Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http://www.niscair.res.in; http://nopr.niscair.res.in

Total visitors: 2,023  since 01-07-09

 

VOLUME47

NUMBER7

JULY2009

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 47(7) 523-610(2009)

ISSN: 0019-5189

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

 

Malaria vaccine: Latest update and challenges ahead

527

      Rana Chattopadhyay & Sanjai Kumar

 

 

 

Endocrinal toxicity of industrial solvents — A mini review

537

      Yeshvandra Verma & Suresh Vir Singh Rana

 

 

 

Papers

 

Parthenogenesis and Somatic cell nuclear transfer in sheep oocytes using Polscope

550

      Pandit Nandekar, Parul Chohan, Archana Patwardhan, Santosh Gaikwad &
Deepa Bhartiya

 

 

 

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on reserpine-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in rats

559

      V S Nade , Subhash Dwivedi, L A Kawale, C D Upasani & A V Yadav

 

 

 

Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

564

      Snehal S Patel, Rajendra S Shah & Ramesh K Goyal

 

 

 

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of
Butea monosperma Lam flowers in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

571

      Nidhi Sharma & Veena Garg

 

 

 

Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antinociceptive activity of
Terminalia arjuna Roxb bark powder in mice and rats

577

      Sumita Halder, Nidhi Bharal, Pramod K Mediratta, Inderjeet Kaur &
Krishna K Sharma

 

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and
Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity
in goat liver

584

      R Meera, P Devi, B Kameswari, B Madhumitha & N J Merlin

 

 

 

Mutation of Alternaria tenuissima FCBP-252 for hyper-active a–amylase

591

      Sobiya Shafique, Rukhsana Bajwa & Shazia Shafique

 

 

Physical mapping of rRNA gene in endangered fish Osteobrama belangeri (Valenciennes, 1844) (Family: Cyprinidae)

597

      Ravindra Kumar, B Kushwaha, N S Nagpure, B K Behera, S K Srivastava &
W S Lakra

 

 

 

Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens

602

      Surajit Pathak, Antara Banerjee, Saili Paul & Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

 

 

 

Note

 

Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on renal oxidative stress and Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase in ethanol treated Wistar rats

608

      Maneesh Mailankot, H Jayalekshmi, Amit Chakrabarti, Neha Alang &
D M Vasudevan

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Southern Regional Indian Pharmacological Society (SRIPS) Conference

526

 

 

 

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Southern Regional Indian Pharmacological Society (SRIPS) Conference

12-14 November 2009, Coimbatore

 

Organised by the PS Govindaswamy Health Institutions, the 2009 SRIPS Conference will be held at the PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. The theme of the conference is “Enquire, Educate, Elevate”. In addition to the conference, two pre-conference workshops on “Bioethics in clinical trials” and Clinical pharmacokinetics” are also planned. For further details, please contact the Organizing Chairman, Dr S Ramalingam, Principal, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research or Organizing Secretary, Dr M Ramanathan, Department of Pharmacology, PSG College of Pharmacy, Post Box No. 1674, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641 004. Telephone: 0422-4345841, 4345802; Fax: 0422-2594400; E-mail: srips2009@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Alang Neha

608

 

 

Bajwa Rukhsana

591

Banerjee Antara

602

Behera B K

597

Bharal Nidhi

577

Bhartiya Deepa

550

 

 

Chakrabarti Amit

608

Chattopadhyay Rana

527

Chohan Parul

550

 

 

Devi P

584

Dwivedi Subhash

559

 

 

Gaikwad Santosh

550

Garg Veena

571

Goyal Ramesh K

564

 

 

Halder Sumita

577

Jayalekshmi H

608

 

 

Kameswari B

584

Kaur Inderjeet

577

Kawale L A

559

Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur
Rahman

602

Kushwaha B

597

 

 

Lakra W S

597

 

 

Madhumitha B

584

Mailankot Maneesh

608

Mediratta Pramod K

577

Meera R

584

Merlin N J

584

 

 

Nade V S

559

Nagpure N S

597

Nandekar Pandit

550

 

 

Patel Snehal S

564

Pathak Surajit

602

Patwardhan Archana

550

Paul Saili

602

 

 

Rana Suresh Vir Singh

537

Ravindra Kumar

597

 

 

Sanjai Kumar

527

Shafique Shazia

591

Shafique Sobiya

591

Shah Rajendra S

564

Sharma Krishna K

577

Sharma Nidhi

571

Srivastava S K

597

 

 

Upasani C D

559

 

 

Vasudevan D M

608

Verma Yeshvandra

537

 

