswamy  
   
Effect of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. on stress and cognition in mice             47
Mrugaya P Kulkani & Archana R Juvekar  
   
Effect of probenecid on kinetics of enrofloxacin in lactating goats after
subcutaneous administration
            53
Jai Prakash Narayan, Nirbhay Kumar, H N Jha & C Jayachandran  
   
Production of peptide antifungal antibiotic and biocontrol activity of Bacillus subtilis             57
Ajay Kumar, Pragati Saini & J N Shrivastava  
   
Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus colonization and aflatoxin (AfBl) in peanut by methyleugenol             63
P Sudhakar, P Latha, Y Sreenivasulu, B V Bhaskar Reddy, T M Hemalatha, M       Balakrishnan & K Raja Reddy  
   
Efficient in vitro plant regeneration via leaf base segments of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)             68
M Ramesh, V Murugiah & Aditya K Gupta  
   
Information for Authors             75
   
Announcements  
Ramanbhai Foundation 4th International Symposium on Advances in Cardiometabolic Research—Basic Science and Clinical Aspects              6
   

 

Author Index

Agarwal P K

32

Alias Mary Linsa

16

Aydin Cenk

24

 

Balakrishna M

63

Balakrishnan S

16

 

 

Cangul I Taci

24

 

Gaurav K

32

Goel R K

32

Goel Shalini

32

Gupta Aditya K

68

 

 

Hemalatha  T M

63

 

 

Jayachandaran C

53

Jha H N

53

Juvekar Archana R

47

Khanna H D

32

Koti B C

41

Kulkarni Mrugaya P

47

Kumar Ajay

57

Kumar Nirbhay

53

 

 

Latha P

63

 

 

Manoharan S

16

Menon Venugopal P

16

Murugiah V

68

 

 

Narayan Jai Prakash

53

 

 

Ozkaya Guven

24

 

 

Panjamurthy K

16

 

 

Ramesh M

68

Reddy B V Bhaskar

63

Reddy K Raja

63

 

 

Sahin Koparan Senay

24

Saini Pragati

57

Shin Sehyun

7

Shrivastava J N

57

Singh A

32

Singh Megha

7

Sonat Fusun

24

Sreenivasulu Y

63

Sudhakar P

63

 

 

Thippeswamy A H M

41

 

 

Vishwanathswamy A H M

41

 

 

Wagawade Jyoti

41

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Aflatoxin

63

Alstonia Scholaris

47

Antifungal activity

57

Antioxidant

16,24, 32, 41,47

 

 

Anti-stress

47

Aspergillus flavus

63

 

 

Bacillus subtilis

57

Brain

24

 

 

Cardiotoxicity

41

 

 

Deformability

7

Dermatophytes

57

Detoxication agents

16

Diabetes mellitus

7

Dietary Restriction

24

 

 

Doxorubicin

41

 

 

Embryogenic callus

68

Enrofloxacin

53

Erythrocyte aggregation

7

Exercise

24

 

 

Free radicals

32

Kinetics

53

 

 

Lactating goats

53

Leaf bases

68

Lipid peroxidation

16

Lipistat

41

 

 

Methyleugenol

63

Musa sapientum

32

 

 

Nootropic

47

 

 

Optimization

57

Oral cancer

16

Oryza sativa

68

Oxidative stress

24

 

 

Peanut kernel

63

Peanut pod

63

Peptide antibiotic

57

Probenecid

53

 

 

Regeneration

68

 

 

Techniques

7

 

 

Withaferin-A

16

Wound healing

32

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Ramanbhai Foundation 4th International Symposium on Advances in
Cardiometabolic Research—Basic Science and Clinical Aspects

2-5 February 2009, Ahmedabad

 

Jointly organized by Zydus Research Centre, India; Université de Lausanne, Switzerland; and Indiana University, USA, the Ramanbhai Foundation 4th International Symposium on Advances in Cardiometabolic Research will focus on recent developments in the area of Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Key opinion leaders, both from academia and industry will deliberate upon unmet medical needs, new research initiatives, etc., to combat these global epidemics. For details, please contact Dr Mukul R Jain, Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla NH#8A, Moraiya, Ahmedabad 382 210, India. Telephone: +91-02717-250801; Fax: +91-02717-250606; E-mail: registration@rbfsymposium.net or visit the website: www.rbfsymposium.net

 

——————

 

Editor’s Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 7-15

 

 

Review Article

 

Changes in erythrocyte aggregation and deformability in diabetes mellitus:
A brief review

Megha Singh* & Sehyun Shin

Centre for Biomedical Engineering, S G N Educational Foundation,  #12, 3rd Street, Park Avenue,
Velachery, Chennai 600 042, India

Biorheology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea

 

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia either due to insufficient production of insulin by pancreas or improper utilization of the glucose. Erythrocytes remain in hyperglycemic environment throughout their life span and thus are subjected to series of compositional changes, which in turn affect their flow properties through alteration of deformation at individual level and aggregation at collective level. This brief review summarizes the changes in biochemical parameters primarily contributing to the erythrocyte deformability and aggregation as measured by various techniques, of blood samples obtained from diabetic subjects. The significant changes in erythrocyte aggregation and deformability, in comparison with that of control subjects show the relevance of these measurements. These changes are further supported by in vivo observations of blood flow through microvessels. Finally the relevance of these in combination with other clinical parameters is suggested.