 

Yadav A V

559

 

Keyword Index

Acid and alkaline
phosphatase

602

Adrenal

537

Ag-NORs

597

Alloxan

571

Alpha-tocopherol

608

Alternaria tenuissima

591

Antidiabetic

564, 571

Anti-inflammatory

577

Antinociception

577

Antioxidant

564

Antioxidative

571

 

 

Butea monosperma

571

 

 

Chromosome

597

CMA3

597

 

 

Diabetes mellitus

571

 

 

Embryonic stem cell

550

EMS mutagenesis

591

Endocrinal disruption

537

Ethanol

608

Ethanolic extract

571

 

 

FISH

597

Formalin-induced pain
response

577

 

 

Gonads

537

 

 

Hepatoprotection

584

Hepatoprotective

602

Hibiscus rosa sinensis

559

Humoral immune response

577

 

 

Industrial solvents

537

 

 

Kidney

608

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

559,584

Lipid profile

564

Lycopodium clavatum

602

 

 

Malaria

527

 

 

Na+/K+-ATPase

608

Nitric oxide scavenging

584

 

 

Ocimum basilicum

584

Orofacial dyskinesia

559

Osteobrama belangeri

597

Oxidative stress             

559,564.571,608

 

 

Parthenogenesis

550

p-dimethyl aminoazobenzene

602

Phenobarbital

602

Plasmodium spp

527

Polscope

550

Polyherbal formulation

564

 

 

RAPD-PCR

591

 

 

SCNT

550

Sheep oocyte

550

Streptozotocin

564

 

 

Superoxide scavenging

584 

Tail flick latency test

577

Terminalia arjuna

577

Thyroid

537

Trigonella foenum-graecum

584

 

 

UV mutagenesis

591

 

 

Vaccine

527

Vacuous chewing movement

559

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

 

 

Review Articles

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 527-536

 

 

Malaria vaccine: Latest update and challenges ahead

Rana Chattopadhyay & Sanjai Kumar*

Malaria Research Program, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Office of
Blood & Research Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research, Food & Drug Administration, 5516 Nicholson Lane, Kensington, MD 20895, USA

 

Development of an effective malaria vaccine remains one of the biggest challenges faced by modern science. Although in the last decade tremendous advances have taken place in the design, construction and testing of malaria vaccines, many questions still remained unanswered. This review highlights exclusively some of the exciting and most recent progress in the development and clinical testing of candidate malaria vaccines and points out some of the outstanding scientific issues and technological challenges that must be met to develop a successful vaccine.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 537-549

 

 

Endocrinal toxicity of industrial solvents – A mini review

Yeshvandra Verma & Suresh Vir Singh Rana*

Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology., Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut 250 004, India

 

Endocrine system can be affected by various organic compounds. The review describes the effects of major industrial solvents on adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands in man and experimental animals. Further, their toxicity in pancreas, pituitary, testis and ovary has also been discussed. An attempt has been made to offer a historical and general information on solvent toxicity in endocrine glands. Possible mechanisms, in brief, have also been discussed. Endocrine toxicity caused by industrial solvents deserves more attention than hitherto paid. An understanding of hormonal disorders caused by industrial solvents will be important from occupational health point of view.

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 550-558

 

 

Parthenogenesis and Somatic cell nuclear transfer in sheep oocytes using Polscope

Pandit Nandedkar, Parul Chohan, Archana Patwardhan, Santosh Gaikwad1 & Deepa Bhartiya*

Stem Cell Biology Department, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Parel, Mumbai  400 012, India

1Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai  400 012, India

Received 24 December 2008; revised 5 March 2009

Parthenogenesis and Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) techniques, offer a unique approach to manipulate the genetic composition of derived human embryonic stem cells – an essential step if the full opportunities for disease modeling, drug discovery or individualized stem cell therapy are to be realized. The present study describes the use of sheep oocytes to acquire expertise and establish methods to reconstruct embryos for obtaining blastocysts before venturing into human SCNT where the oocytes are a very precious starting material.  Maturation of sheep eggs in vitro for 20-24 hr resulted in 65% metaphase II (MII) eggs which were either parthenogenetically activated using calcium ionomycin or ethanol or subjected to SCNT using cumulus cell as somatic cell. Sixteen blastocysts were produced by parthenogenetic activation of 350 eggs whereas reconstructed embryos, after SCNT carried out in 139 eggs, progressed only up to morula stage.  The procedure of parthenogenesis and SCNT will be useful to generate autologous ES cells using human eggs.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 559-563

 

 

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on reserpine-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in rats

V S Nade1 *, Subhash Dwivedi1, L A Kawale1, C D Upasani1 & A V Yadav2

1Department of pharmacology, M.V.P.S College of Pharmacy, Gangapur Road, Shivaji Nagar, Nashik, 422002, India.

2Govt. College of Pharmacy, Vidyanagar, Karad, Dist. Satara, 415110, India.

Received 21 October 2008; revised 6 February 2009

Effect of methanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (100-300 mg/kg) was studied on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and neurochemical alterations. The rats were treated with intraperitoneal reserpine (1 mg/kg, ip) for 3 days every other day. On day 5, vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions were counted for 5 min. Reserpine treated rats significantly developed vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions however, coadministration of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, per orally) attenuated the effects. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the reserpine treatment significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH), an index of oxidative stress process. Coadministration of extract significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decrease in brain SOD, CAT and GSH levels. The results of the present study suggested that Hibiscus rosa sinensis had a protective role against reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 564-570

 

 

Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Dihar, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Snehal S Patel, Rajendra S Shah & Ramesh K Goyal*

Department of Pharmacology, L.M. College of Pharmacy,

Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009, India

Received 22 July 2008; revised 9 March 2009

Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Dihar, a polyherbal formulation containing drugs from eight different herbs viz., Syzygium cumini, Momordica charantia, Emblica officinalis, Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa in streptozotocin (STZ, 45mg/kg iv single dose) induced type 1 diabetic rats. STZ produced a significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, creatinine, and urea levels in diabetic rat. Treatment with Dihar (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks produced decrease in STZ induced serum glucose and lipids levels and increased insulin levels as compared to control. Dihar produced significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea levels in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels and increase in thiobarbituiric acid reactive species levels in the liver of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Administration of Dihar to diabetic rats significantly reduced the levels of lipid paroxidation and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest Dihar to be beneficial for the treatment of type 1 diabetes

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 571-576

 

 

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of hydroalcoholic extract of
Butea monosperma Lam flowers in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

Nidhi Sharma* & Veena Garg

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304022, India

Received 21 November 2008; revised 9 March 2009

Daily treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic animals with 50% ethanolic extract of B. monosperma flowers (BMEE) for 45 days significantly lowered blood glucose level thereby preventing steep onset of hyperglycemia which was observed after alloxan administration and maintained body weight and blood glucose level close to the values observed in normal control and glibenclamide-treated diabetic mice. Moreover, the level of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also lowered, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which was reduced in untreated diabetic animals, was significantly elevated. Oxidative damage in the liver, pancreas and kidneys of diabetic mice as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and also a distinct diminution in glutathione content was nullified by BMEE. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were also assessed in all the experimental groups. These enzymes registered a decline in their activity in diabetic animals thus revealing the damaging effects of free radicals generated due to alloxan exposure but their activities were reverted towards near normal range in BMEE-administered mice thus indicating the antioxidant efficacy of the drug in resisting oxidative damage.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 577-583

 

 

Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antinociceptive activity of
Terminalia arjuna Roxb bark powder in mice and rats

Sumita Halder, Nidhi Bharal, Pramod K Mediratta*, Inderjeet Kaur & Krishna K Sharma

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital

(University of Delhi), Delhi110 095, India

Received 5 December 2008; revised 13 March 2009

Terminalia arjuna back powder (400 mg/kg,po) significantly reduced formalin-indued paw oedema at 24 h but not carrageenan-induced paw oedema. It significantly increased the anti-SRBC antibody titre in the secondary phase of immune response. The same dose significantly reduced the duration of licks and bites in both phases of formalin-induced pain response and showed significant increase in tail flick latency at higher dose (800mg/kg,po). These effects of T.arjuna were antagonised by pretreatment with naloxone (1mg/kg,ip). In another series of experiments, mice pretreated with morphine for three days in increasing doses (10, 15, 20 mg/kg, ip; twice daily) showed a decreased response in antinociceptive activity of morphine (5 mg/kg, ip). Further, cross tolerance was observed with T.arjuna (800mg/kg, po) in morphine tolerant animals. These findings support the hypothesis that T.arjuna has anti-inflammatory potential against some phlogistic agents along with some immunomodulatory activity and also has antinococeptive action probably mediated via central opioid receptors.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 584-590

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in goat liver

R Meera*1, P Devi2, B Kameswari3, B Madhumitha4 & N J Merlin5

Department of 1Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2 Pharmacognosy, 3 Biochemistry, 4 Pharmaceutics, K.M.College of Pharmacy,
Uthangudi, Madurai-625 107, India