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 16-23

 

 

Protective effect of Withaferin-A on tumour formation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters

S Manoharan*, K Panjamurthy, Venugopal P Menon, S Balakrishnan & Linsa Mary Alias

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, India

Received 2 June 2008; revised 3  November 2008

With an aim to investigate the protective effect of Withaferin-A on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis in Syrian golden hamsters, tumour incidence, tumour volume and tumour burden and status of detoxication agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA administered (3 times/week for 14 weeks) hamsters were assessed. Hundred percent tumour formation in DMBA alone administered animal was observed. Oral administration of Withaferin-A (20 mg/kg body weight) to DMBA administered animals for 14 weeks completely prevented the tumour incidence, tumour volume and tumour burden. Also, Withaferin-A showed significant anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant properties and maintained the status of phase-I and phase-II detoxication agents during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. The results thus indicate that the protective effect of Withaferin-A is probably due to its anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant functions as well as modulating effect on carcinogen detoxication during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 24-31

 

 

Long term dietary restriction ameliorates swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in brain and lung of middle-aged rat

Cenk Aydin*,1, Fusun Sonat1, Senay Koparan Sahin2, I Taci Cangul3 & Guven Ozkaya4

1Department of Physiology, 3Department of Pathology, Veterinary Faculty,

 2Department of Physical Education and Sport, Education Faculty, and

4Department of Biostatistics, Medical Faculty, Uludag University, Bursa, TR-16059, Turkey.

Received 13 December 2007; revised 10 November 2008

Exhaustive exercise may generate oxidative stress in brain and reported findings are conflicting. Long term dietary restriction (DR) may be useful in the inhibiting of free oxygen radicals generated during exhaustive exercise in the brain of rat. Hence, in this study we evaluated beneficial effects of long term DR on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme systems in brain cortex and lung in rats after different intensities of swimming exercise. Sprague-Dawley rats (60) were assigned as DR and ad libitum (AL) groups, and each group was further subdivided into three groups namely control (sedentery), submaximal exercise (endurance exercise) and maximal exercise (exhaustive swimming exercise) groups. Animals in the endurance exercise group swam 5 days/week for 8 weeks while exhaustive swimming group was subjected to an acute bout of exercise. With the increase in intensity of exercise, degree of lipid peroxidation (LP) and protein oxidation (PO) were also increased in DR and AL groups; however rate of increase was lower in DR group than AL group. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were lower but glutathione reductase (GR) activity was higher in DR group compared to AL group in endurance and exhaustive swimming exercise. With increase in exercise intensity, GSH and GR enzyme activity decreased, whereas an increase was observed in GSH-Px enzyme activity. There was no difference in LP, PO, GSH and GR activity between DR and AL groups. GSH-Px activity in brain cortex was significantly lower in DR group than in AL group and sedentary rats. Results indicate that long term dietary restriction may protect against endurance and exhaustive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 32-40

 

 

Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana
(Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats

P K Agarwal*, A Singh*, K Gaurav*, Shalini Goel**, H D Khanna*** & R K Goel*†

Departments of Pharmacology* and Biophysics***

Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

&

Department of Pathology**, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal 576 102, India

Received 19 September 2008; revised 17 November 2008

Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts
(100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 41-46

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of lipistat against doxorubicin induced myocardial
toxicity in albino rats

B C Koti*, A H M Vishwanathswamy, Jyoti Wagawade & A H M Thippeswamy

Department of Pharmacology, K L E Society’s College of Pharmacy, Hubli 580 031, India

Received 25 March 2008; revised 18 November 2008

Preventive role of lipistat against doxorubicin induced myocardial toxicity in rats has been reported.. Cardiotoxicity was produced by doxorubicin administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Lipistat (350 mg/kg, orally) was administered as pretreatment for 2 weeks and then for 2 weeks alternated with doxorubicin. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were monitored after 3 weeks of last dose. Pretreatment with the lipistat significantly protected myocardium from the toxic effects of doxorubicin by reducing the elevated level of biomarker enzymes like LDH and CPK to the normal and serum lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL back to normal. Lipistat increases the decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT and decreases the increased level of malondialdehyde in cardiac tissue. The repeated administration of doxorubicin causes cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficit and increased level of lipid profiles by interfering with fatty acid metabolism. The results support the lipid lowering and antioxidant properties of lipistat, which indicate the cardioprotective property against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 47-52

 

 

Effect of Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R.Br. on stress and cognition in mice

Mrugaya P Kulkarni & Archana R Juvekar*

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology, Mumbai University Institute of Chemical Technology,
Nathalal Parikh Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