5Department of Pharmacology, Annamalai University, Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai nagar, Chidambaram, India

Received 11 November 2009; revised 2 March 2009

Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained by ethanolic extract of leaves of O.basilicum and T. foenum-graecum against liver damage induced by H2O2 and CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes (enzymatic and non enzymatic). The extract also showed significant anti lipid peroxidation effects in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging, indicating their potent antioxidant effects.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 591-596

 

 

Mutation of Alternaria tenuissima FCBP-252 for hyper-active α-amylase

Sobiya Shafique, Rukhsana Bajwa & Shazia Shafique*

Institute of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan

Received 22 October 2008; revised 1 February 2009

Production of extracellular α-amylase enzyme by a filamentous fungus, Alternaria tenuissima was studied in solid-state fermentation (SSF) as well as submerged fermentation (SmF). The potential strain was successfully mutated by UV and ethyl methanesulfonate ( EMS). High-level of α-amylase activity was obtained by the mutant At-Ch-5.6 (76.75 Units mL-1) after chemical treatment followed by UV mutant At-UV-2.8 (63.12 Units mL-1) which was significantly higher than parental A. tenuissima FCBP-252 (32 Units mL-1). These mutants with high levels of activity were genetically characterized using RAPD-PCR. Expression pattern of mutants exhibited that the mutants were isogenic variants of parent strain and out-performance of the mutants could be attributed to change in genetic make up. This work represented the first report of strain improvement in Alternaria for hyper activity of α–amylase enzyme and suggested that this fungus could be used to extract purified enzyme.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 597-601

 

 

Physical mapping of rRNA gene in endangered fish Osteobrama belangeri (Valenciennes, 1844) (Family: Cyprinidae)

Ravindra Kumar*, B Kushwaha, N S Nagpure, B K Behera, S K Srivastava & W S Lakra

National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Canal Ring Road, P.O. Dilkusha, Lucknow 226 002, India

ICAR Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Center, Lamphelpat, Imphal 795 004, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised 25 March 2009

Physical mapping of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) was carried out by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in the endangered freshwater fish O. belangeri. The specimens were collected from Imphal valley, Manipur, India and metaphase chromosome preparation was made using standard hypotonic treatment, methanol-acetic acid fixation and flame-drying technique followed by Giemsa, silver, CMA3 staining for complete cytogenetic characterization of the species. The diploid chromosome number was found to be 50 and the karyotype composed of 6m+16sm+12st+16t (FN=72). One active rDNA site, located on short arm of 3rd submetacentric chromosome, was mapped by FISH and confirmed by silver and CMA3 staining. The karyomorphology, chromosomal location of rDNA loci in this species and the utility of these cytogenetic markers have been discussed in the paper.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 602-607

 

 

Protective potentials of a plant extract (Lycopodium clavatum) on
mice chronically fed hepato-carcinogens

Surajit Pathak, Antara Banerjee, Saili Paul & Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh*

Department of Zoology, Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India, 741 235

Received 3 July 2008; revised 26 March 2009

Chronic feeding of carcinogens p-dimethylamino azobenzene (initiator) and phenobarbital (promoter) for 90 and 120 days elevated activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of blood glucose and cortisol and decreased the activities of glutathione reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and blood cholesterol and hemoglobin contents, and levels of serum estradiol and testosterone in mice. Levels of these biomarkers in both liver and spleen tissues were positively altered along with a significant reduction of tumor incidence in liver of carcinogen intoxicated mice treated with spore extract of Lycopodium clavatum. The results validate the use of this plant extract in complementary and alternative medicines against hepato-toxicity.

 

 

Note

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 47, June 2009, pp 608-610

 

 

Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on renal oxidative stress and
Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase in ethanol treated Wistar rats

Maneesh Mailankota*, H Jayalekshmib, Amit Chakrabartic, Neha Alangc & D M Vasudevand

aMelaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal 576 104, India,
bAmrita School of Biotechnology, Amritapuri 690 525, India,
cSikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok 737 102, India; dAmrita Institute of Medical Sciences,
Cochin 662 026, India

Received 20 October 2008; revised 12 March 2009

Ethanol intoxication resulted in high extent of lipid peroxidation, and reduction in antioxidant defenses (decreased GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, and catalase, SOD and GPx activities) and (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity in kidney. Alpha-tocopherol treatment effectively protected kidney from ethanol induced oxidative challenge and improved renal (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity. Ethanol induced oxidative stress in the kidney and decreased (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity could be reversed by treatment with ascorbic acid.