Received 4 March 2008; revised 20 October 2008

Effect of stress and its modulation by methanolic extract of bark of Alstonia scholaris was studied using acute restraint stress model in mice. The extract was also evaluated for nootropic and antioxidant potential to support anti-stress activity testing. Acute restraint stress resulted in significant increase of plasma corticosterone, glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in stress group of animals. Methanolic extract pretreatment at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg for 7 days displayed promising anti-stress effect by normalizing these stress-induced biochemical perturbations in plasma of mice. Effect on cognitive functions was evaluated using passive avoidance model and elevated plus maze model. Pretreatment with extract at 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg augmented acquisition and retention of memory of learned task as evidenced by increased step-down and shortened-transfer latency in passive avoidance model and elevated plus maze model, respectively. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) and piracetam (200 mg/kg, po) were used as standard drugs for anti-stress and nootropic activity testing. Further, the extract at 200 µg/ml showed maximum scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl at 90.11% and nitric oxide radical at 62.77%. The present study, thus, provided scientific support for anti-stress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of methanolic extract of bark of Alstonia scholaris.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 53-56

 

 

Effect of probenecid on kinetics of enrofloxacin in lactating goats after subcutaneous administration

Jai Prakash Narayan, Nirbhay Kumar, H N Jha & C Jayachandran*

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna 800 014, India

Received 17 July 2007; revised 29 September 2008

A comparative pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, sc) was conducted in probenecid-pretreated (70 mg/kg, orally 1.5 h prior to enrofloxacin administration) lactating goats to assess the effect of probenecid on the kinetics of enrofloxacin. Concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma, milk and urine was estimated by microbiological assay using Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Minimum detection level of enrofloxacin was 0.01 mg/ml. The plasma log concentration versus time curve showed monophasic pattern and followed one compartment open model. Plasma drug concentration was significantly higher during 1-2 h in probenecid-pretreated group. Significantly higher drug concentration in milk was noted at most of the time points, while significantly lower urine drug concentration (0.083-1 h and 5-12 h) were obtained in probenecid-pretreated group. The kinetic parameters (A, B and b) were significantly higher, while t1/2b, MRT and Vdarea were significantly lower in probenecid-pretreated group. Probenecid pretreatment decreased the urinary excretion of enrofloxacin, whereas enhanced excretion in milk which could be useful in cases of affections of udder in goats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 57-62

 

 

Production of peptide antifungal antibiotic and biocontrol activity of Bacillus subtilis

Ajay Kumar†, Pragati Saini* & J N Shrivastava

Microbiology Lab, Department. of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University)
Dayalbagh, Agra 282 005, India

Received 28 July 2008; revised 14 November 2008

Among different bacterial cultures, a potent Bacillus subtilis MTCC-8114 was isolated from garden soil samples which showed 16 and 14 mm inhibition zones by spot inoculation method and 24 and 22 mm inhibition zones by well agar diffusion method against test fungi i.e. Microsporum fulvum and Trichophyton species. Among four media tested, the maximum growth and antibiotic production was found in trypticase soya broth (TSB) medium at 37° C, pH-7 and 48 h of incubation. The Rf value (0.64) by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) technique and UV and FTIR spectral data of the active antifungal compound, indicated that the isolated compound belongs to peptide antifungal antibiotic group. MIC value of antifungal antibiotic was 135 and 145 µg/ml.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 63-67

 

 

Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus colonization and aflatoxin (AfB1) in peanut by methyleugenol

P Sudhakar*, P Latha, Y Sreenivasulu, B V Bhaskar Reddy, T M Hemalatha

M Balakrishna & K Raja Reddy

Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tirupati 517 502, India.

Received 24 June 2008; revised 20 October 2008

Methyleugenol is naturally occurring substance in oils and fruits and in various foods as flavoring agent. Effect of this methyleugenol in inhibiting A. flavus colonization and aflatoxin production on peanut pods and kernels has been studied. Spray of methyleugenol (0.5 %) on peanut pods and kernels checked the colonization of A. flavus and aflatoxin synthesis. This chemical can be used as both prophylactic or post infection spray on peanut pods before storage. It is the first report on the inhibition of A.flavus by methyleugenol on peanut.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, January 2009, pp. 68-74

 

 

Efficient in vitro plant regeneration via leaf base segments of indica
rice (Oryza sativa L.)

M Ramesh*, V Murugiah & Aditya K Gupta

Department of Plant Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India

Received 22 July 2008; revised 23 October 2008

A reliable and reproducible protocol has been developed for high frequency plant regeneration from 4-5 mm long leaf base segments of 4 days old in vitro germinated seedlings of indica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar Rasi. The effect of age of seedlings, position of leaf base segments and optimum concentration of 2,4-D on callus induction frequency was investigated with a future aim to use leaf bases for biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation experiments. Friable, nodular and white to pale yellow embryogenic callus cultures (206 mg fresh weight /explant) were obtained from the first basal segments of rice seedlings on Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium supplemented with 2,4-D (11.3 µM) and 3.0 µM thiamine–HCL. Plant regeneration was achieved after the transfer of 54 days old embryogenic callus cultures to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP (2.2 µM) and NAA (0.27 µM). In vitro regenerated plants with multiple shoots and roots transferred to sterile soil in growth chamber and maintained in greenhouse exhibited normal growth and were phenotypically similar to plants germinated from seeds.